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6306.  a 






On  the  26th  of  January  1857,  the  Master  of  the  Rolls 
submitted  to  the  Treasury  a  proposal  for  the  publication 
of  materials  for  the  History  of  this  Country  from  the 
Invasion  of  the  Bom!ans  to  the  Reign  of  Henry  VIII. 

The  Master  of  the  Rolls  suggested  that  these  materials 
should  be  selected  for  publication  under  competent 
editors  without  reference  to  periodical  or  chronological 
arrangement,  without  mutilation  or  abridgment,  prefer- 
ence being  given,  in  the  first  instance,  to  such  materials 
as  were  most  scarce  and  valuable. 

He  proposed  that  each  chronicle  or  historical  docu- 
ment to  be  edited  should  be  treated  in  the  same  way  as 
if  the  editor  were  engaged  on  an  Editio  Princeps ;  and 
for  this  purpose  the  most  correct  text  should  be  formed 
from  an  accurate  collation  of  the  best  MSS. 

To  render  the  work  more  generally  useful,  the  Master 
of  the  Rolls  suggested  that  the  editor  should  give  an 
account  of  the  MSS.  employed  by  him,  of  their  age  and  . 
their  peculiarities;  that  he  should  add  to  the  work  a 
brief  account  of  the  life  and  times  of  the  author,  and  any 
remarks  necessary  to  explain  the  chronology ;  but  no 
other  note  or  comment  was  to  be  allowed,  except  what 
might  be  necessary  to  establish  the  correctness  of  the 

a  2 


The  works  to  be  published  in  octavo,  separately,  as 
they  were  finished ;  the  whole  responsibility  of  the  task 
resting  upon  the  editors,  who  were  to  be  chosen  by  the 
Master  of  the  Rolls  with  the  sanction  of  the  Treasury. 

The  Lords  of  Her  Majesty's  Treasury,  after  a  careful 
consideration  of  the  subject,  expressed  their  opinion  in  a 
Treasury  Minute,  dated  February  9, 1857,  that  the  plan 
recommended  by  the  Master  of  the  EoUs  ."  was  well 
calculated  for  the  accomplishment  of  this  important 
national  object,  in  an  efifectual  and  satisfactory  manner, 
within  a  reasonable  time,  and  provided  proper  attention 
be  paid  to  economy,  in  making  the  detailed  arrange- 
ments, without  unnecessary  expense/' 

They  expressed  their  approbation  of  the  proposal  that 
each  chronicle  and  historical  document  should  be  edited 
in  such  a  manner  as  to  represent  with  all  possible  cor- 
rectness the  text  of  each  writer,  derived  from  a  collation 
of  the  best  MSS.,  and  that  no  notes  should  be  added, 
except  such  as  were  illustrative  of  the  various  readings. 
They  suggested,  however,  that  the  preface  to  each  work 
should  contain,  in  addition  to  the  particulars  proposed 
by  the  Master  of  the  Rolls,  a  biographical  account  of 
the  author,  so  far  as  authentic  materials  existed  for  that 
purpose,  and  an  estimate  of  his  historical  credibility  and 

Rolls  H<mse^ 

December  1857. 












VOL.  L 




Printed  by 

BxxE  and  8poitiswoode>  Her  Hi^esty's  Printers. 

For  Her  Majesty's  Stationery  Office. 

iBL.  Coll.  Diy.  Joh.  Cast.    (h.  i.l 



4        ^t«Ms*/>iA»f&/ttw'*««^«fa«  fc»^*;»™'-.*/»»^  /"' 

Mi;s.   Bbit,  M   S. 



Intropuctiom   -  -  -  ••  -  -      ix 

Summary  of  Contents         -  -  -  -    Ixxiii 




Scarcely  anything  of  the  personal  history  of  Ranulph  Biographi- 
Higden  has  come  down  to  us;  and  indeed  the  scanty  ofHig^^n. 
notices  which  we  now  possess,   relating  .both   to  him  ^^ateriais 
and  to  his  Chronicle,  serve   rather  to    perplex  than  ^n^tTs-*^ 
to  instruct  us.     A   single   sentence  may  tell  all  that^*^*^^- 
we  can   say  about   him  with   certainty.      He   was   a 
Benedictine  monk  of  St.  Werburg's  abbey  in  Chester, 
who  died  at  an  advanced  age  in  the  latter  half  of  the 
fourteenth  century,  having  compiled  a  Polychronicon, 
or  Universal  History,  readiing  to  his  own  time ;  being 
likewise  the   author  of  some   other  works,  which  are 
in  part  extant. 

The  name  of  Higden  is  variously  written,  and  ap- His  name 
pears  xmder  the  following  forms :  Higdenus,  Higden,  ^^^^^  ^ 
Hygden ;  also,  Hikeden,  Hykedoun,  Higedenus,  Higge- 
den ;  and,  besides  these  variations,  we  have  likewise, 
as  it  would  appear,  Higgenet  (by  a  transition  from 
Higgened)  and  Heggenet.^  His  Christian  name  is 
usually  written  Kanulphus,  in  English  Ranulf,  or  Ralph  ; 
but  also  Radulphus,  and  in  English  Randall,  Rondoll, 
or  Rondle.^    He  is  very  frequently  designated  Ranulphus 


'  That  is  to  say,  if  Kan4all  Hig- 
genet, the  monk  of  Chester,  author 
of  the  miracle  plays,  be  the  same 
person  ;  of  which,  as  Warton 
says,  not  without  reason,  "  there  is 
the  greatest  probability."  Hist  of 
EngL  Poetry  (vol.  ii.  p.  179,  note. 
Lond.  1778).  Their  dwelling 
place,  vocation,  and  age  agree ; 
fheir  names  differ  but  slightly.   See 

also  Catalogue  of  Harl.  MSS.,  ». 
2013.  Dr.  Guest  {English  RhythTns, 
vol.  XX.  p.  415)  observes  that  Hignet 
is  still  a  common  name  at  Chester. 
2  Leland,  Collect^  t.  2,  p.  368 
(ed.  1770);  Tanner,  :BtX/.,  p.  403; 
Oudinus,  De  Script.  EccL,  t  S, 
p.  1029.  We  have,  however,  Hig- 
denus own  authority  for  the  form 
Ranulphus,    In  a  Cambridge  MS., 


Cestrensis,  or  Cestrensis  only.  The  reader  may  well  be 
satiated  with  these  synonyms,  and  yet  the  most  im- 
portant variation  is  to  be  mentioned,  if  variation  it  be. 
It  should  rather  be  styled  an  erroneous  designation.  The 
Eoger  of  Chester,  mentioned  by  Bale  and  many  others 
as  a  writer  distinct  from  Kanulph  Higden,  seems,  upon 
the  whole,  to  be  most  probably  identical  with  him ;  and 
his  Polycraticon  appears  to  be  nothing  else  but  a  shorter 
form  of  the  Polychronicon  of  our  author^  or,  as  Bome 
MSS.  call  it,  his  Polycraticon.  But  of  this  more  hereafter^ 
Details  of  We  are  unable  to  point  out  either  the  exact  place 
inexac?^^  Or  date  of  his  birth.  HSs  native  place  was  somewhere 
or  doutt-  in  the  west  of  England,  according  to  Bale,  and  he  must 
have  been  bom  in  the  latter  part,  probably  during  the 
last  twenty  years  of  the  13th  century.  He  appears 
to  have  taken  monastic  vows  in  or  about  the  year  1299. 
He  attached  himself  to  the  Benedictine  order,  and  be- 
came an  inmate  of  the  rich  and  powerful  abbey  of 
St.  Werburgh  in  Chester.*     From  this  time  to  the  date 


our  R)  a  foot  note  on  the  pro- 
logue  obscurely  lets  us  into  a 
deep  mystery :  Gramata  (ac)  dant 
prima  capitalia  rumen  agentis.  The 
same  line  is  also  mentioned  by  On- 
dinus  from  Selden.  The  initial 
letters  of  the  chapters  of  the  first 
book  form  the  following  words  : — 

^'Fresentem  cronicam  compilaTit 
frater  Bannlphus  Cestrensis.*' 

Kanulphus  is  obtained  from  c. 
34,  sqq.,  thus  : — 

<«  Il[efert]  A[ffirmatum]  N[otat] 
V[ulgatran]  Lpbri]  P[ost] 
H[«c]  V[t]  S[unt]." 

It  seems  that  this  whimsical  mode 
of  writing  a  title  page  was  adopted 
by  other  writers  also.  See  Oudinos, 
«.  8,;  also  Pits,  de  HL  Angl  Script, 
p.  616. 

*  "  BanulphttS  Hygden,  in  occi- 
«  dentali  Anglorum  patria  oriundus, 
*•  ad  Werburgse  £lnum  in  Oestrien- 


sis  urbis  ccenobio,  perpetuis  se 
"  Benedictinomm  sanctionibus  con- 
"  secraTit."  Bale,  Cent.  vi.  n.  12. 
'*  Usque  hue  (A.t).  1348)  scripsit 
'^  Bominus  Banulphus  Hykedon, 
**  monachusmonasteriiSancteeWer- 
"bergae  Cestrensis."  MS.  Laud, 
619,  in  fine. 

•  In  the  year  1093  Hugh  Lupus, 
earl  of  Chester,  established  a  con-> 
Tent  of  Benedictine  monks,  froox 
Bee  in  Normandy,  upon  the  foun- 
dation of  St  Werburgh,  haying 
expelled  the  secular  canons. 

Her  shrine,  now  the  bishop's 
throne  in  the  cathedral,  is  a  beauti- 
ful specimen  of  workmanship  of  the 
early  part  of  the  14th  century.  It 
must,  as  it  would  appear,  have  been 
built  while  Higden  was  an  inmate 
of  the  abbey.  Lewis,  Topogr.  Dict<, 
s.  v.;  Dugdale,  MoncbsU  vol.  ii.  p. 
7  1  (ed.  1846). 



nicle,  both  buried  at  Chester.  Indeed  there  is  nothing 
in  Roger's  history  which  differs  from  Higden's,  except 
so  far  as  concerns  (1),  their  names ;  (2),  the  titles  of 
their  works  ;  (3),  their  dates. 

(1)  With  regard  to  the  name,  it  is  very  probably  by 
a  mere  error  that  Roger  is  written  instead  of  Ranul- 
phus ;  in  many  MSS.  of  the  Polychronicon  the  name 
of  the  author  is  not  given  at  all ;  and  the  book  is 
often  cited  by  others  simply  as  the  Polychronicon,  or 
as  Gestrensis  only;  the  latter  designation  seeming  to 
be  inconsistent  with  the  notion  that  two  monks  of 
Chester  wrote  Chronicles  differing  slightly  from  each 
other.  There  was  a  Roger  Frend,  afterwards  abbot  of 
Chester,  in  Higden's  time,  and  if  he  was  one  of 
those  who  urged  Higden  to  compose  the  chronicle, 
and  assisted  him  in  the  compilation^  it  is  not  im- 
possible that  his  name  might  be  attached  to  the 
work  by  some  scribes,  who  were  only  partially 
acquainted  with  the  facts  of  the  case.^  Moreover,  as 
appears  from  Wanley's  probable  conjecture,  the  name 
of  Ranulphus  has  in  one  instance  at  least  been  sub- 
stituted for  the  xxame  of  Roger,  as  though  the  error 
had  been  detected  and  corrected. 

(2)  No  argument  can  be  founded  on  the  difference 
of  the  titles  of  their  works.  The  Polycraticon  of  John 
of  Salisbuiy  is  designated  in  one  of  our  MSS.  (B.),  and 
cited  in  one  of  the  versions,  as  the  Polychromcon ; 
and  in  another  MS.  used  iu  this  edition  (C),  we  have 
actually  have,  "  Idcirco  earn  historiam  Polycraticam, 
"  a  pluratitato  temporum  quam  continet  censui  nun- 
"  cupandam.''  Indeed,  Polycratica  temporum  cotdd 
not  be  used  as  a  title  of  an  Universal  fcstory,  by  any 

'  See  I>ng6sXe*sM(m€t8tf  toI.  ii.  p. 
373.  He  'WBS  the  eleventh  abhot,  and 
held  office  fi'oni  A.D.  1240 16  1249. 
It  may  appear  even  more  prohable 
that  the  chronicle  -«ras  often  entitled 

only  Cestrensis  Polychronicon,  or  i2. 
CestreTisis^axid  that  i?o^eri  was  added 
by  coi^ectnre  as  the  interpreta- 
tion of  the  symbol  9,.  which  occurs 
throughout  the  hook. 



of  his  death,  he  being  then  "in  a  good  old  age," "  we 
have,  I  believe,  no  details  of  his  personal  histpry,  except 
that  we  are  told .  (but  on  very  doubtful  authority)  that 
"  one  Don  Rondle  Heggenet "  thrice  visited  Bome  in 
order  to   obtain  leave   of   the  pope  that  the  miracle 
plays,  of  which  he  was  the  author,  should  be  acted 
"  in  the  English  tongue  "  at  Chester.    They  were  even- 
tually acted  in   the  mayoralty  of  Sir  John  Amway 
(A.R  1327,  1328).    From  A.D.  1309,  during  a  period 
of  seventy  years,   which  was  termed  the  Babylonian 
captivity,    the    pope   resided    at    Avignon,    and    that 
without  interruption,    so    far  as   we '  are   aware.      A 
grave  suspicion,  therefore,  attaches  to  the  whole  story, 
which   rests*  upon  a  note  written  in  a  HarL  MS.  in 
1628.      Moreover   it    is    not    absolutely  certain    that 
Higgenet   and   Higden   are   the   same    person.^     Our 
author  certainly  appears   to  have  left  his  monastery 
on    occasions,    and  to    have    visited  various  parts   of 
England,  including  Derbyshire,  Shropshire,  and  Lan- 
cashire, with  which  he  is  said  to  be  familiar.^     I  can 
only  add  that    his   death    probably   occurred   in   the 
month  of  March  1363,  and  that  he  was  buried  in  the 
abbey  at  Chester.* 

'  Usque  hie  »(t.c.  1352)  scripsit 
*^  Baaulphus  Hikedoun,  monaclms 
'*  Cestrensis,  istomm  Chromcornm 
'^  compilator,  qui  obiit  in  senectute 
"  twna."  Note  at  the  end  of  MS. 
E.  A  later  hand  has  added,  <*  Anno 
"  Domini  1363." 

2  See  Warton, «,  *. 

3*<Aperte  ausim  affirmare  Ba- 
<<nulphum  in  eruendis  mysteriis 
'^  antiquitatis  Britannicse  dh  St& 
"  ireurooy  illo  (Polydoro  Vergilio) 
**  BUperiorem  fuisse  }  si  spectes  pro- 
**Tincias  in  quihus  versatos  fuit, 
**  nempe  Salapiani,  Devaniam,  Lu- 
"  niam,  Doroventamam.*'     Leland, 

De  Script  Brity  p.  339.    He  often 
quotes  Higden  in  this  work. 

^ ''  Senex  tandem  obiit,  annos  ha- 
"  bens  in  monachatu  64,  circa  Gre- 
"  gorii  festum  (March  12),  anno 
«  ab  incarnato  Messia  1363,  Cestrise 
**  in  coenobio  sepultus."  Bale,  Ceni.^ 
vi.  n.  12.  **  Tandem  in  senectute 
«  bona  postqnam  vixerat  in  reUgione 
"  Ixiv.  annos,  circa  festum  S.  Grego- 
**  rii,  anno  grati8e*1363,  in  Domino 
«  obdormivit."  (MS.  iawrf.,  619, 
a.  s.)  So  also  note  at  end  of  MS.  E. 
(SeeaboTC.)  Heame  (Fre&ce  to 
Camden*s  AnnaleSf  p.  117)  quotes 
fh)m  a  Christ  Church  MS.  tf  is  note 



His  works;  Higden  is  principally^  known  to  posterity  as  the 
chronicon.  ^uthor  of  the  .Polychronicon,^  which  was  one  of  the 
Occasion    most  popular  histories  during  the  14tli  and   15  th  ben- 

*  manu  vetusta  : '  "  Corpus  hujus 
'*  Banulphi  conditum  est  in  monas- 
"  terio  D.  WereburgsB  in  anstrali 
"  parte  templi  juxta  ehonim  prope 
''  ostium  qiiod  dacit  in  cemiterinm. 
"  Arcus  iUi  muro  concavatus  est. 
**  Inscriptam  ftdt  in  muro :  Non 
"  hie  sub  muro,  sed  subter  marmore 
"  duro.'*  Pits,  u.  s.,  wto  is  followed 
by  bishop  Nicholson  (Engl,  Hist, 
Libr.,  65),  places  his  d6ath  in  1377. 
*  Some  other  works  of  his  are  ex- 
tant in  MS. :  tIz.,  Speculum  curato- 
rum  (composed  in  1 340),  Ball.  Coll, 
Oxon.  Cod.  69,  and  Cambr.  Univ. 
Libr.  Mm.,  1.  20  ;  and  Ars  compo- 
nendi  sermones,  Bibl.  Bodl.  Cod. 
2752.  The  former  of  these  is  men- 
tioned by  Bale,  who  had  seen  it,  as 
appears  by  his  quoting  the  opening 
words.  He  had  also'  seen  his  Pcc- 
dagogicon  grammatices,  and  his  Dis- 
tinctiones  Tlieologicce,  The  former 
of  these  was  in  Sion  College,  and 
the  latter  is  in  the  Lambeth  Li- 
brary. See  Tanner,  p.  403,  and 
Cave's  Hist  Lit,  Besides  these, 
Bale  mentions  the  following : 
Abbreviationes  Chronicorum,  which 
is  probably  the  same  as  a  very 
damaged  work  now  in  the  British 
Museum  (Cotton.  MSS.  Tib.  B.  viii. 
fol.  210),  thus  entitled ;  "  Cronica 
^*  bona  et  compendiosa  de  Regibus An- 
<*  glitB  tantum,  a  Noe  post  diluvium 
"  usque  in  hunc  diem**  (it  ends  A.D. 
1300)  *^conscripta  a  Manulpho  Hig- 
**  deno  Cesiriensi  monacko,  qui  vixit 
«  annogratiiP  1358.**  Another  copy 
is  in  A^e  library  of  Corpus  Christi 
College,  Cambridge,  numbered  21, 
ending  at  1367.  See  Nasmith's 
Catalogue^  p.  10.   A  letter  from  Dr. 

Moberly  apprises  me  of  the  existence 
of  a  third  copy  in  the  Winchester 
College  library,  ending  at  1377.  Bale 
then  enumerates :  Expositio  super 
Job;  Tn  Cantica  Cantieorum;  Ser- 
Tnones  per  annum ;  Determinationes 
subcompendio;  In  litteram  Calendar 
rii ;  adding,  as  usual,  aliaque  plura 
fecit  The  Mappa  Mundi,  which 
he  names  as  a  distinct  work,  is 
nothing  but  the  first  book  of  the 
Polyckronicon,  Bale  likewise  men- 
tions Ex  Guilhelmo  Stephanide ;  but 
it  appears  that  this  "ad  ea  pertinet 
**  qusB  in  Polychronico  scripsit  de . 
"  Thoma  Becket,  archiepiscopo 
"  Cantaariensi,"  Fabricius,  Bibl, 
Med,  et  Inf.  Latin.  The  like  remark 
is  probably  to  be  made  of  the  Ex 
Stepkano  Langton  mentioned  by 

-  Higden  gives  as  the  reason  for 
adopting  this  title,  **  quia  prsescns 
'^  chronica  multorum  temporum  con- 
"  tinet  gesta,"  Oudinus  is  therefore 
mistaken  in  saying,  "  Operi  suo 
"  Polychronici  nomen  indidit,  recte 
'^  quidem,  et  cum  modestia,  quia 
"  nimirum  uti  coHectaneum  quod- 
'<  dam  ex  multis  allis  chronicis  ex- 
"  cerptum  ;  quod  aliorum  quidem 
'*  est  quoad  res  contentas,  Banulphi 
<^  autem  quoad  oidinem,  atque  enar- 
"  rationes  rerum  ultimse  setatis.** 
(De  Script  Ecel,  t.  3,  p.  1027.)  He 
soon  afterwards  refers  to  G.  J.  Vos- 
sius,  Sandius,  the  Aci/x  Erud,  Lips, 
for  1694  (read  1692),  and  V.  Plac- 
cius,  for  more  information  about 
Higden.  I  have  examined  them 
all,  but  they  contain  nothing  which 
is  not  otherwise  well  known. 


•  •• 


turies,  and  which  continued  to  be  much  in  use  during  of  its  com- 
the  following  century  also.  He  tells  us  in  the  pro-Hfechro- 
logue  to  the  first  book  that  he  composed  it  at  the  »ologicai 
earnest  request  of  his  companions,  i.e.,  the  Benedic- 
tines of  St.  Werburg,  and  designed  to  include  therein 
the  more  important  facts  of  general  history  fix)m  the 
Creation  to  his  own  time  in  chronological  order,  noting 
also  the  dates  of  their  occurrence  according  to  more 
than  one  computation  of  years.  In  the  early  part  of 
the  history  the  birth  of  Abraham  is  taken  as  the  origin, 
and  the  year  of  the  judge,  or  other  historical  personage, 
is  also  added  in  the  margin.  From  Abraham  to  Da\dd 
he  reckons  942  years.  The  establishment  of  David's 
kingdom  becomes  another  origin,  and  Abraham  disap- 
pears;  and  from  this  date  to  the  Babylonian  captivity 
he  reckons  496  years,  adding  also  the  year  of  the  Jewish 
king  then  reigning  in  the  margin ;  but  for  the  latter 
part  the  year  of  the  foundation  of  Rome,  after  which 
date  the  secondary  king  disappears  in  the  later  edi- 
tions of  the  chronicle.'  From  the  Babylonian  captivity 
to  Christ,  the  years  from  the  captivity  and' from  the 
foundation  are  recorded.  From  the  Christian  era 
downwards  to  the  age  of  Charlemagne,  the  years  of 
that  era  and  of  the  emperor  of  Rome  are  noticed ; 
and  from  that  time  forwards  the  years  of  the  Chris- 
tian era  and  of  the  king  or  emperor  whose  acts  are 

The  Polychronicon  is  divided  into  seven  books,  this  Plan  of  the 
division  being  suggested  by  the  account  of  the  cosmo-  contents  of 
gony  in  Genesis,      The  first  book  is  rather  geographi- tli«  seven 

cal  than  historical,  being,  as  the  author  calls  it,  a  map 


'  Higden  threatens  occasionally 
to  "purple  his  margins"  with  a 
triple  series.  This  would  he  a  fit 
place  for  doing  so,  and  accordingly 
we  find  three  columns  of  dates  in 
the  shorter  forms  of  the  chronicle, 
as  in  MS.  D.    In  the  following 

VOL.  I. 

period  the  year  of  Alexander's  or 
Ptolemy's  reign  is  not  nnfrequently 
added  to  the  years  of  the  Captivity 
and  of  Rome.  But  in  other  MSS., 
as  A.  and  E.,  we  never  have  more 
than  two  series  of  years  tabulated 
in  the  margin. 




of  the  world.  It  comprises  a  brief  description  of  the 
countries  of  the  known  world,  and  a  more  particular 
account  of  Great  Britain.  The  second  book  is  a  His^ 
tory  of  the  World  from  the  Creation  to  the  destruction 
of  the  Jewish  temple  by  Nebuchadnezzar.  The  third 
book  carries  on  the  history  to  the  birth  of  Christ  The 
fourth  proceeds  thenceforward  to  the  arrival  of  the 
Saxons  in  England.  The  fifth  goes  on  with  the  hisr 
tory  up  to  the  invasion  of  the  Danes/  or,  as  Higden 
calls  them,  Dacians*  The  sixth  book  concludes  with 
the  Norman  conquest.  The  remaining  book  proceeds 
as  far  as  Higden's  own  time,  that  is  to  say,  as  far  as 
the  reign  of  Edward  IIL^  The  author  pleasantly  con- 
ceives ths^t  by  thus  dividing  the  vast  current  of  his- 
tory into  seven  streams,  he  laid  open  a  path  by  which 
his  readers  may  ^^go  over  dryshoA" 

*  Thus  fer  all  is  easy ;  but  when 
ire  come  to  consider  the  exact  year, 
ire  are  immediately  involyed  in 
graye  difficulties.  TheMSS.  end 
at  very  different  years,  and  the  notes 
in  different  MSS.  give  different 
accounts  of  the  years  atifhich  Hig- 
den himself  concluded  his  work. 
A  :fo]l  discussion  of  this  perplexed 
matter  must  be  left  for  our  last 
volume.  In  the  mean  time,  so  far 
as  I  can  judge  at  present,  Higden's 
own  work,  after  he  had  put  las  last 
strokes  to  it,  terminated  in  the  end 
of  the  year  1342.  There  are  notes 
in  several  MSS.  to  that  effect  See 
Tanner,  &c  But  there  is  also  a 
considerable  number  of  MSS.  which 
end  in  the  year  1327.  These  are 
either  all  or  for  the  most  part,  I 
believe,  more  brief  than  the  later 
ones;  and  X  should  conceive  that 
we  may  place  Higden's  first  edition 
in  that  year.  The  number  of  MSS. 
(not  being  imperfect)  ending  before 
1327  is  very  small,  and  I  have  not 

myself  examined  any  such ;  but 
from  Mr.  S.  A.  Moore's  notes  it 
appears  that  there  is  one  in  Magd, 
Coll.  Oxon.  which  ends  in  1321»  and 
another  in  the  Advocate's  library  at 
Edinbm^h  ending  in  1326.  These 
may  have  been  written  before  a 
general  issue  of  the  book  took  place. 
The  excellent  Cambridge  MS.,  our 
"E,,  says  that  Higden  concluded  his 
chronicle  at  1352,  (in  which,  how- 
ever, the  events  between  1342  and 
1352  occupy  less  than  a  page,)  and 
Caxton  places  the  last  year  written 
by  Higden  in  1357.  This  will  be 
the  latest  date  that  is  well  pos- 
sible^ if  Higden  died  in  1363  at  a 
very  advanced  age,  to  which  latter 
year  indeed  J,  Joscelin,  archbishop 
Parker's  secretary,  says  that  he  con- 
tinued his  work  (Cat  Hist,  p.  292, 
Heame).  Trevisa  leaps  from  1348 
to  1354,  and  ends  1860.  But  on 
these  matters  I  hope  to  say  some- 
thing more  definite  on  a  fiiture 



Our  author  mentions  at  great  length,  in  his  second  Sonrces  of 
chapter,  the  authorities  from  which  his  history  is  derived.  ^^^^' 
But  before  discussing  them  it  may  be  as  well  to  con- wholesale 
sider  a  charge  which  has  been  brought  against  him  by  con^^enS 
Wanley,  Nicholson,  and  others.*    The  first-named  author 
describing  the  Harleian  MS.  n.  666,  writes  thus  in  his 
catalogue : — 

"  Polycratica   temporum,    sen  Polychronica  Bogeri, 

"  monachi  Cestrensis,  quam  foedissime  defioravit  plagi- 

"  ariorum  insignissimus,  Banulfiis  Higden  commonachus 

''  sutis/'  *     And  again,  describing  n.  1707  of  the  same 
collection,  he   tells  us  that  Banulph  Higden  was  not 

the  original  author  of  the  PolychroTdcon^  but  an  arrant 

plagiary  (plagiarium  maxime  insignem).^ 

Bishop  Nicholson  repeats  the  charge,  adding  reasons 
which  will  be  best  understood  and  appreciated  by 
citing  portions  of  his  accounts  of  Roger  Cestrensis 
and  of  Banulphus  Higden,  given  in  his  English  His- 
torical Zibrary» 

"  Roger  Cestrensis,  who  was  a  Benedictine  monk  of 
St.  Werburg,  in  Chester  . . .  wrote  a  large  account  of 
the  affairs  of  this  nation.  This  work  he  entitled  Poly- 
cratica Temporum,  and  began  it  with  the  coming  in 
of  the  Romans :  he  coi^tinued  it  at  first  no  lower  than 
1314,  but  added  afterwards  a  supplement  of  fifteen  years 
more.  In  thd  Harleyan  library  there  are  several  MS. 
copies  of  this  work,*  one  whereof  is  firequently  marked 

^  FiiUer  ( Worthies  of  Chester) 
bad  already  asserted :  *<He  yamped 
"  the  history  of  Roger  aforesaid»" 
After  Wanley's  time  the  charge  has 
been  often  repeated  ;  Bale  had  in- 
deed given  occasion  for  it. 

2  Harl,  Cat.,yol.  1,  p.  398.  Lond. 
1808.  This  was  first  published  in 
1762,  long  after  the  author's  death 
in  1726. 

^  Id.  vol.  2,  p.  180. 

*  I  have  examined  (somewhat 
cursorily)  all  the  MSS.  of  Roger 
of  Chester  in  the  British  Museum  ; 
viz.,  Harl.  MSS.  n.  1707,  1728-9, 
1751  ;  Cotton,  Julius  E.  viii.  In 
none  of  them  (so  fer  as  I  observed) 
was  the  name  of  Roger  written  by 
the  original  scribe.  The  same  re- 
mark is  to  be  made  of  the  MS.  in 
Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge; 
see  below.  The  Rev.  W.  Stubbs, 
M.A.,  librarian  to  the  Lord  Arch- 

b  2 



by  Bale's  own  hand.  By  comparing  these  with  those 
of  E.  Higden  in  the  same  noble  repository,  it  is  mani- 
fest that  Balph  stole  his  pretended  work  from  Eoger, 
disguising  it  only  with  his  own  superscription.  For 
(1)  one  of  the  copies  of  the  Polycrcuticon  is  plainly  the 
numerical  book  described  by  Pitts/  under  the  name  of 
Higden.  (2)  Another  of  them  has  Ran.  Geatr.  in  a 
modem  hand  on  its  title,  instead  (as  Mr.  Wanley  pro- 
bably conjectures)  of  Rog.  Oestr.  rased  out.  (3)  The 
forgery  is  most  evident,  from  comparing  a  passage  re- 
lating to  the  two  Caerleons,  to  one  whereof  (Chester) 
the  true  historian  takes  notice  of  his  beiag  particularly 
related ;  ®  which  Kalph  literally  transcribes,  adding, 
Sicut  per  capitales  hujus  primi  libri  apices  clarius 
patet    Wliich   is  ascertaining  the  whole   chronicle   to 

Ushop  of  Canter1}uiy,  at  my  request, 
kindly  examined  a  Lambeth  MS.  of 
Koger  of  Chester»  and  in*iteB  as  fol- 
lows :  **  The  ascription  of  the  Lam- 
"  beth  MS.  112  to  Roger  of  Chester  is 
*^  not  in  a  contemporary  hand.  It  is 
<'  written  in  the  margin,  I  am  pretty 
^'  sure  in  Archbishop  Sancroft's 
"  hand,  and  the  title  is  written  on 
^  the  label  outside  in  the  same 
"  hand:  *  Bogeri  de  Cestria  Historia 
'•  *  Polychronica.' 

''  The  title  of  the  book  I  do  not 
"  find.  It  begins,  *  Frologus  primus 
"  *  in  Historiam  Policronicam. 

** '  Postprceclaros  artium, 

"  *•  Prssfatio  .  U.      At    quoniam 

'  pnssens  Cronica» 

"  '  Prse&tio     III.       CupienUbus 


*'  It  ends  in  '  ecclesia  libertatem  * 

(i.e.  in  1327),  and  *  Explicit 
<*  *  Historia Policronica' 

«  The  dates  in  the  later  books  are 
"  in  two  columns.'-  We  have  some 
c  urious  phenomena  here.  The  longer 




form  of  the  Chronicle  is  ascribed  to 
Roger,  and  the  title  of  his  book  is 
Poh/chronicon,  To  myself  as  well 
as  to  Archdeacon  Hardwick,  the 
work  seems  to  be  the  same  as  the 
Polyehronicon  of  Higden. 

*  Reference  to  Fits  might  have 
been  spared,  as  he  had  never  seen 
the  book.  "Historiam  Banulphi 
*<  multum  qusesitam,  nunquam  in- 
**  ventam,  et  mihi  non  visam  fa- 
"  teor."  (De  Illust.  Angl.  Scripto- 
ribus,  p,  516.)  This  is  most  extra- 

2  In  MSS.  Harl.  1707  and  1751, 
and  in  the  MS.  C.C.C,  Cant.  n.  259, 
the  clause  runs  thus  :  **  Est  et  alia 
<<  Urbs  Legionum  ejusdem  nomlnis, 
"  vhi  et  prasens  chronica  fuit  elabo- 
rata,  urbs  quidem  in  con£nio  An- 
glise/'  But  in  HarL  MS.  1728,  we 
have  only  this  notice  :  **  Est  et  alia 
"  Urbs  Legionum  ejusdem  nominis, 
**  Caerleon  sive  Caerlegion,  urbs 
"  quidem  in  confinio  Angliae.*' 





himself,  according  to  the   villainous  contrivance,  which 
we  shall  mention,  anon/'  ^ 

And  again  under  Higden : — 

**  If  you  spell  the  first  letters  of  the  several  chapters 
"  that  begin  it,  you  read :  Prcesentem  chronicaTn  con- 
"  pilavU  Frater  Rmmil/phvs  moncichus  Ceatrens'is.  'Tis 
"  observable,  that  the  plagiary  picks  out  such  capitals, 
"  and  enlarges  them,  as  are  for  his  wicked  purpose,  and 
"  omits  the  rest ;  which  is  another  notorious  proof  of  his 
*'  knavish  forgery/^  ^  Now  if  we  compare  the  accounts 
of  Roger  of  Chester  and  of  Eanulphus  Higden,  as  given 
by  Bale,*  from  whom  others  do  little  else  but  copy, 
we  are  immediately  struck  with  their  remarkable  simi- 
larity. Both  Benedictine  monks  of  St.  Werburg  of 
Chester,  both  concluding  their  Universal  Chronicle  in 
the  time  of  Edward  III.,  both  urged  to  write  it  by 
their  fellow-monks,  both  adding  to  their  original  chro- 

*  p.  64«  Second  ed.,  Lond.  1714. 
The  first  edition  was  published  in 
1696.  See  also  Heame,  Pr«/-  ad 
Camd.AnnaL,  p.  119. 

2  Id.  p.  65. 

*  **  Bogerus  de  Cestria,  Benedic- 
"  tinorum  sectse  monachus,  et  in 
*'  eadem  nrbe  ad  Werbargse  &num, 
"  historiographus  illustris,  bonarum 
*<  litterarum  campos . . .  merito  mul- 
''  tumque  colebat. . . .  Hie  a  suis 
**  commilitonibus  monachis,  prse- 
**  cipue  ab  ejus  loci  episcopo  patrono 
*'  suo  rogatus,  Anglorom  historiam 
*"•  a  Britannorum,  immo  ab  ipsins 
^  OLundi  ongine,  usque  ad  annum 
*'  Domini  1 314,  et  demum  ad  annum 
<<  Christi  1339,  Latine  docte  et  ele- 
"  ganter  «cripsit.  In  qua,  prseter 
**  author 66  a  Banulpho  Hygdeno 
**  numeratos,  Nenniom,  Elvodugi 
^*  discipulmn,  et  Gildam  adducit, 
'*  Bannlphumque  ipsum  plusquam 
"  22  anuis  praecessit,  ab  Hugone 
**  Virleyo   in  Historiarum  Figuris 

'*  plerisque  in  locis  citatus.  Compo- 
*'  suit  ergo  Bogerus  Chronicon,  egre- 
"  glum  certe,  quod  vocabat  Po/^cra> 
"  tica  Temporum,  libris  septem.  In- 
*^  cipit,  'Intrabo  in  agros  priscorum 
"  subsequens.*  '* 

*'  Addiiiones  15  annoruniy  Hbro 
**  uno.  Incipit,  '  Septimo  anno 
**  *  Megis  JSdwcurdi  Secundi^  Et 
'*  alia  qosdam.  Polycraticorum 
**  vero  primus  post  Prsefationem 
**  liber  incipit ;  *  Julius  Ccssar  di' 
**  *  vinis  humanisque  rebus/  etc. 
'^  Claroit  hie  Cestrius  anno  a  Christi 
*^  nativitate  1339,  quo  ultimum  opus 
"  finiit,  sub  Edwardo  Tertio,  et  Ces- 
"  trisB  sepelitur."  Bale  (C«i/.  v.  n. 
xMii.  ed.  1569).  Hugo  Virley  flou- 
rished A.I).  1344.  He  is  the  only 
writer  before  Bale,  who  mentions 
Boger  of  Chester,  so  far  as  I  know. 
The  Figures  Historiarum,  called  by 
Bale  "  nobile  opus,"  have  not  been 
printed.  I  do  not  perceive  that  they 
even  exist 



one  who  knew  the  meaning  of  the  word,  but  in  the 
general  ignorance  of  Greek,  the  scribes^  to  whom  the 
Polycraticon  of  John  of  Salisbury  was  a  familiar  name, 
frequently  confounded  the  two  words.  The  work  of 
Higden,  moreover,  is  sometimes  called  Polycraticon : 
thus  our  MS.  C.  has  in  the  colophon :  **  Expliciunt 
"  chronica^  venerabilis  Eanulphi,  monachi  Cestrensis,  in 
"  septem  libellos  distinctse,  dictaeque  Historia  Policra- 
"  tica/^  In  the  sixteenth  century  Higden's  work  was 
known  imder  both  titles^^  It  is  not  altogether  impos- 
sible that  Higden  himself  may  have  made  the  blunder, 
and  corrected  it  in  his  later  editions ;  for  it  is  in  the 
earlier  MSS.,  so  fer  as  we  knoWj  that  this  error  is 
mostly  to  be  found. 

(3)  Very  little  stress  can  be  laid  on  the  slight  diflFe- 
rence  of  their  dates.  *^  Eanulphum  ipsum  plus  quam  xxii. 
*'  annis  prgecessit,"  says  Bale ;  but,  by  his  own  account, 
Roger  afterwards  continued  the  chronicle  from  1314  to 
1339*  Now,  as  many  of  Higden's  earlier  copies  cease 
at  1327,  and  at  various  years  afterwards,  it  can  scarcely 
be  said  that  there  is  any  difference  of  time  between 
his  and  Roger's  chronicles.^ 

The  contents  of  the  two  chronicles  may  be  said  to 
be  identical^    Higd^n^s  work  itself  appears  in  a  longer 

^  **  Vulgo  voeatur  FoUcfaronicon 
**  siye  Polictftticon/'  ilote  on  second 
fly-leaf  of  our  MS.  A. 

2  Bale  indeed  says,  **  In  qna  (his* 
*<  torla),  prseter  anth(»es  a  Banulpho 
"  Hygdeno  numeratofi^KenniumEl- 
"  Yodngi  discipnlnm  et  Gildam  ad- 
«  ducif'  This  is  an  error  ;  in  this 
edition  the  latter  of  these  authors 
is  enumerated  among  the  sources  of 
the  history,  and  he  is  also  quoted  in 
cxxxviii.  With  regard  to  Nennius, 
he  is  mentioned  in  our  MSS.  C.  D. 
(See  p.  24,  note  2),  as  one  of  the 
historians  used  by  Higden,  but  not 
in  the  other  MSS.  or  in  the  versions. 

This  is  one  indication  among  others 
that  the  Polycraticon  of  Boger,  is 
nothing  else  but  a  form  of  the  Foly- 

^  Bale  mentions  that  it  cominen<^s, 
**  Intrabo  in  agros  priseorum:"  see 
this  edition,  p.  12.  Archdeacon 
Hardwiek  had  printed  this  note  on 
the  word  Intrabo :  "Here  begins 
"  the  sot-called  '  Polycraticon '  of 
^^  Boger  of  Chester."  In  a  copy 
of  liilacray'B  Manual  of  British 
Historians,  p.  36  (Pick.  1845), 
where  Boger  of  Chester  Is  noticed, 
he  has  written :  **  I  have  collated 

part  of  this"  (i.e.  Harl.  MS.  1707, 




and  in  a  shorter  form ;  and  Roger's  Polycraticmv  is 
only  a  slightly  more  abbreviated  state  of  the  shorter 

Upon  the  whole  there  seems  to  be  no  ground  for 
the  charge  of  plagiarism  brought  against  Higden ;  and 
from  henceforth  dismissing  Roger  of  Chester  and  his 
Polycraticon,  as  being  things  of  buckram,^  we  pro- 
ceed to  consider  the  sources  whence  the  Polychronicon 
was  derived, 
dted^*^^^  The  author  recoimtsat  large  in  his  second  chapter 
Higden.  the  names  of  the  writers  who  are  alleged  in  his 
Chronicle.  They  are  about  forty  in  number,^  and  it  is 
needless  to  transcribe  them  here.^    It  will  be  of  more 

which  Wanley  declares  to  be  ahnost 
identical  with  a  MS.  in  which  Bale 
himself  has    written    Pdycratica 
temporum    Rogeri   Cesirensis,   and 
some    other    late  hand   has    also 
written    Rogeri    Cestrensis    Poly- 
chronicon;  see  Oat.  Harl.   MBS., 
vol.  1,  p.  180,  ed.  1808)  «with  MS. 
«  Nero,  D.  viii.,  assigned  to  Higden, 
"and  find  the  two  works  almost 
**  identical.     One  writer  adopts  the 
"  title  PolycronicoHy  and  the  other 
"  Polycraticon,  but  for  precisely  the 
''  same  reason.    The  Harleian  is  the 
"  better  text  j  the  latter  MS.  (the 
**  Harleian)  goes  down  to  1327,  and 
**  there  ends  with  an  index."    It 
commences  not  with  **  Intrabo,"  but 
with  "In  historico    namque  con- 
**  textu  ;"  above  which  a  later  hand 
has  written,  "  Post  praeclaros,"  &c. 
By  the  kindness  of  the  Bev.  E.  H. 
Perowne,  B.3>.,  I   have  examined 
the  MS.  (numbered  269)  of  Roger 
of  Chester,  in  the  library  of  Corpus 
Christ!  College,  Cambridge.    Bale's 
account  of  him  is  transcribed  on  a 
fly-leaf,  but  his  name  does  not  occur 
in  the  MS.  itself.    It  begins  (cer- 
tainly not  abruptly)  "  Intrabo,"  and 

ends  A,D.   1338,  "statim   postea 
"  concusserunt." 

^  Neither  Leland  in  his  Comment, 
de  Script  Britann.,  nor  Henry 
Wharton,  nor  R.  Gery,  who  write 
accounts  of  Higden,  in  the  Appen< 
dix  to  Cave's  Historia  Litteraria^ 
give  Roger  a  place,  or  even  mention 
lum  at  all. 

^  Many  authors  are  quoted  in 
the  first  volume,  which  are  not 
included  in  Higden's  catalogue. 
Thus  he  ^e^rs  to  the  life  of  John 
the  Almoner,  and  copies  it  pretty 
closely  (p.  240)  ;  also  to  Ptolemy 
the  geographer  (p.  44) ;  and  to 
Cicero  (p,  82)  ;  to  say  nothing  of 
passing  allusions  to  the  classics, 
as  to  Horace  (p.  12),  Virgil  (pp. 
208,  266),  Ovid  (p.  238),  and 
Juvenal  (p.  412)  ;  or  to  the 
Pathers,  as  Gregory  Nazianzen 
(p.  8),  or  Gregory  the  Great  (p. 
12).  Conversely  a  large  number 
of  the  authors  named  are  not  quoted 
at  all  in  this  volume. 

*  The  reader  is  requested  to  ex- 
amine not  only  the  lists,  but  also 
the  various  readings.  The  MSS. 
C.  and  1).  give,  in  addition  to. the 



utility  to  point  out  briefly,  as  the  volumes  of  this 
edition  make  their  appearance,  to  whom  Higden  is 
principally  indebted  for  his  accounts  of  the  history 
and  geography  therein  severally  contained.^  I  proceed, 
therefore,  to  indicate  the  contents  of  the  first  book, 
(wliich  may  be  seen  more  fully  in  the  Summary  which 
follows  this  Introduction,)  in  connection  with  the 
fountains  (which  are  sometimes  none  of  the  purest) 
from  which  Higden  has  drawn. 

The  bombastic  and  not  very  intelliarible  ^  prologue  Contents  of 
concluded   (c.  i.),^   the   plan    of  the    work    expounded  first  book. 

list  in  our  text,  the  names  of  Hero- 
dotus, Quintilian,  and  AulusGelUus. 
Who  this  Herodotus  (or  as  Higden 
writes  him  Erodotus)  is  I  do  not 
kno^.  He  is  quoted  or  alluded  to 
at  pp.  172,  290,296,  386.  He  names 
Pompey  the  Great,  also  the  Picts, 
and  seems  to  be  some  Western  me- 
dieval chronicler. 

'  In  the  present  volume  he  quotes 
Isidore,  naming  him,  about  fifty 
times,  and  very  frequently  uses  him 
without  naming  him  at  all ;  he 
quotes  Flmy  and  Justin  about  a 
dozen  times  each.  These  last  are 
the  only  classical  authors  of  whom 
he  makes  considerable  use,  unless 
Solinus  be  so  designated,  who  is  re- 
ferred to  about  half  a  dozen  times. 
Of  the  rest,  Hugutio,  Petrus  Comes- 
tor,  Paulus  Biaconus,  William  of 
Malmesbury,  Bede,  and  especially 
Giraldus  Cambrensis,  are  Higden's 
principal  authorities,  besides  the 
anonymous  Geographia,  which  he 
never  names.  His  allusions  to  Au- 
gustine and  Jerome  are  rather  nu- 
merous, but  mostly  unimportant 

JLIt  is  possible  Ihat  conjecture,  or 
a  collation  of  other  MSS.,  might 
help  the  text  a  little  ;  but  I  suspect 
not  a  great  deal.  On  reflection,  I 
think. that  quo  adoivcrent  (p.  2), 

though  evidently  the  reading  of  the 
MSS.  (A.,  E.),  should  be  changed 
into  quoad  viverent  Dr.  Moberly 
has  very  kindly  collated  for  this 
edition  the  prologue  and  also  the 
second  chapter  (giving  names  of  the 
authorities)  as  they  stand  in  the 
Winchester  MS.  (see  below) ;  but 
tWe  various  readings  are  few  and 
unimportant.  For  qjtto  adviverent 
(p.  2)  the  Winchester  MS.,  quo  ad- 
venirenf ;  for  tulerunt  (p.  6),  contw 
lerunt  (which  is  better)  ;  for  nempe 
(p.  6),  namque ;  for  reperies  (p.  16), 
invenies;  for  Ormesta  (p.  22),  Or- 
mestia;  for  memorabiiibus  (p.  22), 
memoria ;  for  episcopus»  Historia  (p. 
24),  episcopus  de  historia.  The 
other  variations  are  not  worth 
mentioning,  being  in  some  cases 
mere  blunders.  I  have  also  sub- 
sequentTy  collated  Gale's  excellent 
MS.  (G.)  for  the  same  parts,  but 
have  not  found  a  single  various 
reading  worth  recording  here. 

*  The  reader  who  compares  this 
Introduction  with  Higden's  text,  is 
requested  to  refer  to  the  chapters 
by  means  of  the  Summary  of  Con- 
tents, as  a  few  of  the  chapters  of  the 
Latin  (not  English)  text  are  mis- 
numbered.     See  Corrigenda, 



His  (c,  iii«,  iv.),  and  the  authorities  rehearsed  (a  ii.),  the 

physical^  author  proceeds  with  the  first  book,  which  is,  as  we 
have  already  said,  a  map  of  the  world,  or  series  of 
descriptions  of  the  principal  countries  of  the  ancient 
and  more  modem  nations.  He  begins  by  describing  the 
magnitude  of  the  globe,  whose  diameter  he  determines 
to  be  6,491  miles  ;^  then  the  three  great  parts  of  the 
world,  and  the  relations  of  their  magnitudes  to  one 
another.  After  that  he  proceeds  to  describe  the  Medi^ 
terranean  Sea  and  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  c.  viii.,  ix.  His 
principal  authorities  for  these  accounts  are  Isidore  of  Se- 
ville, of  whom  he  makes  very  extensive  use  in  the  first 
book,  and  PUny,  to  whom  he  is  also  largely  indebted. 
Besides  these  Higden  also  quotes  Giraldus  Cambren- 
sis,  Bede,  Solinus,  Paulus  Diaconus,  and  the  author  of 
a  cosmography,  whom  he  calls  Prisdanus,  but  who 
commonly  passes,  whether  rightly  or  wrongly,  under 
the  name  of  -^thicus.* 

^  The  true  mean  diameter  is  7,9 12 

*  See  pp.  22,  40,  42,  50.  I  now 
see  that  Higden  only  followed  the 
Geographia  Uhiversali»,  of  which 
more  helow,  in  which  he  is  called 
Prescianus,  The  quotation  at  p.  40 
appears  thus  in  iBthicns:  '^Itaque 
«Julius  Csesar  bissextilis  rationis 
<<  inventor,  divinis  humanisque 
«  rebus  singolariter  instructas,  cum 
'<  consnlatus  sui  £i8oes  erigeret,  ex 
^'senatuB  consulto  censuit  omnem 
"  orhem  jam  Bomani  nonunis  ad- 
«metiri  per  pradentissimos  viros, 
<<  et  omni  philosophise  munere  de~ 
**  coratos.  .^  .  .  Ac  sic  oiimis  orbis 
*'  terree  intra  annos  xxzii.  a  dimen- 
^  soribus  peragratns  est,  et  de  omni 
*'  ejus  continentia  perlatam  eBt  ad  se* 
«  natmn,"p.  26.  Bd.GrolioT.  (ad  calc. 
Pomp.  Mels,Lugd.  Bat,  1696.)  The 
readings  of  C.  D.,  it  will  be  observed 
here  and  in  other  places,  agree  more 

nearly  with  the  original  text  of  the 
author  referred  to  than  the  later 
and  larger  forms  of  the  chromcle 
do.    The  quotation  at  p«  50  ajppears 
thus  :  **  Plurimi  qui  res  divinas  (Aw- 
**  manas,  Higden)  evidentitis  agno- 
**  verunt  duas  tantum  partes  aecipi- 
*^  endas  Snadent,  id  est,  Asiam  et 
**  Europam  tantummodo  $  Africam 
**  vero  censent  Europe  finibus  depu- 
**  tandam.  *  *  *  Quia  et  spatio  latitu- 
«  dinis  caret,  et  coeli  male  (leg.  malo) 
'*  sulgacet  climAti)  laborans  aeribus 
**  snis,  venenis  facisque  repleta  im~ 
'*  maninm  et  incognitaram  humano 
"  generi    innnmerabilium    bestia- 
**  mm."     Id.  pp.  25  and  51.  (ubi 
plara.)   These  citations  will  in  some 
degree  show  the  manner  in  which 
Higden  manipulates  his  autho^ties, 
as  well  as  the  difference  of  treatment 
in  the  earlier  and  later  editions. 
There  are  several  other  places  in 
which  Higden  may  perhaps  have 



Our  author,  having  at  length  concluded  his  general  Higden'g 
account   of   earth  and   sea,   which   we   may   call   his  ^"^^^^^j^J^ 
physical  geography,  proceeds  to   describe  the  separate  divisions 
provinces  of  Asia,  Africa,  and  Europe.    Not  to  dwell  g^rth!  Asia 
on  his  speculations  on  Paradise  (c.  x),  derived  in  part  and  its 
from  Isidore  of  Seville,  Petrus    Comestor,  and  John^"^^^^^* 
Damascene,^   we  pass  on  to  his  description  of  Asia, 

used  ^thiciis,  though  without 
acknowledgment  e^,,  in  his  descrip- 
tion of  Tile  (Thule),  of  which 
^thicus  says  (p.  61) ;  ^<  Insula 
'^  Tilse,  quae  per  iufinitum  a  csetetis 
''  patet  longins  secreta,  in  medio 
"  oceanisita,vt:rpattcisnoto/'  Com- 
pare Higden,  c.  SI,  who  refers  to 
Solinns  De  MirahUibus;  Solinus 
however  {Polyhisiy  c*  22)^  dbes  not 
employ  the  phrase»  nor  does  his 
original  source»  Pliny.  I  now  per- 
ceive, however,  that  Orosius  (lib. 
i.  c.  2)  has  almost  copied  iBthicus; 
and  as  Higden  certainly  knew  that 
author,  nothing  can  be  said  posi- 

For  more  about  ^thicus,  who  is 
most  probably  the  same  person  as 
Julius  Honorius,  see  Bitschl,  in 
Bhein,  Mus,  1842,  pp.  481-523. 
JSthicus  is  by  no  means  the  only 
author  quoted  in  Higden,  which  has 
occasioned  me  trouble,  and  I  may 
be  permitted  to  make  one  or  two 
remarks  respecting  his  citations  and 
alluiuons  in  general.  When  the 
MSS.  agree  in  the  reference  to  an 
author,  I  have  not  in  general  thought 
it  worth  while  to  verify  it  i  when 
otherwise,  I  have  commonly  -tried  to 
discover  (fi^quently  without  suc- 
cess) which  of  the  references  was 
the  true  one.  It  has  sometimes 
^dlen  out  that  an  examination  of 
tike  original  authority  shows  that 
the  true  reference  is  something 
different  to  what  any  of  the  MSS. 

contain.  (See  pp.  84, 196,  &c.).  It 
is  much  to  be  feared  that  some 
other  citations  may  likewise  be 
erroneous  ;  but  in  cases  where  the 
MSS.  agree,  the  &,ult  ought  to  be 
charged  upon  Higden,  not  on  his 
editor.  To  rectify  every  erroneous 
reference  in  a  work  which  is  in  a 
great  measure  made  up  of  quo- 
tations from  other  writers,  variously 
altered  and  modified,  would  be  an 
endless  taskj  and  indeed  would 
very  ill  repay  the  labour  in  the  case 
of  such  an  author  as  Higden.  How- 
ever, where  the  case  seemed  to  re- 
quire it,  I  have  made  some  search 
into  the  original  authority  for  the 
statement ;  but  shall  be  thankful  to 
any  one  who  may  discover  and 
inform  me  respecting  errors  or 
omissions  on  Higden's  part  or  my 

*  The  text  of  our  edition  differs 
much  from  the  MSS.  G.  D.,  so  much 
indeed  that  a  collation  is  impossible. 
I  now  perceive,  from  a  comparison 
of  the  Etdogium  Historiarum  (vol. 
ii.  pp.  11-14)  that  this  early  text 
was  very  much  derived  from  an 
unpublished  work,  ebtitled  Geo- 
graphia  UniversaliSj  which  has  been 
a  good  deal  used  by  Higden  for 
his  description  of  northern  Europe, 
though  he  never  refers  to  the  book. 
A  copy  of  the  text  in  D.,  and  of  the 
text  of  the  Geographia,  is  subjoined 
in  an  appendix. 



which  commences  with  India  (c.  xi.).  His  account, 
which  is  for  the  most  part  fabulous,  and  relates  to 
monstrous  dragons,  to  the  battles  of  pigmies  and  cranes, 
to  men  of  strange  conformations,  ages,  habits,  and 
qualities,  and  to  prophetical  trees,  which  warned  Alex- 
ander the  Great  not  to  enter  Babylon/  is  taken  from 
Isidore,  Pliny,  Cicero,  and  Petrus  Comestor.  He 
preserves,  however,  some  grains  of  truth,  and  describes 
with  tolerable  correctness  the  institutions  of  caste^  the 
burning  of  widows,  and  the  natural  products.  Parthia 
follows  next  in  order,  and  the  account  of  its  kings 
and  people  is  derived  principally  from  Justin,  some 
portions  being  also  said  to  be  taken  from  Isidore 
and  Giraldus.  Except  that  he  erroneously  designates 
Phrahates  the  Fourth,  (who  is  known  as  Arsaces  the 
Fifteenth,)  by  the  name  of  "  Mithridates,  son  of  Mith- 
"  ridates,''  his  account  is  conformable  to  the  classical 
accounts  which  have  come  down  to  us.^ 

An  account  of  Assyria  and  the  adjoining  regions 
foUows  (c.  xiii) ;  it  has  the  name  of  Isidore  prefixed 
to  several  of  the  paragraphs,  and  he  is  also  the  autho- 
rity for  some  clauses  which  have  no  name  at  their 
head.^  The  account  of  Babylon  is  mostly  taken  from 
Orosius.     Some   slight   use    is   also   made   of   Justin, 

'  Compare  Jul.  Valer.  lies  Gest 
Alex,,]ih,  iii.  c.  40,  41.  (Ed.  Mai.); 
Pseudo-Alex,  ad  Aristot.  de  Mirab, 
Ind,  (Sig.  Q.  ii.,  cd.  Neap.  1555)  ; 
Vine  Bel.  Spec.  Hist,  lib.  iv.  c. 
57  J  Mart.  Pol.  Ckron,  lib.  ii.  c.  4., 
for  an  account  of  these  wonderful 

^  Higden  refers  to  Giraldus,  dist. 
17.  for  the  statement.  I  do  not 
understand  the  reference,  neither 
does  it  appear  likely  that  Giraldus 
(wkoBe  name  is  written  at  length  in 
our  MS.  £.)  is  his  authority  at  all. 
Although  there  is  great  confusion 

about  Oriental  names  in  the  classical 
writers,  it  does  not  appear  (so  far 
as  I  know)  that  any  of  them  have 
called  Arsaces  xv.  by  the  name  of 
Mithridates.  His  father's  name, 
moreover,  was  not  Mithridates,  but 
Orodes.  See  Lindsay's  Hist,  and 
Coinage  of  the  Parthians,  pp.  38-50, 
Cork,  1852. 

*  Thus  the  description  of  the 
boundaries  of  Syria  (p.  100)  is 
taken  from  Isidore,  lib.  xiv.  c.  3. 
§  16.  Compare  also  §15  with  Hig- 
den*s  notice  of  Arabia. 



Petrus  Comestor,  and  Josephus.  Judea  and  Jerusa- 
lem, as  might  be  anticipated,  are  more  fully  described 
(c.  xiv,).  His  principal  authority  is  still  Isidore,  but 
reference  is  also  made  to  several  other  writers,  as  Jo- 
sephus, Augustine,  Jerome,  William  of  Mahnesbury, 
Giraldus,  Petrus  Comestor.  There  is  little  in  the  ac- 
count itself  on  which  it  is  necessary  to  dwell.  The 
most  curious  point  about  it  is  a  change  for  the  better 
which  occurs  in  the  text  of  MS.  E.,  the  latest  and 
purest  form,  so  Ifar  as  I  know,  in  which  the  Chronicle 
has  appeared.  In  the  earlier  forms  of  the  text.  Mount 
Sion  is  placed  at  the  north  of  Jersualem,  in  the  later 
at  the  south.^  In  the  following  chapter  (c.  xv.)  the 
description  of  the  Holy  Land  is  concluded,  embracing 
Idumea,  Samaria,  Qahlee,  Cedar,  and  Phenicia.  In 
addition  to  Isidore,  Hlgden  quotes  from  Hugutio  and 
Pseudo-Methodius.  In  the  notice  of  Egypt  (c.  xvi.), 
Higden  refers  to  Petrus  Comestor,  Bede,  Jerome,  and 
Isidore  ;  from  the  last-named  author  he  has  derived 
some  statements  without  acknowledgment.  In  common 
with  various  ancient  writers,  to  whom  he  makes  only 
a  vague  allusion,  he  considers   that  the   Nile  has  its 

*  The  reference  is  to  William  of 
Malmesbury  "  De  Regibvts  ;*'  the  ver- 
sions add  falsely  libro  primo.  The 
passage  runs  thus :  **  Fons  intra  nul- 
"  las,  sed  cisternis  ad  hoc  prseparatis 
**  coUigunturlatices,  siti  ciyiiuiiproo 
'*  fatnri  ;  quod  ipsius  urbis  situs, 
*^  supercilio  ah  aquilone  montis  Sion 
"  incipiens,  ita  sit  molli  clivo  dispo- 
**  situs,  nt  pluYia  ibi  decidens  neqim- 
"  quam  lutum  faciat,  sed  mStar  flu- 
"  yiorum  vel  cisternis  excipiatur, 
"  vel  per  portas  defluens  torrentem 
"  Oedron  augeat."  Gest.  Beg,  Angl, 
lib.  iv.  §  367  (vol.  ii.  pp.  561,  562. 
Engl.  Hist.  Soc).  The  text  of  E. 
expresses  the  sense  of  Malmesbury: 
"  Urbis  ipsius  situs  ab  austro  (aqui- 

"  lone.  A,  B.)  montem  Syon  habens, 
"moUi  cUvo  versus  boream  (aus- 
"  frum,  A.  B.)  descendens  sic  dis- 
''  ponitur  ut  pluvia  stillans  nequa- 
"  quam  lacum  Quiuvtiy  B.and  Malm.) 
*^  feciaty  sed  instar  rivulorum  in  cis- 
**  temis  excipiatur,  vel  saltern  per 
"  portas  effiuens  torrentem  Cedron 
"  adaugeat,*'  p.  108.  Here  again  it 
is  instructive  to  observe  the  varia- 
tions of  expression  between  the  text 
of  the  original  author  and  the  text 
of  Higden.  In  the  earliest  form  of 
Higden's  text,  which  some  would 
call  Boger*s  Pclycraticon^  the  whole 
passage  based  on  William  of  Mal- 
mesbury is  omitted. 



sources  in  Ethiopia,  not  far  from  Mount  Atlas.^  It 
will  be  observed  that  Egypt  in  his  cosmography  forms 
a  part  of  Asia. 

Higdeii  next  proceeds  to  describe  Scythia  at  some 
length  (c.  xvii,),  following  Justin  ahnost  entirely;  the 
same  chapter  contains  also  brief  notices  of  Bactria, 
the  Caucasus^  Hyrcania>  Albania^  Gothia,  Armenia,  and 
Moimt  Ararat.  For  his  descriptions  of  these  countries 
he  quotes  no  authorities,  except  Albertus  Magnus  for 
some  details  about  Mount  Atlas,  but  his  principal 
source  of  information  is,  as  usual,  Isidore.^  His  Gothia 
seems  to  include  parts  of  Scandinavia  and  of  Eussia^ 
both  European  and  ABiatic. 

In  the  following  chapter  (a  xviii.)  he  concludes  his 
accoimt  of  Asia,  mentioning  in  a  very  brief  manner 
Cappadocia,  (which  he  distinguishes  from  Asia  Minor,) 
and  the  following  provinces  of  Asia  Minor :  Bithynia, 
Galatia,  Phrygia,  Lydia,  Pamphylia,  and  Cilida.  He 
has  made  much  use  of  the  New  Testament  in  his 
notices  of  these,  and  also  of  Isidore,^  whom,  however, 

>  This  is  the  Tiew  of  Julius  Ho- 
norius,  p.  19  (ed.  Gronov.  ad  calc. 
Pomp.  Melse),  of  JSthicus  (u,  s,  p. 
50) }  also  of  SoUnua  (c.  xxvii.  and 
c.  xxxii.),  and  of  his  original  author 
Pliny  (lib.  v.  c.  10,  where  see  Har- 
dnin's  note,  who  refers  to  Marcianus 
Capella,  Anuuianns  Marcellinus,and 
Xiphilinos  ;  also  lib.  yiii.  c.  32, 
where  be  speaks  more  positively). 
Since  this  note  was  written,  I  have 
seen  Mr.  Vaux's  paper,  On  the 
Knowledge  of  the  Ancients  on  the 
Sources  of  the  NUe,  Trans.  Boy. 
Soc.  lit,  Tol.  viii.  (new  series)  pp. 
85-66,  which  contains  much  curious 
information  on  a  subject  which  has 
just  acquired  a  new  interest 

2  Compare  Isid.  Hisp.,  lib.  xiv. 
c.  8,  §  2  (for  the  Caucasus) ;  c.  3, 

§33  (for  Hyrcania);  c.  3,  §  34 
(for  Albania) ;  lib.  ix.  c.  2,  §  89 
(for  Gothia,  where,  however,  Higden 
substitutes  Goihos  for  GetcLs  in  his 
text)  ;  lib.  xiv.  c.  3,  §  35  (for  Ar- 
menia). In  Higden's  account,  how- 
ever, are  some  things  not  contained 
in  Isidore.  Thus  his  short  notice 
of  Bactria  seems  not  to  be  taken 
&om  him,  but  it  is  so  unimportant 
that  it  is  hardly  worth  while  to  in- 
quire more  particularly.  Neither 
is  it  the  same  as  that  in  the  Geo- 
graphia  Universalis  and  ihe  Evh^ 

^  Compare  Isid.  Hisp.,  lib.  xiv. 
c.  3,  §  37  (for  Cappadocia,  who 
also  places  it  to  the  east  of  Asia 
Minor) ;  §  38  (fqr  Asia  Minor)  ; 
§  39  (for  Bithynfe)  j  §  40  (for  Ga- 


he  does  not  professedly  quote.  The  chapter  concludes 
with  a  more  extended  account  of  Amazonia  (which 
he  makes  partly  in  Europe  and  partly  in  Asia),  which 
is  principally  taken  from  Justin,  and  partly  (with 
some  expressions  of  dissent)  from  Isidore.^  He  also 
quotes  from  the  apocryphal  *'Historia  Alexandri'*  the 
letters  of  Thalestris,  queen  of  the  Amazons,  to  Alex- 
ander the  Great,  and  that  monarch's  gracious  reply.^ 
These  are  the  original  sources  of  the  account  of  Ama- 
zonia, and  which  it  is  important  to  indicate ;  but 
there  is  no  douht  that  Higden  has  taken  his  notice 
of  this,  as  well  as  of  some  other  countries^  almost  en- 
tire from  the  Oeographia  Universalis,  of  which  more 
hereafter,  in  which  the  same  authorities  as  he  quotes 
are  quoted  also,  and  in  the  same  order,  or  nearly  so, 
with  some  verbal  alterations.^ 

The  nineteenth  and  twentieth  chapters  contain  an  AMca  and 
account  of  AMoa,  from  which  Egypt  is  excluded  ^p^ 
Still  following  Isidore,  he  discusses  the  etymology  of 
the  name,  and  runs  rapidly  over  the  provinces  of 
Ethiopia,  Libya,  Tripolis,  Gsetulia,  and  Mauretania, 
dwelling  somewhat  more  particularly  on  the  foundation 
of  Carthage  and  its  date,  maintaining,  against  Yirgil 
and  Dares  Phrygius,  that  Eneas   could  not  have  seen 

latia) ;  §  41  (for  Phrygia  ;  makiDg, 
however,  Phrygia  the  daughter  of 
^sopus,  not  of  Eiiropa)j  §  43  (for 
Lydia,  which  Higden  has  copied 
ahnost  bodily)  ;  §  44  (for  Pamphy- 
lia,  which  Isidore  also  identifies  with 
Isanria,  though  he  does  not  create 
a  ^^Seleucos  Antiochns"  as  the 
founder  of  Seleucia);  §§45  and  46 
(for  Cilicia  and  Lycia ;  the  identi- 
fication, however,  of  Lycia  with 
Lycaonia  is  an  error  with  which 
Isidore  is  not  chargeable).  Some 
of  the  deviations  from  Isidore  are 
to  be  found  in  the  Geographia. 

>  Just,  Hb.  ii.  c.  4  ;  Isid.  Hisp., 
lib.  ix.  c.  a,  §  64. 

^  ^^Ejusmodi  Historic  Alexandri 
^  in  bibl.  Leidensi  aliisque  servantur 
«  MSS."  Harl.  in  Pabr.  Bibl  Grcec,, 
vol.  iii.  p,  34  (Hamb.  1783).  Car- 
dinal  Mai  has  since  published  two 
such  works,  one  of  which  is  ascribed 
to  Julius  Valerius,  but  they  do  not 
contain  these  letters.  Martinus  Polo- 
nuB,  however  (Ckron,  lib.  ii.  c.  4,), 
gives  the  same  letters  in  substance, 
but  writes  CaUistrata  £ot  Thalestris, 

^  See  Haydon's  Introd.  to  Eulog» 
Hist,  vol.  ii.  xxxii.  (note). 



Dido.  He  maintains  the  view  of  Justin,  that  Car- 
thage was  founded  72  years  before  Eome,  and  con- 
firms it  by  the  authority  of  Papias.^  In  the  course 
of  his  remarks  on  these  regions  he  acknowledges  his 
obKgations  to  Josephus,  Gregory  the  Great,  Marianus, ' 
Augustine,  and  Hugutio.  His  account  of  the  marvels 
and  monstrous  people  of  Africa  seems  to  be  mostly 
taken  from  Solinus  ^  (or  from  Pliny,  whom .  he  epi- 
tomizes),  though  no  authority  is  cited  for  the  state- 
ments made. 
Europe  and  Higden  now  proceeds  (cap.  xxi.)  to  describe  Europe, 
vinc^  which  occupies  the  remainder  of  the  book.  He  begins 
with  an  account  of  northern  Europe,  which  is  in 
good  part  derived  from  Isidore^  and  the  Geographia,'^ 
and  passes  lightly  over  the  provinces  of  Scythia, 
Alania,  Moesia,  Sclavia  or  Sclavonia,  and  Pannonia. 
In  his  accomit  of  the  last,  he  makes  mention  of  the 

*  This  Papias  is  the  author  of  the 
Ehmentarium ;  in  which  the  pas- 
sage occurs  under  Carthago;  and 
I  should  suppose  that  he  is  the  same 
that  Grabe  mentions,  ^'ccgns  (Pa- 
*'  pise,  sc.)  Syngrammaia  allegantur 
"  in  Chronica  Demonstratione  AUa- 
"  tii,  Hbro  de  Simeonum  scriptis 
«  suffixa,  p.  22,"  Routh,  Hel  Sacr,, 
torn»  i  p  43  (ed.  alt)  I  learn  from 
Br.  laghtfoot  that  the  famous  pas- 
sage ahout  our  Lord's  brethren,  re- 
ferred to  Papias,  the  apostolic  &ther, 
by  Boiith  and  others,  occurs  in  the 
JSlementarium  of  this  medieval  Pa- 
pias, who,  no  doubt,  takes  it  from 

*  Compare  Solinus,  capp.  30-31, 
with  p.  158  of  Higden. 

^  See  Isid.  Hisp.,  lib.  xiv.  c,  4, 
§  1-5  (for  Europe  generally,  and 
for  Scythia,  Alania,  and  Moesia); 
lib.  xiii.  c.  21,  §  24  (for  Tanais). 
He  says    scarcely  anything  about 

Pannonia  (lib.  xiv.  c.  4,  §  5),  and 
about  Sclavia  nothing  at  all.  The 
accounts  of  Scythia,  Alania,  and 
Moesia,  in  the  Geographia,  do  not 
closely  resemble  those  in  Higden. 

*  lE'or  Pannonia  and  Sclavia  see 
Eulog,  Sisty  lib.  iv.  c.  66  and  67, 
and  Mr.  Haydon's  preface,  vol.  ii. 
p.  xxxviii.,  and  the  notes,  where  the 
deviations  from  the  Geographia  are 
given.  The  account  of  the  latter  is 
generally  fuller  and  more  accurate 
than  Higden,  and  there  seems  to  be 
no  doubt  that  the  Geographia  is  the 
parent  of  much  in  the  Polpchrqnicony 
and  not  vice  versa,  I  should  be 
glad  to  discover  the  Herodotus, 
from  whom  these  two  works  and 
the  Euhgivm  so  often  borrow.'  It 
might,  perhaps,  be  worth  while  to 
print  the  Geographia,  as  so  much 
use  has  been  made  of  it  by  other 



Huns,  professing  to  derive  his  information  from  an 
author  whom  he  calls  Herodotus,  but  in  ti'uth  taking 
his  notice,  citations  inclusive,  from  the  Oeographia. 

The  twenty-second  chapter  is  taken  up  with  a  de- 
scription of  Greece  and  its  provinces.  The  classical 
authorities  referred  to  are  Justin,  Varro,  and  Ovid, 
from  whom  are  derived  notices  of  the  early  history 
of  Athens,  the  contest  of  Neptune  with  Minerva,  the 
Delphian  oracle,  Deucalion's  flood,  and  an  allusion  to 
Tempe ;  also  an  account  of  the  colonization  of  Tarentum 
by  the  Spartans  after  the  siege  of  Messene,  which  latter 
city  he  strangely  places  in  Apulia,  confusing  it  appa- 
rently with  the  Sicilian  Messana.  In  the  description 
of  the  provinces  he  principally  follows  Isidore,*  and 
gives  some  details  about  Constantinople  from  WiUiam 
of  Malmesbury.  He  refers  also  for  smaller  matters 
to  Giraldus  Cambrensis  and  Petrus  Comastor. 

Higden's  account  of  Italy  (c.  xxiii.)  is  for  the  most 
part  taken  from  Isidore,  one  citation  being  also  made 
fron^  Pliny.  The  conclusion  of  the  chapter  relates  the 
origin  and  progress  of  the  Lombards,  and  is  derived 
wholly  from  Paulus  Diaconus. 

From  Italy  generally,  Higden  proceeds  to  a  de- 
scription of  Rome  in  particular,  which  is  made  up 
of  a  strange  assemblage  of  absurdities.  A  large  part 
of  these  are  derived  from  a  small  tract,  whose  author 
is  generally  considered  to  be  unknown,  though  styled 
by  Higden  Magister  Gregorius.^  Its  title  is  MiraMlia 
JJrhis  Romce,  and  so  popular   did   it  become,  that  it 

»  See  lib.  xiv.  c.  4,  §  7-16.  Bat 
some  touches  are  due  to  the  Geo" 
graphia,  e.g.,  the  barbarous  word 
Helladia,  See  Haydon»  u.«.,  p.  «^ 
xxxix.,  and  the  Eulogium,  lib.  iv. 
capp.  73-77. 

^  I  transcribed  the  following 
extracts  from  a  copy  in  the  British 
Museum,  supposed   to  be   printed 

VOL.   I. 

about  1473.  It  consists  of  six  leaves. 
In  the  description  of  the  palace  of 
Peace  we  read  :  **  Uhi  posoit  Bomu- 
'<  lus  snam  statuam  dicens  :  *  Haic 
** '  statua  non  cadet,  donee  virgo 
"  *  pariat.'  Et  statim  cum  B.  Virgo 
"  peperit,  statua  corruit."  (fol.  1,  b). 
Compare  Higden,  p.  214.  The  sec- 
tion JOe  agidea  (sic)  iS'.  Petri,  con- 



went  through  more  than  30  editions  in  the  fifteenth 
century,  apart  from  the  translations  into  German  and 
into  Italian  which  were  printed  in  the  same  period.^ 
Other  marvels  are  transcribed  from  the  Polycraticon 
of  John  of  Salisbury.  The  reader^  who  has  any  taste 
for  the  investigation  of  such  matters,  may  consult  the 
recent  work  of  Dr.  Gregorovius,  Geschichte  der  Stadt 
Bom  im»  MitUlaLter  (of  which  the  first  volume  ap- 
peared fl?t  Stuttgard  in  1869),  in  which  the  medieval 

eludes  ^th  six  rhyming  lines,  of 
which  the  last  three  are : 

"  Begia  stmctora,  qnanta  non  extat 

in  aula. 
'*  Si  lapis  est  unns,  [die]  qua  fhit 
arte  levatus : 
'<  Et  fii  sunt  plureSy  die  ubi  con- 
geries."    (Fol.  2,  h.) 
Compare  Higden,  p.  226,  where  the 
lines  are  read  differently.    Again : 
^  Injra  capltolimn  fioit  palatium  pro 
**  magna  parte  anreum  et  lapidibos 
'*  pretiosis  omatum,  quod  dlcebatur 
'*  valeie  tertiam  partem  mnndi,  in 
"  quo  tot  statu®  imaginupi  erant, 
"  quot  erant  mundi  provincise»  et 
"  habebat  quselibet  imago  tintinnar 
"  bulum  in  collo  per  artem  mathe- 
"  maticam  dispositum,  ut  quando  ali- 
^*  qua  regie  Bomano  populo  rebellis 
''  effieeretur,  statim  [imago]  illius 
*'  proyincisB  vertebat  dorsum  imagini 
^'urbis  Bomanae,  qua  major  erat 
"  super  alias  imagines  tanquam  do- 
"  mina ;  et  sic  tintinnabulum  quod 
'^  habebat  ad  coUum  statim  resona- 
"bat.     Tunc  vates,  qui   capitolii 
"  quoque  erant  custodes,  referebant 
« illud  senatui."  (fol.  3  b).     Com- 
pare Higden,  pp.  2 1 6, 2 1 8.    Again : 
"  Tempore  imperatoris  Tiberii  ve- 
"  nerunt  Bomam   duo    philosophi 
"juvenes,  scilicet  Prasitelis  (sic) 
«  et  Pbidias/'  &e.,  as  in  Higden, 

p.  226,  q.  v.,  but  more  briefly,  (fol. 
4.)  The  author  likewise  gives  an 
account  of  the  Colosseum  and  the 
Pantheon,  which  may  be  compared 
with  those  in  Higden.  It  appears 
ftom  Mr.  Dyer*s  elaborate  article 
Ronutf  in  Smith's  Diet  Gr.  and 
Bom.  Geography,  that  this  treatise 
'^  was  the  first  attempt  at  a  regular 
*'  description  of  ancient  Bome."  He 
mentions  that  it  has  been  edited 
with  notes  byNibby  {Ephemeride 
Letterarie,  Borne,  1820).  See  also 
Montfancon,  Diar.  liaL,  c.  20. 

'  See  Hain's  Bepertorium,  vol.  ill. 
pp.  414-421  (n.  11,174-211,220). 
Harding,  in  his  Confutation  of 
the  Apology  of  Jewel  (fol.  166,  b., 
Antwerp,  1565),  ascribes  the  Miru' 
bilia  to  Martinus  Polonus.  "  The 
"  like  fables  and  fond  lyes  he  (Mar- 
"tine  of  Pole)  stuffed  an  other 
**booke  withall,  which  he  wrote, 
"  entituled  MirahUivmvrhtBRomaJ* 
Many  of  the  worst  absurdities  of  the 
Mirahilia  are  related  in  his  Chroni- 
cle, e.g.  the  story'  of  Praxiteles  and 
Phidias»  Chron.  lib.  i.  c.  7,  where 
we  further  learn  that  the  temple  of 
crystal  and  gold  (see  Higden,  p. 
214)  was  the  Colosseum  !  Whether 
however  he  is  the  author  of  the 
treatise  is  uncertain. 

iirrBODUorioN.  xxxi 

legends  are  recounted  with  a  patience  and  diligence 
rarely  to  be  found  except  in  a  German.  Willingly 
passing  over  these,  I  have  only  further  to  observe 
that  Higden  makes  considerable  use  of  Martinus 
Polonus  in  his  account  of  the  construction  of  the 
city/  and  has  also  drawn  upon  Virgil,  Livy,  Solinus, 
William  of  Malmesbury,^  and  some  very  late  verses, 
whose  author  does  not  appear,  for  various  ps^rticulars 
embraced  in  his  account. 

In  the  following  chapter  (xxv.)  Higden  gives  some 
account  of  certain  institutions  of  the  Romans,  which 
is  mostly  taken  from  the  Mymologies  of  Hugutio, 
which  seem  not  to  have  been  printed.*  He  has 
also  used  in  a  much  smaller  degree  Ovid,  Valerius 
Maximus,  Isidore,  aad  John  of  Salisbuiy,  md  in  one 
instance,  unfortunately,  the  Legenda  Aurea.  Upon 
the  whole,  this  chapter  is  a  much  more  historical 
and  trustworthy  compilation  than  that  which  went 
before  it. 

Leaving  the  old  world,  Higden  now  approaches  the 
countries  of  modem  Europe,  and,  beginning  with  Ger- 
many, makes  his  way  westward  to  Britain,  with  which 
his  "Map  of  the  World''  concludes.  His  somewhat 
meagre  notice  of  Germany  (c.  xxvi.)  is  due  in  part  to 
Isidore,  also  to  Paulus  Diaconus  (&om  whom  he  takes 
the  beautiful  legend  of  the  Seven  Sleepers),  to  Bede, 
and  to  Pliny.  Numerous  particulars  of  his  account  in 
this  and  in  many  of  the  following  chapters  are  derived 
from  a  source  to  which  he  has  not  referred,  but  which 
exists  in  manuscript  under  the  title  of  Geograpkia  Uni- 

>  See  Mart  Pol.  Chron.,  lib;  i. 
capp,  4-7;  lib.  iy.  cap.  Domiiiamts, 

2  The  verses,  however,  of  Hilde- 
bert  appear  thus  in  William's,  fourth 
book  (§  351,  p.  537,  Hardy) : 

"  Par  tibi  Roma  nihil,  cum  sis  prope 
tota  ruina ; 

<<Quani   magni    :foeriB   Integra, 

fracta  doces." 
^  I  have  consulted  a  MS,  of  this 
work  in  the  Cambridge  University 
Library,  and  foiind  that  Higden  had 
correctiy  quoted  it  in  all  the  cases 
where  it  seemed  worth  while  to 
I  verify  his  references. 

C  2 




versalis:  The  author  is  unknown,  but  it  is  quite  clear 
that  Higden^  as  well  as  the  author  of  the  Eulogmm 
Historiarum,  is  under  considerable  obligations  to 
him.^  The  time  at  which  he  lived  does  not  appear  to 
have  been  investigated;  the  manuscript  itself  is  of 
the  14th  century,  and  probably  the  author  himself  is 
little,  if  at  all,  older.^ 

The  opening  sentence  of  his   account  of  France  (c. 
xxvii.)  is  taken  without  acknowledgment  from  Isidore.^ 

*  Mr.  Haydon,  to  whose  valuable 
introduction  to  the  JEnlogium  Histo^ 
riorum  (pablished  in  this  series)  I 
am  much  indebted,  points  oat  the 
chapters  in  that  work  which  are 
taken  from  the  Polychronicon  and 
from  the  Geographiay  and  mentions 
the  deviations  very  minutely.    The 
reader  who  compares  those  chap> 
ters  in  the  Eulogium  borrowed  from 
the  Geographia  with  the  chapters 
in  Higden  which  treat  of  the  same 
countries,  will  see  at  once  that  many 
of  his  statements,  yor  which  he  gives 
no  authority,  are  taken  from  this 
book.    Thus,  to  take  a  crucial  in- 
stance, the  Geographia  (fol.  4  b.) 
says  of  the  Auroch :  "  Et  hoc  animal 
•*  lingua  BoemLca  Loz  nuncupatur  " 
(Intr,  to  Euhg,  vol.  ii.  p.  xl.  (note.) 
This  is  altered  in  the  Eulogium  into, 
**  In  lingua  nostra  nomen  ignora- 
"  tur  "  (vol.  ii.  p.  72),  but  in  Hig-* 
den,  p.  256,  we  have  the  identical 
statement:  ''  Quod  lingua  Boemica 
<*  Leoz  (Loz,  A)  vocatur."    This 
clause  excepted,  most  of  of  his  ac- 
<^ount  is  tacitly  taken  from  Plmy  (lib. 
viii.  c.  16).    It  was  with  no  small 
satisfaction  that  I  discovered,  with 
Mr.  Haydon^s  help,  the  source  of 
not  a  few  passages,  or  parts  of  pas- 
sages, which  I  had  in  vain  endea- 
voured to  find  elsewhere.    I  now 

perceive  also  that  some  of  Higden^s 
authorities  have  been  taken  by  him 
from  the  Geographia.  All  the  quo- 
tations from  Herodotus  (so  called) 
are,  I  believe,  derived  from  this  work. 
The  Geographia  also  repeatedly 
quotes  Isidore,  but  although  Higden 
uses  the  same  quotations,  he  is 
so  familiar  wifh  him  that  he  cannot 
be  said  to  be  beholden  to  any  other 
writer  for  them.  I  have  now  exa- 
mined the  MS.  of  the  Geographia 
in  the  British  Museum  (Arundel 
MSS.  n.  123)  since  this  Introduc- 
tion was  in  t)'pe,  and  have  traced 
Higden's  statements  to  their  origin 
in  some  cases,  where  the  notes  on 
the  Eulogium  did  not  conduct  me  to 

*  lie  quotes  Petrus  Comestor,  who 
lived  at  the  end  of  the  12th  century, 
and  an  Alexander,  who  is  doubtless 
Keck  ham,  who  lived  a  little  later. 
See  Appendix.  The  same  quota- 
tions are  reproduced  ia  Higden,  but 
in  this  introduction  the  authors, 
from  whom  the  citations  are  pro- 
fessedly made,  are  called  his  autho> 
rities,  even  though  they  may  bave 
been  taken  at  second  hand. 

^  Higden's  mistake  in  reading 
humectentur  for  inneetuntur  in  Vir- 
gil is  his  own.  Lactantlus,  the 
fountain  head  of  the  account,  has 



The  more  important  parts  of  this  chapter,  relating  to 
the  succession  of  the  early  French  kings,  are  taken 
from  William  of  Malmesbnry ;  other  parts  are  derived 
from  Ovid,  Augustine,  Hugutio,  and  Giraldus ;  also  from 
those  untrustworthy  authorities,  Turpin,  and  Geoflrey 
of  Monmouth.*  Higden  likewise  professes  to  quote 
from  Herodotus,  and  from  the  second  hook  of  Eutro- 
pius,  but  the  reference  is  false  in  each  case,  and  some 
other  authors  are  intended*^  This  chapter  is  mostly 
occupied  with  an  account  of  the  various  tribes  and 
dynasties  of  France  from  the  time>s  of  Julius  Caesar 
downwards,  and  with  a  general  outline  of  its  geo- 
graphy. In  that  which  follows  (c.  xxviii.)  he  enters  on 
a  description  of  the  limits  and  positions  of  the  pro- 
vinces in  particular,  which  seems  to  be  for  the  most 
part  taken  from  the  Geographiaf  but  reference  is  made 
on  certain  points  to  Giraldus,  Isidore,  Geoffrey  of  Mon- 
mouth, Pliny,  and  also  to  Herodotus,  but  falsely  as 
always.     His  observations  respecting  the  woollen  cloth 

committed  the  error  about  the  Sibyl. 
See  Isidore,  lib.  ix.  c.  2.  §  104,  vol. 
iii.  p.  414  (ed.  Arey.)  and  the  notes. 
I  had  overlooked  this  in  writing  the 
note  at  p.  266. 

*  Warton  (Hist  Eng,  Poetry^  vol. 
1.  diss.  1)  has  many  remarks  on 
these  writers.  He  thinks  that  the 
fabnlous  history  ascribed  to  Turpin 
is  not  older  than  the  12th  centory. 
Pope  Calixtus  II.  in  1122,  it  seems, 
pronounced  the  history  to  be  ge- 
nuine ! 

2  Herodotus  is  quoted  as  giving 
an  account  of  the  Picts,  p.  294. 
The  second  book  of  Eutropius  is 
quoted  for  an  account  of  the  Gauls, 
in  which  it  might  very  naturally 
have  occurred ;  but  there  is  no  such 
passage  either  in  that  book  or  in 
the  whole  of  his  history,  so  fer  as  I 

know.  It  occurs,  however,  in  Mart. 
Pol.  Chron.f  lib.  ii.  c.  6,  who  says, 
''  Gain  vero,  lU  Orositis  ait,  sunt 
"  animo  feroces,  corpora  fortiora 
*'  aliis  hominibus  habente^.  Sed  hoc 
"  comprobatum  est,  quod  sicut  in 
"  primo  impetu  virtus  eorum  fortior 
^*  est  aliis  hominibus,  ita  postea  vir- 
"  tns  eorum  minor  est  ferme  quam 
"  mulierran."  Possibly  he  has  in 
his  eye  Oros.  lib.  v.  c.  16  (com- 
pare also  lib.  vi.  c.  12),  with  whom 
Higden's  words  agree  more  nearly 
than  his  own.  With  the  expression 
of  Orosius  (p.  329  Hav.),  •*  Post  ubi 
<<  incaiescente  sole  fluxa  Gallorum 
<*  corpora  in  modum  nivium  distabue- 
**  runt,"  compare  Higden,  p.  268. 

*  I'or  Planders,  compare  Geogra- 
phiOf  fol.  8  (ahnost  copied) ;  for 
Picardy,  Geogr,  fol.  1 7(very  similar) ; 




of  Brabant^  and  Flanders  (which  he  includes  under 
France)  as  compared  with  the  scarlet  cloth  of  Lincoln 
are  not  without  interest,  and  are  probably  derived  from 
his  own  knowledge  and  observation. 

His  notice  of  Spain  (a  xxix.)  is  but  slight,  and  is 
principally  taken  from  Justin  and  Isidore.  The  con- 
cluding remark  about  the  Spanish  possessions  of  the 
Saracens,  as  they  then  existed,  is  found  only  in  the 
later  form  of  the  chronicle,  and  may  be  original®  In 
the  thirtieth  chapter  the  islands  of  the  Mediterra- 
nean are  described.  For  a  great  part  of  the  account 
Higden  is  indebted  to  Isidore,  not  only  for  those  sen- 
tences to  which  his  name  is  prefixed,  but  likewise  for 
much  besides.^  His  account  of  Sicily  is  partly  taken 
from  Bede  and  Giraldus,  as  weU  as  from  Isidore.  He 
also  mentions  St.  Gregory's  notion  that  souls  are  tor- 
mented in  the  flames  of  Etna.  The  only  other  author 
quoted  in  this  unimpoiiant  chapter  is  Orosius. 

for  Nonnandy,  Geogr,  fol.  14  (which 
Higden  abbreviates) ;  for  Foitou, 
Geogr,  fol.  16,b.;  for  Aqmtaiae,  the 
Geogr,  foL  3  (which  gives»  as  the 
sources  of  the  information,  Mdore, 
Pliny,  and  Orosius)  j  for  Gascony, 
the  Creogr,  foL  22,  which  however 
has  not  the  latter  part  of  Higden's 
description ;  and  for  Burgundy,  the 
Geogr,  fi>1.4,  b.,  whichis  pretty  closely 
copied.  The  descriptions  of  Brit- 
tany (p.  290),  and  Anjou  (p.  294), 
do  not  coincide  with  those  in  the 
Geographia,  fol.  4  and  fol.  3^ 

>  The  account  of  Brabant  is  not 
from  the  Geograpkia,  where  it  is 
made  "a  part  of  Germany  (fol.  4). 

^  It  does  not  occur  in  the  a<icount 
of  Hispania,  given  in  the  Geographia 
(fol.  11). 

■  See  Isidore,  lib.  xiv.  c.  6,  §  7 
(for  Gades)  ?  §  39, 40  (for  Sardi* 
nia)  5  §  41  (for  Corsica)  j  §  19,  20 

(fortheCydades);  §  21  (forDelos); 
§  22  (for  Rhodes);  §  31  (for 
Samos);  §  14  (for  CypiHis,  in  part); 
§  16,  16  (for  Crete) ;  §  32  (for 
Sicily) ;  lib.  xiii.  c.  18,  §  3,  4,  5 
(for  Scylla  and  Charybdis) ;  lib. 
xiv.  c.  6,  §  36  (for  the  iEk>lian  Is- 
lands) ;  lib.  Xvi.  c.  2  (for  the  salt 
of  Agrigentum).  The  short  notice 
of  Aradus  haa  nothing  but  what  is 
contained  in  Isidore,  lib.  ix.  c.  2, 
§24,andEzek.,  xxvii.  8, 11.  Hig- 
den, however,  took  it  with  little 
alteration  from  the  Aradia  sive 
Aradium  of  the  Geographia  (fol.  1, 
b.),  which  refers  to  the  Glossa  on 
Ezekiel.  Even  when  Banulpkus 
is  prefixed  to  a  sentence  the  matter 
is  taken  from  Isidore,  who  writes, 
lib.  xiv.  c.  6,  §  36,  thus  :  ^'Esdem 
•*  insuka  et  Vulcaniae  vocantur 
'^  quod  et  ipss,  sicnt  ^tna, 
'<  ardeant.'^    See  Higden,  p.  318. 



The  islands  of  the  Atlantic  (including  the  Baltic) 
follow  upon  these  (c.  xxxi.)  The  description  of  the 
Canaries,  or  Fortunate  Islands»  is  taken  from  Pliny  and 
Isidore.  His  account  of  Denmark,  which  he  and  other 
medieval  writers  call  Dacia/  is  likewise  in  part  taken 
from  Isidore,  though  without  acknowledgment.  Higden 
however  has  misapplied  his  authority,  for  Isidore  un- 
doubtedly intended  by  Dacia  the  Eoman  province  on 
the  Danube  usually  so  called.^ 

For  his  notices  of  some  other  parts  of  Northern 
Europe,  Wyntlandia,  Islandia,  and  Norguegia,  he  gives 
no  authority,  but  there  is  no  doubt  that  he  has  again 
made  considerable  use  of  the  Oeogra/phia  Universalis. 
By  the  first  of  tiese,  which  he  describes  as  an  island 
lying  to  the  west  of  Dacia,  he  seems  to  intend  the 
northern  part  of  Jutland,  which  is  indeed  not  very  far 
from  being  an  island.^  His  account  of  Iceland  and 
Norway  deals  principally  with  their  natural  produc- 
tions.     The    great    imperfection    of    his    geographical 

^  See,  for  example,  Henfy  of 
Huntingdon,  and  his  copyist,  B. 
Cotton  (edited  in  this  series),  pas- 
sim ;  also  the  Index  to  Petrie's  M(m, 
Hist  Brit  &c,  "When  the  Danes," 
says  Br.  Latham,  ^*  took  their  place 
'♦  in  history,  they  had  not  long  been 
**  known  under  that  name,  before 
**  they  were  attributed  to  Attila, 
"  and  Scandinavia  became  a  part 
"of  Hu^dom.  Why?  Beeause 
"**  the  I>aci  were  more  or  less  Hun; 
*<  and  because,  as  early  as  the  time 
<<  of  Procopius,  we  find  them  called 
"  Dani,  the  Dani  (in  after  times) 
«<  being  called  Dad.'*  Smith's 
Diet.  Gr.  and  Rom.  Geogr.,  vol.  i.  p. 
1094.  s.  v.  Hunni.  To  make  con- 
fusion worse  confounded  Denmark 
is  called  Danvbia  in  the  Abingdon 
Chronicle  (vol.  i.  p.  46). 

* "  Daci  autem  Getarum  soboles 

**  ^erunt,  et  dictos  putant  Dacos, 
"  quasi  Dagos,  quia  de  Gothorum 
*'  stirpecreati  sunt."  lBid.,lib.  ix.  c. 
2,  §  90,  who  copies  Justin's  words  : 
"Dad  quoqne  soboles  Getarum 
"  sunt,*'  lib.  xxxii.  c.  3.  See  Hig- 
den, p.  320. 

'  In  Spruner's  Hist.  Ad.,  t.  57, 
this  tract  is  marked  WendUa,  which 
seems  to  be  the  same  word.  In  the 
Euhgivm  Historiarum,  however 
(vol.  ii.  p.  78),  Wynlandia  or  Win- 
landia  is  thus  described :  "  Winlan- 
"  dia  est  patria  juxta  montana 
"  Norwegi»  versus  Orientem  sita, 
"  super  littus  oceani  ;  . . . .  globum 
«de  filo  feciunt,'*  &c.  This  is 
taken  verbatim  firomthe  Geographia 
(fol.  22  b.),  and  is  plausibly  under- 
stood by  Mr.  Haydon  to  mean 
Finland,  and  I  now  incline  to 
believe  that  Higden  ought  to  have 



knowledge  of  these  regions  at  once  reveals  itself  by 
his  description  of  Norway  (in  which  he  doubtless 
includes  Sweden)  as  an  island,  surrounded  every- 
where by  the  sea.*  He  also  conceived  Iceland  as 
lying  to  the  north  of  Norway.^  His  description  of 
Thule,  or,  as  he  miscalls  it,  Tile,  is  taken  from 
PUny,  Solinus,  and  Giraldus ;  he  also  derives  some- 
thing, as  has  been  already  observed,  though  without 
acknowledgment,  from  uEthicus.  He  thinks  it  neces- 
sary  to  distinguish  from  this  another  island,  near  India, 
called  Tylos,  mentioned  by  St.  Augustine.^  Thule  is 
still,  as  -^thicus  long  ago  said,  "  vix  paucis  nota  f  and 
it  is  impossible  to  say  where  Higden  supposed  it  to 

Hisde.  Our  author   at  length  approaches  the  British  isles, 

Jf^P*^??J^and   begins  by   Ireland,  which  begins  by  the    thirty- 
isles,  second    chapter,  and  ends   with   the    thirty-sixth.     In 
this  lengthy  account  he  incorporates  almost  everything 
which  Solinus  had  written,*   and  makes  one  or   two 

meant  Finland  also,  but  in  describe 
ing  the  island  as  lying  to  the  west  of 
Denmark,  he  seems  to  have  con- 
fused Wendila  with  the  Winlandia 
whose  description  he  has  taken  from 
the  Geagraphia»  Neither  Wynt- 
landia  nor  Wynlandia  are  ordinary 
forms  ;  Finlandia,  iFinnia,  and 
Finnonia  are  the  only  Latin  ren- 
derings of  Finland  mentioned  in 
Lloyd's  edition  of  the  Diet  Hist 
of  C,  Stephens  (Genev.  1693). 
Neither  does  Zedler  {Universal 
Lexicon,  s.  v.  Finland)  throw  any 
light  upon  the  matter. 

^  He  has,  donbtless,  misunder- 
stood his  anthority,  the  Geographia, 
which  says  (foh  14),  "Norwegia 
"  latissima  est  Europse  provincia 
^  mari  fere  undique  circnmcincta  ;*' 
but  Higden  omits  the^^re  and  calls 
it  insulUj  p,  326.    Most  of  his  de- 

scription is  transferred^  with  altera- 
tions, ih)m  the  Geographia. 

^Onr  author  was  misled  by  the 
Geographia,  which,  descrijbing  Nor- 
way, says  :  "  Ab  oriente  habet  Ga- 
'<  latiam  ( !),  a  septentrione  Isolan- 
"  diam  (sic),  nbi  mare  perpetuo 
"  congelatur ;  ab  occidente  et  Hi- 
**  bemicum  oceanum  et  Britanni- 
^  cum ;  a  meridie  Dacias  {i,e, 
*'  Denmark)  et  Gothise  finibns  ter- 
'^  minatur."  The  description  of 
Iceland,  however,  in  Higden  is 
mostly  taken  from  Giraldus  Cam- 
brensis*     Top.  Hib,  ii.  13. 

*  Aug.  De  Civ.  Dei,  lib.  xxi.  c.  5, 
§  1  (and  the  note  of  the  Benedic- 
tine editor)  ;  Plin.  lib.  vi.  c.  32, 
on  which  Hardnin  observes  that  it 
is  the  modem  Queximi, 

*C.  xxii.  He  observes  :  "Illic 
**  nuUus  anguis."    This  may  well 



remarks  on  the  authority  of  Bede  and  a  martyrology.' 
But  so  nearly  the  whole  of  his  account  is  taken  from 
Giraldus  Oambrensis,^  that  it  is  unnecessary  to  add 
much  about  it  in  this  place.  With  regard  to  St.  Pa- 
trick's purgatory  in  Lough  Derg,  of  which  little  is  said 
by  Giraldus>*  the  following  passage  from  Archbishop 
Usher  will  satisfy  most  readers»  '*  Quae  vero  de 
Patricii  feruntur  Purgatorio,  non  modo  Eanulphus 
Cestrensis,  Henricus  Enighton,  et  Johannes  Bramp- 
ton, sed  etiam  Matthseus  Parisiensis,  Vincentius 
"  Bellovacensis,  et  Antoninus  Florentinus  ex  eo  mutuati 
sunt  libello,  quern  de  Oeni  cujusdam  militis  Hibernici 
in  Patricianum  purgatorium  ingressu,  ex  Gilleberti 
Ludensis  monachi  relatione,  in  lucem  edidit  Hen- 
ricus, Cisterciensis  ordinis  in  Saltereyensi  apud  Hunt- 
ingdonienses  monasterio  coeriobifca/'  Britt  Eccl,  Antiq. 









account  for  Higden's  scepticism 
about  St  Patiick,  who  regards  tlie 
common  legend  as  '*  sufficiently  fa- 
"  vorable,"  p.  338. 

1  A  Life  of  St.  Brigid,  the  saint 
referred  to,  goes  under  the  name  of 
Cogitosus,  in  -which  Scolia  is  used 
for  Ireland  (See  Canis.  Thes.  Mon. 
EccLy  vol.  i.  416.),  and  probably  the 
same  may  be  true  of  her  other 
biographies,  which  are  nnmerous. 
{See  Hardy,  Descr.  Cat  of  Mate- 
rials of  British  Historyf  vol.  i.  p. 
720.)  Mr.  Wright  thinks  it  later 
than  the  6th  century,  when  it  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  written.  (Hist, 
of  Ireland,  vol.  1.  p.  29»  note.) 

2  The  reader  may  pick  out  the 
pieces  of  Giraldus,  by  comparing 
Higden's  sentences  in  order,  thus : — 

Cap.  xxzii.  of  Higden  is  contained 
in  Girald.  T(^,  Hib,  iii.  7;  i.  1  ; 
ii.  1  ;  i.  2 ;  i.  4  J  i.  25,  26,  27  ; 
i.  7,8,9,10,  11  ;  i,  22;  i.  5  (re- 
ferring to  Bede  and  Solinus)  ;  i.  4  ; 

L  18  ;  i.  7  ;  i.'  18  (also  reading 
pkihrnena  for  phUomela) ;  i.  22,  23, 

Cap.  xxxiii.  in  the  same  work, 
iii.  1,  2,  3,  4  (reading  Sahgandius), 
5  5  iii.  16  (reading  Herymm)  j  iii. 
7,  8  ;  iii.  36,  37,  38  ;  iii.  40  ;  iii. 
43  (reading  Sitaracus),  44,  45,  46. 

Cap.  xxxiv.  (after  the  reference 
to  Solinus)  in  iii.  10  (reading />Aa- 
lingis,  which  is  perhaps  better),  11 ; 
iii.  19,  20,  21  (confirming  Gale's 
emendation  ars  quam  Mars),  22,  23, 
24;  iii.  26  J  iu.  35  ;  ii.  19;  ii.  1  ; 
ii.  43. 

Cap.  XXXV.  in  ii.  4,  5,  6,  7  ;  ii. 
28  ;  ii.  9  ;  ii.  19  ;  ii.  7  ;  ii.  42,  43 ; 
ii.  29,  (The  conclusion  of  the 
chapter,  pp.  370-376,  is  not  con- 
tained in  Giraldus.) 
,  Cap.  xxxvi.  in  ii.  55  ;  iii.  27, 28, 
29 ;  iii.  32, 33, 34.  (The  quotation 
from  Augustine,  p.  380,  is  not  in 

3  See  his  Top.  Hib.  ii  5. 



c.  xvii.,  p.  465  (ed  1687),  where  a  great  Ideal  more  infor- 
mation will  be  foimd.^ 

A  short  chapter  on  Scotland  follows  (c,  xxxvii.),  for 
which  Bede,  Isidore,  and  Giraldus  are  quoted,  as  well 
as  the  Herodotus  before  mentioned.  Higden  has  mis- 
understood his  authorities  to  some  extent,^  and  upon 
the  whole  his  account  is  of  very  little  value,  and  for 
the  most  part  legendary.® 

At  length  Higden  concludes  with  a  description  of 
his  own  country,  **  on  account  of  which  his  whole 
"  work  was  undertaken."  He  takes  Wales  first,  and 
England  afterwards.  His  description  of  Wales  is 
written  in  a  lame  kind  of  thyming  verse,  occupying 
one  long  chapter  (c.  xxxviii.) ;  and  the  only  authority 
whom  he  quotes  is  Gildas,  and  him  only  once. 

'It  appears  ^m  Mr.  Hardy^s 
Descriptive  Catalogue  of  Materials 
of  British  History  (vol.  1.  p.  859.), 
tliat  ibis  choice  production  has  1)eeii 
printed  '*  in  almost  every  laogoage 
«  of  Europe.*' 

^  Thus  Isidore  is  represented  as 
saying :  *'  Hujus,  Scotiss  (Scotland) 
*'  incolse  dicuntur  Scoti  propria 
^  lingua  ;**  bat  that  author  (lib.  ix. 
c.  2,  §  103)  appears  to  me  to  mean 
the  Irish  by  Scoti.  Elsevhere  (lib. 
xiv.  c.  6,  §  6)  he  i^ys  :  "  Scotia, 
^  eadem  et  Hibemia,  proxima  Bri- 
'*  tanniae  insula"  Further  Higden 
appears  to  have  no  authority  from 
Bede,  or  from  any  writer  but  Gi* 
raldus,  for  saying  that  Scotland  was 
ever  called  Hibemia,  The  Scoti 
of  Bede  in  all  the  places  quoted 
seem  to  be  Irishmen,  and  the  Hi- 
bemia in  which  they  dwell  to  be 
Ireland.  Higden  rightly  enough 
observed  that  Ireland  was  called 
Scotia  in  St.  Brigid's  Life ;  but  the 
converse,  that  Scotland  is  called  in 

old  writers  Hibemia,  does  not  seem 
to  be  correct. 

'  For  the  legend  of  St  Andrew 
Higden  refers  to  Giraldus,  but  like 
several  other  citations  which  pur- 
port to  be  from  him,  I  know  not 
where  to  find  it  ''Eadem  etiam 
**  de  re/'  i,e.,  the  translation  of  St. 
Andrew's  relics  from  Constantinople^ 
says  Usher,  ''scripsisse  Giraldum 
''  in  Chronica  sua,  refert  Eulogii 
'*  auctor ;  ad  ea  respiciens,  qnsb  ex 
"  Giraldo  Cambrensi,  libro  i.  Poly- 
'*  chronici  sui,  cap  37,  Ranulphus 
''  Cestrensis  insemit  JE^usmodi  ar- 
''  gmnenti  commentariolum  in  ma- 
*'  nibus  habeo,ab  AndreapoUto  quo- 
''  dam  Culdeo  exaratnm  ; . . . .  ilium 
*'  certe  fnisse,  ex  quo  sua  descripsit 
**  Giraldus,  res  ipsa  indicat''  Britt 
Eecles,  Antiq,,  c.  xv.  p.  341  (Iiond. 
1687).  Usher  then  gives  the  docu- 
ment at  length,  which  agrees  sub- 
stantially (but  by  no  means  verbally) 
with  Higden. 



The  whole  of  his  account  however,  or  very  nearly  so,  is 
taken  from  the  Itmerarium  Gambrioe  and  the  GambricB 
Desanptio  of  Giraldus.^  Under  these  circumstances 
we  pass  over  the  account  without  further  remark,  than 
that  some  few  touches  about  the  Welsh  manners  and 
Welsh  productions  may  be  due  to  Higden's  personal 
knowledge  or  to  the  reports  which  he  had  heard  from 

The  remaining   chapters   of   this  book   contain    an 

^  For  Higden's  account  of  the 
veneration  of  bells,  &c.  in  Wales, 
p.  428,  compare  Girald.  Itin. 
Camhr.y  lib.  i.  c.  2 ;  of  Brecknock 
and^ts  marvels,  p.  412,  Id.  lib.  i. 
c.  2 ;  for  the  Welsh  bowmen,  p.  402, 
Id.  lib.  i.  c.  4.  (allusion  doubtful)  ; 
for  Golddifl^  p.  412,  Id.  lib.  i.  c.  5j 
for  Barry  island,  p.  414,  Id.  lib.  i. 
c.  6  (very  closely  copied)  ;  for  the 
three  courts  (curise)  of  Wales,  p.  400, 
Id.  lib.  i.  c.  9 ;  for  the  Pembroke 
demons,  p.  416,  Id.  lib.  i.  c  12; 
for  Crucmaur  (Cruc  Mawr,  Giraldns) 
and  its  vonderM  tumulus,  p.  416^ 
Id.  Ub.  ii.  c.  3  ;  for  the  weapons  of 
North  and  South  Wales,  p.  400, 
Id.  lib.  ii.  c.  5 ;  for  the  Bardesey 
island,  p.  416,  Id.  lib.  ii.  c.  6  ;  for 
the  marvellous  stone  in  Anglesey, 
and  Count  Hugh's  experiment  upon 
it»  p.  424,  Id.  lib.  ii.  c  7  ;  for  the 
rock  of  the  hearers,  p.  426,  Id. 
lib.  ii.  c.  7 ;  for  the  mice  and  the 
monks,  p.  426,  Id.  lib»  ii.  c.  7  ;  for 
the  vindictive  character  of  the  Welsh 
and  Irish  saints,  p.  426,  Id.  lib.  ii. 
c.  7  ;  for  the  two  Merlins,  pp.  418- 
422,  Id,  lib.  ii.  c  8  (very  closely 
copied) ;  for  the  mountains  of  bnow- 
don  and  their  rich  pastures,  p.  422, 
Id.  lib.  iL  c.  9  5  for  their  lakes  and 
one-eyed  trout  and  other  marvels, 
p.  422,  Id.  lib.  ii.  c.  9  (where  Giral- 
dus  has  trutiB  for  turtri)  ;  for  the 

well  at  Buthelan,  pp.  422-424,  Id. 
Hb.  ii.  c.  9 ;  for  the  Trojan  descent  of 
the  Welsh,  p.  394,  Id.  Cambr.  De- 
script,  c.  3 ;  for  the  civQ  and  eccle- 
siastical divisions  of  Wales,  p.  400, 
Id.  c.  4 ;  for  the  names  Cambria 
and  Wallia,  p.  396,  Id.  c.  7  j  for 
the  manners  of  the  Welsh,  pp.  400^ 
412,  Id.  c.  8-18  (but  Higden  has 
some  details  a|)out  dress,  &c.,  which 
are  not  there  contained);  for  the  fer- 
tility of  the  country  and  its  pro- 
ducts, pp.  396-398,  Id.  c.  6  and  8 
(but  Higden  here  again  has  some 
things  not  in  Giraldus).  The  blood 
in  St^  WiniMd's  well  seems  to  be 
the  only  marvel  related  by  Higden, 
not  to  be  £)und  in  these  works  of  Gi- 
raldus, for  which  see  Camden's  notes 
on  Girald.  Itin,  Cambr.^  Ub.  ii.  c.  10. 
One  or  two  of  the  absurd  stories 
related  by  Giraldus  are  also  to  be 
found  in  Nennins,  as  those  about 
the  wonderM  stone  of  Anglesey, 
and  the  tumulus  at  Cruc^uaor,  near 
Cardigan.  See  his  Hist,  c.  84.  and 
0.  87,  and  the  i^otes  in  Petrie's  Mm. 
Hist  Brit,,  p.  80.  Nearly  the  whole 
of  Higden's  metrical  account  is 
transferred  into  the  ^uloginm,  but 
very  inaccurately.  Mr.  Haydon 
(vol.  ii.  pref.  p.  H.)  does  not  seem 
to  have  been  aware  that  Giraldus  is 
the  authority  £rom  whom  Higden 
took  almost  everything. 


account  of  England,  which  must  be  discussed  in  the 
following  volume. 
Credibility  I  have  thus  far  briefly  gone  over  the  chapters  of 
of  Hiffden  Hig<i6i^'*'5  first  book  herein-after  contained,  with  a  view 
as  an  his-  to  indicate  the  authorities  upon  which  they  profess  to 
depend ;  at  the  same  time,  when  I  could,  I  have  pointed 
out  his  sources  of  information  when  he  has  himself 
withheld  them,  as  in  his  chapters  on  the  islands  of  the 
Mediterranean,  on  Northern  Europe,  and  on  Wales.  Such 
cases  also  as  I  have  observed  of  erroneous  citations, 
those  for  example  of  Prisdan,  Eutropius,  and  Herodotus, 
have  been  pointed  out,  and  in  one  or  two  instances 
corrected.  At  the  same  time,  I  fear  that  there  are 
more  errors  of  citation  than  I  have  myself  discovered, 
and  an  increased  knowledge  of  Higden  has  more  and 
more  convinced  me  of  his  inaccuracy.  Not,  indeed, 
that  this  fault  is  to  be  very  severely  dealt  with, 
when  we  bear  in  mind  the  age  in  which  he  lived; 
but  it  is  not  the  less  a  cause  of  disquiet  and  per- 
plexity to  his  editor.  We  have  also  to  regret  that 
Higden  has  drawn  so  much  from  untrustworthy  autho- 
rities. For  recounting  the  Trojan  origin  of  the 
European  nations,  and  the  absurdities  which  had  clus- 
tered about  the  history  of  Alexander  the  Great,  and 
a .  variety  of  fabulous  narratives  relating  to  distant 
lands  and  ancient  times,  we  ought  not  to  tax  Higden 
severely ;  more  especially  as  in  some  cases,  for 
example  when  repeating  the  marvels  current  about 
Rome,  he  expresses  doubts  respecting  their  truth.  At 
the  same  time,  we  cannot  but  feel  disappointment 
that  his  account  of  countries  which  lay  nearer  home, 
as  Scotland  and  Wales,  should  contain  so  little  that 
is  valuable,  and  so  much  that  is  utterly  worthless 
and  absurd.  For  the  rest  we  need  only  say,  that  the 
value  of  the  history  and  geography  varies  much  with 
the  authors  quoted ;  whose  sense  Higden  has  in  general 
represented  with  truthfulness  and  with  much  elegance 



of  expression.^  His  knowledge  of  letters  was  for  his 
age  very  considerable ;  and  any  one  who  examines  his 
list  of  aiithors  would  find  that  it  conld  be  no  light 
matter,  even  in  an  age  of  printed  books  and  every  ap* 
pliance  for  understanding  them,  to  go  through  them  alL^ 
So  far  as  I  have  at  present  observed,  there  is  no  ap- 
pearance of  any  intentional  garbling  or  falsifying  his 
authorities,  so  as  to  make  them  mean  something  else 
than  what  they  do  mean.  When  compared  with  other 
writers  of  his  time,  he  is  considered  by  excellent  judges 
to  appear  very  favourably. 

The   following  testimonials  to  his  diligence   and  in- 
tegrity deserve  to  be  cited : — 

'*  Litteris  divinis  et  humanis  "  (says  Bale)  "  tarn  clarus 
evasit,  ut  inter  suae  setatis  prsBcipuos  earum  ctiltores 
connumeraretur.    In  historiographorum  lectione  multa 

diligentia,  opera,  et  cura  usus  est Compendio 

quodam  in  unum  redegit   historise  volumen  ea  qua? 
ante   sparsim    et    sine   lucido    ordine   apud   multos 
"  authores  in  obscuris  delitebant  bibliothecis ;  unicuique 

*'  suorum  authorum   honorem   integrum   servans 

*'  Tamque  egregie  suam  in  eo  navabat  operam,  ut  a 
*'  peritis  scriptoribus,  Polydoro  potissime,  egregius  his- 
*'  toricus  diceretur."  ^ 

Henry  "Wharton  observes,  ^*  ut  vix  aliam  quam  com- 
"  pilatoris    gloriam   meruerit,    nisi   quod  libro  ultimo 






*  It  will  be  understood  from 
Higdea's  own  remarks  (pp.  18- 
20),  that  he  does  not  quote  the 
actual  words  of  his  authors.  His 
later  and  longer  edition  deviates 
from  them  much  more  than  the 
earlier,  represented  by  C.  D,  This 
is  singular,  as  the  commencement 
of  D.  shows  that  it  is  an  abbrevia- 
tion  of  a  larger  work ;  and  1  cannot 
quite  satisfactorily  account  for  the 

*At  the  same  time  Higden  ap- 

pears to  have  taken  his  quotations 
not  unfrequently  at  second  hand.  I 
cannot  altogether  acquit  him  of  dis- 
ingenuousness  in  suppressing  his 
obligations  to  the  Geographia  Uni- 

^  Cent.  vi.  n.  12,  This  is  taken 
in  part  from  Leland,  Ve  Script 
Brit,  p.  339,  who  elsewhere  (p.  13) 
writes  thus  :  "  Kanulphus  Higede- 
"  nus,  Cestrensis,aiitiquarum  rerum, 
^*  ut  ilia  ferebant  ssecula,  non  impe~ 




"  mtilta  e  suo  penu  inseruerit  ;'*  and  then  proceeds  to 
add  these  terms  of  high  commendation :  "  Compilatoris 
**  tamen  munns  tarn  egregie  prsestitit,  ut  pauci  admo- 
^'  dum  e  nostratibus  historici  fide^  gravitate,  ac  judido 
*^  cum  eo  sint  conferendi/'  * 
Popularity      There  is  a  value,  however,  to  he  attached  to  Higden^s 
Poty^'"  ^«*  apart  from  its  intrinsic  merits.    It  enables  us  to 
form  a  vSry  fair  estimate  of  the  knowledge  of  history 
and  geography,  which  well  informed  readers  of  the  four- 
teenth and  fifteenth  centuries  possessed ;  for  it  was  to 
them  the  standard  work  on  general  history.     The  Latin 
MSS.    of   the  work  are   prodigiously   numerous,  and 
amount  in  aU,   I  beUeve,  to  a  number  considerably 
greater  thaa  one  hundred.^    Moreover  it  was  translated 
into  English  in  the  fourteenth  and  again  in  the  fifteenth 
century ;  the  earlier  of  which  translations  was  printed, 
with  some  modem  alterations,  by  the  father  of  English 
typography,  Caxton,  in  1482,  and  again  by  his  scholar 
Wynkyn  de  Worde  iu  1 495 ;  and  yet  once  more,  in  such 
demand  must  the  book  have  been,  by  Peter  Treveris  in 
1527.    But  of  the  translations  more  hereafter.    Nor  is 
this   all;   not  only   were   manuscripts    of  the  original 
Polychronicm  multipUed,  and  the   English  translation 
circulated  extensively  by  means  of  the  printing  press, 
but  other  authors  incorporated  the  labours   of  Higden 
into  their  own  works,  and  sometimes  with  little  other 
acknowledgment  than  by  adding  calumny  to  larceny. 
Thus  the  author  of  the  Eulogium  Hiatoriarum,  whose 
name  is  deservedly  unknown,  not  content  with  pilfer- 
ing  a  large  part  of  his  history  from  Higden,  and  with 

^  Appendix  to  Cave's  Hist.  Lit 
s.  a.  1557. 

^  Mr.  Maeray  (^Manttal  of  British 
Historians,  p.  39)  says  :  "  There 
**  are  MSS.  in  nearly  all  the  libraries 
"in  England."  He  then  goes  on 
to  mention  "  some  of  them."  These 
**  some  '*  are  upwards  of  seventy  ; 

and  I  know  from  a  MS.  catalogue 
drawn  up  by  Mr.  Stuart  Moore 
firom  Mr.  Hardy's  notes,  and  kindly 
communicated  to  me,  of  a  good 
many  which  are  not  contained  there- 
in. This  catalogue  I  hope  to  pub- 
lish in  the  last  volmne,  when  I  have 
rendered  it  as  complete  as  possible. 



spoiling  not  a  few  things  tbat  he  touches,  must  needs  go 
out  of  his  way  to  call  our  author  madidua  Tnondchus, 
and  while  following  the  common  legend  about  St.  Pat- 
rick and  the  snakes,  exclaim  in  pious  horror  against 
Higden  (under  the  name  of  *^  monachus  Cestrise/')  as  a 
novus  chronogra/phvSy  quui  dicta  antiquorum  vilir 

Such  was  the  contemptuous  treatment  which  Higden 
received  at  the  hands  of  a  contemporary  thief  Another 
writer,  who  flourished  later  in  the  14th  century,  Henry 
of  Knighton,  canon  of  Leicester,  like  the  author  of  the 
Suhgmm,  incorporates  much  of  Higden  into  his  his- 
tory; but,  xmlike  that  mean  writer,  handsomely  ac- 
knowledges his  obligations  iH  the  following  terms : 
Igitur  opusculum  historiolse  meae  a  conqusestu  regni 
Angliae  cum  adminiculo  septimi  libri  Cistrensis  (sic 
in  Twysden),  laudifiui  chronographi,  perludde  scri- 
"  bentis;  cujus  seriem  de  verbo  ad  verbum  eum  aliis 
^'  quae  aspectui  meo  sparsim  se  obtulerant  inscribere 
"  seriatim  propono/'^ 




^  See  Mr.  Haydon's  pre£  to  vol.  i. 
of  the  Eulog,  Hist,  pp.  xliy.-xMi. 
It  does  not  appear  that  Higden  is 
quotedby  name,  but  only  as  '<  a  monk 
^' of  Chester/'  I'orthedeviationsfi'om 
Higden  which  this  writer  makes, 
either  by  design,  or  in  carelessness, 
or  in  ignorance,  the  reader  may  con^ 
salt  Mr.  Haydon,  who  has  detailed 
them  with  a  most  laborious  minute- 
ness. It  is  impossible  to  help  wish- 
ing that  the  author  had  been  more 
worthy  of  the  pains  and  erudition 
of  his  editor.  Here  and  there,  how- 
ever, aliquid  kumani  has  happened 
to  him,  in  common  with  us  all ; 
thus  the  Paulus  {Inirod.  to  yoL  ii. 
p.  xxiii.)  of  the  Polychronicon  (see 
p.  64)  is  not  Marco  Polo,  but  Paulus 
Diaconns.  (See  De  Gest,  Long», 
lib.  i.  c.  6.)  Similarly  the  Hugo 
named  in  the  preface  to  vol.  i.  p.  Iv. 

note,  is  not  Hugo  de  B.  Yictore,  but 
Hugo  or  Hugutio  Flsanus.  (JEtymoL 
cap.  Moio.) 

*  P,  2311.  (Twysd.  ffist  Angl 
Script  X.)  The  following  passage, 
which  quite  accords  with  our  notion 
that  Higden  put  out  two  editions  of 
his  chronicle,  may  be  quoted  now» 
though  we  hope  to  recur  again  to 
the  subject  at  the  close  of  the  work  : 
"  Explicit  historia  lieycestrensis 
*<anno  gratiffi  hocozxvi.  Nunc 
*^  Cistrensis  imponit  finem  chro- 
**  mem  suee ;  sed  postea  qusedam 
'*  adjecit  ei,  videlicet  de  morte  an- 
**  tiqui  Edward!  regis,  cum  quibus- 
"  dam  aliis  eventibus  in  tempore 
*'  regis  Edwardi  tertii,  pront  infi^ 
*'  patebit  in  suo  loco  per  singula." 
(^Jd,  p.  2550.)  Knyghton  considers 
that  Higden  ended  his  chronicle  at 
this  point,  ^'utrinque  discessum  est" 



We  learn  from  Bale,  that  John  Rocheforth,  who  wrote 
in  the  beginning  of  the  15th  century,  made  a  compen- 
dium of  the  Polyehronicon  in  one  book.^ 

Henry  Bradshaw,  in  fine,  himself  "a  native  of 
"  Chester  .  .  .  and  at  length  a  Benedictine  monk  of 
"  St.  Werburgh's  abbey/'  Higden's  own  home,  com- 
posed before  the  close  of  the  15  th  century  a  Idfe  of 
St  Werhirgh  in  English  verse.  He  thus  acknowledges 
his  obligations  to  Higden : 

'*  TJntoo  this  rude  worke  myne  auctors  these; 
'f  Fyrst  the  true  legends,  and  the  venerable  Bede, 
'*  Mayster  Alfrydus,  and  Wyllyam  Malmusbuiy, 
''  Gyrard,  Polyehronicon,  and  other  mo  indeed/'^ 
Several  writers,  also,  as  Knyghton  himself,  Malverne, 
Caxton,  and  others,  undertook  the  continuation  of  the 
Polyehrmiicon,  both  in  the  14th  and  15th  centuries ; 
but  of  these  we  say  nothing  now,  reserving  our  account 
for  the  close  of  Higden's  work.    The  reader,  however, 
will  easily  perceive  how  popular  the  history  must  have 
been,  to  have  been  so  often  continued  by  other  hands. 
In  the  course  of  these  remarks  we  have  had  occa- 
sion to  quote  several  authors  who  mention   Higden ; 
but  it  would  be  a  long  undertaking  to  collect  a  ca- 
tena of  allusions  to  the  Polyehronicon  from  the  writers 
of  the  14fch  and  following  centuries.    In  addition  to 
those  to  whom    we    have  already  referred,   we  may 
mention  the  names  of  Wyclifie,^  Purvey,*  and  Thorpe,^ 

{Id.  p.  2569).  These  words  refer 
to  the  events  of  year  1340,  according 
to  the  mar^al  date  in  onr  MSS.  A. 
and  E.  'y  but  Knyghton  appears  to 
refer  them  to  1336  or  1337  ;  at  least> 
we  have  1336  occurring  in  his  mar- 
gin a  little  before  them^  and  1338  a 
little  after  them. 

*  Cent,  vii.  n.  41.  This  may 
possibly  be  the  same  book  that  is 
mentioned  above,  p.  xii.  note,  as  a 
work  of  Higden. 

2  Quoted  in  Warton*s  Hist,  Engl 
Poetry,  vol.  ii.  p.  178. 

*  Fasciculi  Zizaniorum,  p.  256 
(Ut  narrat  Cestrensis  in  suo  Poly- 

*  Id.  397  (quod  narrat  Cestrensis, 
libro  vi.) 

*  Writings  of  Brute,  Thorpe,  Cob- 
ham,  &c.,  p.  79  {Pel  Tract  Society) 
(as  "  Cisterciensis'*  [i.e.,  Higden,  lib. 
vii.  c.  37]  "  tells  '*).  A  MS.  memo- 
randun\  in  the  Annales  of  William 



among  the  Lollards;  also  of  John  Capgrave,*  Richard 
of  Cirencester,^  and  Thomas  of  Elmham/  among  the 
chroniclers ;  all  of  whom  wrote  before  Caxton's  edition 
appeared  in  1482.  None  of  these  authors,  however,  so 
far  as  I  know,  mention  Higden  by  name.^  To  them,  - 
I  doubt  not,  others  might  b6  added.*'*  After  the  Eng- 
lish translation  was  printed  and  reprinted,  the  book, 
of  course,  became  more  generally  known,  and  it  would 
be  useless  to  collect  mere  allusions :  such  passages  as 
throw  any  light  upon  the  author  s  life  or  his  works 
have  been  already  quoted,  so  far  as  they  have  come 
to  my  knowledge.* 

WjTcester  designates  him  similarly : 
"Nota  etiam  Chronica  Ranulphi 
"  monachi  Cisterciensis."  Wars  of 
the  English  in  France,  temp.  Henr. 
VI, y  vol  ii.  p.  765,  note  (in  this 
series).  This  was,  probably,  written 
at  the  end  of  the  loth  century. 

'  De  IllusU  Henr.y  p.  40,  &c.  (se- 
cundum Follichronicam).  Capgrave 
quOTes  from  the  work  several  times 
in  the  same  manner,  without  naming 
the  author,  and  sometimes  incor- 
porates it  without  naming  it  at  all. 
See  pp.  75,  79,  and  Mr.  Hingeston's 
notes,  and  the  Index. 

2  Spec,  Histy  lib.  ii.  c.  51,  vol;  i. 
p.  204  (Cestrensis,  sicut  dicit  in  sua 

®  Hist  Monast  S.  August,,  pp. 
185, 186  (Cestrensis  in  sua  Pofychro- 
nica,  and  similarly  elsewhere). 

*  Those  of  them  who  call  him 
Cestrensis  can  have  known  nothing 
of  tu)o  monks  of  Chester, '  Boger 
and  Kanulf ;  and  I  believe  Bale  to 
have  been  the  inventor  of  the 
hypothesis  that  there  were  two. 

^  It  is  likely  enough  that  Lord 
Cobham  and  Reginald  Pecock  ta- 
citly refer  to  Higden.  See  Writings 
of  Brute,  Cobham,  &c.,  p.  126  (as 

VOL.  L 

above) ;  and  the  Addenda  to  Pe- 
cock's  Repressor. 

*  The  lieformers  frequently  quote 
Higden.  See  the  Index  to  the 
Parker  Society's  volumes  for  refer- 
ences to  Calfhill,  Pilkington,  and 
Jewel.  I  have  examined  all  the 
passages,  bat  there  is  little  to  be 
said  of  them.  Calfhill  and  Pilking- 
ton  simply  refer  to  the  Polychronicon 
without  naming  the  author.  Jewel 
sometimes  quotes  thus,  "Sir  John 
"  Trevisa  saith,"  but  also  refers  to 
"  Hanulf  Cestr.,"  and,  what  is  more 
deserving  of  notice,  distinguishes 
him  from  Roger,  though,  as  I  con- 
ceive, erroneously.  **  This  story  is 
**  recorded  by  Kanulphus,  Rogerus 
**  Cestrensis,  and  Rogerus  Hoveden, 
"  that  lived  at  the  same  time.*' 
(Works,  vol.  iv.  p.  697.)  I  will  only 
add  that  the  Polychronicon  was  re* 
ferred  to,  both  as  a  book  of  autho- 
rity, an(2  as  a  well-known  hook,  by 
the  Reformers  and  their  opponents 
alike.  Thus  Home,  bishop  of  Win- 
chester, after  quoting  the  Polychroni- 
con, writes  :  "  Polychronicon  vult, 
<<  quod  nullum  legatum  papse  in 
<*  suam  terram  venire  permisit." 
To  which,  Stapleton  replies  :  *<  Pal- 




MSS.  of 
used  for 
this  edi- 

The  Latin  text,  however,  was  never  printed  before 
the  present  edition,  with  the  exception  of  the  portions 
relating  to  British  History,  which  were  published  by 
Gale.^  These  seem  to  have  been  taken  from  a  single 
MS.,  though  it  is  possible  that  the  occasional  deviations 
from  it  may  not  always  be  due  to  accident  or  conjee- 
ture;  it  was  formerly  in  his  own  possession,  and  is 
now  with  his  other  books  in  the  Library  of  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge.    (0.  5,  12.) 

In  the  present  edition  it  has  been  used  only  occa- 
sionally, and  nearly  always  for  those  readings  of  GaJe 
which  seemed  to  require  verification.  It  is  called  G. 
in  the  notes  of  this  volume.  It  is  a  folio  on  veUum  of 
149  leaves,  paged  by  a  contemporary  hand,  in  double 
columns,  each  column  containing  51  lines,  very  neatly 
written  in  a  hand  of  the  15  th  century. 

Begins :  "  Prologus  primus  in  historiam  Polocroni- 
"  cam  (sic.)     Post  prseclaros,'*  &c. 

Ends  (under  A.D.  1352):,"cannabi,  lini,  et  specierum.^* 

A  table  of  contents  in  a  later  hand  is  bound  up 
with  it.  ^ 

The  following  account  of  the  MSS.  collated  throughout 
for  the  present  work  may  suffice.  The  letters  prefixed 
to  each  designate  them  in  the  notes  below  the  text. 

"  sum  est»  quod  ex  Polychronico 
^'preetendis  desumere,  quod  papse 
<^  legati/'  &c.  Elsewhere,  on  the 
same  page,  he  says  :  ''Polychronici 
"  author  refert,  quod,  &c.,  quae 
"verha  tu  omitti5;"axid  bye  and 
bye  goes  on  to  observe,  ''non  opus 
*^  est  ad  libros  eruditos  Lanfranci, 
**  benigne  lector,  remittere.  Bogo 
"  eos,  quibus  Polychronicon  aut  Fa- 
**  bianum  inspiciendi  facultas  datur, 
*^  ut  ipsa  loca  examinent.^'  See 
StapL,  Op,,  tom.ii.  pp.  1025,  1028 
(ed.  Par.  1620).  Stapleton's  work 
is  dated,  Iiovanii,  I56t.    Of  other 

writers,  John  Boss,  who  wrote  at 
the  beginning  of  Henry  VIL*s 
reign  a  Historia  Hegum  AnglitB, 
edited  by  Heame ;  Caius,  who 
styles  him  ^^snmmse  fidei  scripto* 
*«  rem,"  Animadv,  (p.  371,  Hearne), 
though  he  distinguishes  him  from 
Eoger  ;  and  Usher,  in  his  Britan- 
nicarum  Ecclesiarum  Antiquitates, 
have  made  more  or  less  use  of  Hig- 
den as  a  historical  authority. 

'  In  his  Hist  Brit  Scriptores 
XV.  (vol.  i.  pp.  179-287,  Oxon. 


A.  This  beautifdl  vellum  MS.,  in  double  columns,  of 
about  the  beginning  of  the  15th  century,  written  by  a 
scribe  named  Arnold,  was  given  to  the  library  of  the 
University  of  Cambridge  (where  it  is  marked  li,  2,  24) 
by  archbishop  Parker.  It  wants  the  first  leaf  of  the 
contents  and  two  fly-leaves  ;  now  containing  163  leaves. 

Begins  (fol.  13,  after  table  of  contents):  "Post  prae- 
"  claros/' 

Ends  (foL  161,  lib.  viii.  A.D.  1381):  '^Mense  Martii 
"  ejusdem  anni  Dominus  Thomas  Hatfield  Episcopus 
"  Duaelmensis  moritur  senex  multorum  dierum/* 

At  the  beginning,  on  fly-leaves  of  parchment,  ^re 
pasted  two  pieces  of  parchment,  in  hands  of  the  15th 
century,  inscribed  Ranulphus  Gkestrensis,  and  RanuU 
'phus  vel  Polichronicon. 

On  foL  4  is  written  Cronica  que  diev/ntur  Chester,  Sb> 
remark  which  seems  to  indicate  that  the  scribe  knew 
nothing  about  two  different  Chester  Chronicles,  one  by 
Roger  and  another  by  Ranulf. 

After  which,  in  archbishop  Parker's  hand,  "  qui 
"  scripsit  ad  annum  1341/' 

Below  this  is  written,  in  a  hand  of  the  16fch  century,^ 
on  an  erasure:  "Ranulphus  Hygden." 

And  below  this  the  anagram,  Presenterifi  cronicam, 
&a  (wrongly  written  chronicam),  about  which  we  have 
already  spoken.  Below  this  again,  in  the  same  hand 
of  the  16th  century:  *'Hic  titulus  texitur  ex  Uteris 
"  initialibus  capitum  primi  libri,  et  vulgo  vocatur 
*'  Polichronicon  sive  Policraticon/'  This  writer,  who 
is  probably  archbishop  Parker,  evidently  knew  nothing 
about  a  Polycraticon  of  Roger  distinct  from  a  Poly- 
chronicon  of  Ranulp 

At  fol.  152  (p.  297  of  the  red  pagination),  against 
the  words  ecdesia  libertatem  (lib.  vii.  c.  44,  mis- 
numbered  43,  AD.  1327),  the  original  scribe  has  written 
"explicit  historia/'*  but  the  history  is  continued  in  the 
same  hand.  In  the  margin  Parker,  as  it  seems,  has 
written,  **  Nota,  quae  sequuntur  in  codice  isto  et  altero 



'*  diversos  habuerunt  scriptores;  ut  in  hac  proxima 
*'  sententia  plane  cemitur  de  morte  Edwardi  11/'* 

On  fol.  152  b  we  liave,  in  Parker's  ordinary  hand, 
'^  In  hoc  anno/'  i,e,  1330,  **incipit  continuatio  historiae 
*'  hujus  scripta  in  coenobio  S.  Albani  et  vocari  potest 
"  Chronica  Albanensis,  nt  in  alio  libro  ejusdem  ma- 
"  nus  et  formse/'  Also  at  the  bottom  of  the  leaf, 
at  the  words  "utriusque  discessum  est,  A.D.  1340, 
in  a  contemporary  hand  is  written  '^Hic  finit  Ches- 
«  tyr/'* 

At  fol.  153,  however,  is  written  at  the  side,  in  a  scrawl- 
ing hand  of  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century,  against 
the  words  sub  pena  carceris  et  capitis  interdixit  (lib. 
vii.  c.  44,  A.D.  1342),  the  following  note  :  Alius  liber 
scriptus  habet  in  margine  '^  Hucusque  Randvlphus^' 
below  which  Parker  again  has  written,  Non  hie,  sed 
superius,  referring  to  his  note  on  A.D.  1327.  In  the 
upper  margin  at  the  same  place  is  written  in  a  different 
hand  of  the  sixteenth  century,  a  long  note  stated  to 
be  taken  "ex  veteri  quodam  libro/'  of  which  the 
following  is  a  part :  "  Hie  revera  Eanidphus  monachus 
"  Cestrensis  suas  cronicas  terminavit."  He  goes  on  to 
"  say  :  "  Hie  etenim  liberalibus  artibus  eruditus  litera- 

turaque  insignis  quorundam  sodalium  suorum  instan- 

tia  pulsatus  de  famosioribus  orbis  historiis,  scilicet  ab 
"  initio  microcosmi  usque  ad  tempora  Edwardi  regis, 
"  tertii  post  conqusestum,  opus  aetemaliter  commendabile 
"  produxit  in  lucem.  Qiiod  opus,  quia  multorum  tem- 
"  porum  chronicas  claudit,  Policraticon  voluit  appellari.'* 
He  then  goes  on  to  mention  the  continuation  by  John 
Malverne,  a  monk  of  Worcester,  about  which  nothing 
shall  be  said  at  present.  The  reader  is  again  requested 
to  observe  that  Polycraticon  is  the  title  of  the ;  work 
attributed  to  Manulphus.  The  notes  which  are  fol- 
lowed by  an  asterisk  recur  (in  the  same  words  or  nearly 
so)  in  another  MS.  of  Higden,  formerly  in  Parker's 
possession,  and  now  numbered  117  in  the  library  of 
Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge. 


Described  in  the  Catalogue  of  the  MSS.  of  the  Cam- 
bridge University  Library,  from  which  this  account  is 
partly  taken.  Some  additional  information  will  be 
found  there  (vol.  iii.  p.  396). 

B.  In  the  library  of  Caius  College,  Cambridge.  Avery 
fine  MS.,  and  earlier  than  the  preceding.  Henry  Whar- 
ton says  of  it :  "  Ex  quamplurimis,  quos  vidi,  histori» 
"  istius  codicibus  manu  scriptis  longe  pulcherrimus  est 
"  qui  in  collegio  Gonvilii  et  Caii,  cujus  ipsemet  alumnus 
'*  fui,  asservatur.'*  Tanner  also  calls  it  ^^  omnium 
"  pulcherrimum.''  It  is  a  folio,  on  vellum,  of  191 
leaves,  in  two  columns,  each  column  of  about  45  lines, 
written  in  a  contracted  hand  of  the  latter  part  of  the 
14th  century,  and  illuminated. 

Begins  (fol.  8) :  "  Post  prseclaros.'* 

Ends  (A.D..1375)  :  '^et  palam  in  eorum  sermonibus 
"  pra^dicantes." 

The  MS.  has  no  original  title,  and  no  note  or  notes 
concerning  Higden.  It  contains  an  index,  above  which 
(fol.  1)  a  later  hand,  probably  of  the  15th  century, 
has  written,  "  Polychrordcon  Ran.  Hygden  usque  ad 
"  annum  Domini  1370/'  The  notes  on  the  fly-leaves 
show  that  it  was  written  before  the  end  of  the  14th 
century:  '^Cautio  Magri  Henrici  Hosbem  expos,  ciste 
"  de  Derlynton  in  vigilia  nativitatis  beate  Marie,  A,D. 
"  MCCCC.''  "  Cautio  Henrici  Osberne  expos,  ciste  Ling 
"  in  festo  Sei  Benedicti,  et  erit  poUicronica  pro  xxvi.  s. 
"  viii.  d"  &c.  Numbered  82  in  the  library.  See  De- 
scriptive Cat.  of  MSS.  in  Caius  ColL,  p.  36. 

The  above  notes  are  not  in  the  same  hand  as  the 
MS.  itself 

The  scribe  of  MS.  B.  was  evidently  often  unable  to 
read  his  original  well,  for  he  sometimes  leaves  a  space 
for  a  word  which  he  cannot  understand,  sometimes  runs 
two  words  into  one,  and  occasionally  distorts  the  ortho- 
graphy of  a  word  in  such  a  manner  as  to  make  it 



C.  In  the  library  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen*s  College, 
Oxford.  One  of  the  earliest  MSS.  of  Higden  in  exist- 

Folio,  on  vellum,  of  119  leaves,  in  double  columns, 
each  column  containing  about  66  lines,  written  in  a 
hand,  abounding  in  contractions,  of  about  the  middle 
of  the  14th  century. 

Begins  (foL  1) :  "  In  historico  contextu/' 

Ends  (A.D.  1327):   "Nam  in  ejus  primordiis  recepit 
"  terra  fertilitatem,  aer  temperiem,  mare  tranquiUita- 
*^  tem,  Scotia  concordiam,  ecdesia  libertatem." 
After  which  (all  in  the  same  hand)  : 
"  Scribitur  ecce  liber,  patrias  profer  mihi  liber, 
Virginis  o  liber,  scriptor   tibi  sit  peto  liber. 
Qui  legit  attendat,  ne  scriptorem  reprehendat ; 
"  Nam  defectiva  sit  copia  saepe  nociva. 
"  Libro  conscripto,  scriptor  pellatur  Egypto, 
"  Solvat  ut  invicto  Regi  laudes  benecUcto/' 

"  JExplidunt  cronicm  v&nerahilis  Rannlph%  monacKi 
"  Cestrensis,  in  septem  libellos  distinctoe,  dictcB- 
**  que  Historia  PoUcratica!* 

**  Penna,  quiesce,  modo ;  finemque  laboris  ego  do. 

**  Metro  complodo  liber  claudens  quasi  nodo.'' 

After  this  follows  the  table,  consisting  of  24  columns 
(complete),  likewise  in  the  same  hand.  *  Numbered 
clxxxi  in  the  library.  Described  in  Coxe's  Catalogue 
of  the  MSS.  in  the  Libraries  of  the  Oxford  Colleges 
(Magd.  p.  82.),  where  some  additional  information  wiU 
be  found.  There  is  nothing  to  show  to  whom  the  MS. 
belonged,  or  by  whom  it  was  given  to  the  College,  as 
I  am  informed  by  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Knight,  the  librarian. 

D.  In  the  library  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge. — 
A  distinctly  written  MS.,  on  vellum,  in  double  columns, 
of  232  leaves  (excluding  blanks),  each  column  contain- 
ing 49  lines,  the  initial  letters  handsomely  illuminated, 
of  the  14  th  century. 




Begins  (foL  1)  :  "In  historico  namque *  contextu." 
Ends  (fol.  220,  misnumbered  218,  A.D.  1327)  "  Nam 
in  ejus  primordiis  recepit  terra  fertilitatem,  aer  tempe- 
"  riem,  mare  tranquillitatem,  Scotia  concordiam,  ecclesia 
libertatem.  Et  hie  finis ;"  below  which,  in  the  same 
hand,  "  Qui  scripsit  librum,  Ion.  Lutton  (sic)  est  sibi 
^*  nomen/' 

After  which  follows  the  table  of  contents,  to  which 
Editions  have  been  made  by  other  hands.  On  the  first 
leaf  are  the  following  marks  of  ownership :  "  Joannes 
^'  Dee,  1573,  Nov.  13.  W.  Crashawe,  1609,  Novemb. 
**^  17/'  The  latter  may  have  written  also  "  Polychro- 
^-  nica,"  the  only  title  that  appears  in  the  body  of  the 
MS.,  which  has,  however,  lost  one  fly-leaf  at  the  begin- 
ning  and  a  portion  of  another  at  the  end,  on  the  re- 
verse of  which  is  written :  "  Iste  liber  pertinet  ad  W,  (?) 
^'  Hidam.*'  The  book  is  now  boxmd  up  with  a  MS.  of 
i^gidius,  and  has  W.  C.  (i,e.,  William  Crashawe)  stamped 
on  it,  and  it  is  probably  in  his  hand  that  the  follow- 
ing remarks  are  made  on  a  blank  paper  leaf  at  the 
beginning : 

"  Polychronica,  per  Kanulphum  Higden  Cestrensem  ; 
^'  Johannes  Lutton  monachus  scripsit  circa  annum 
'"  1386/;  Purchased  of  W.  Crashawe  (brother  of  E.  Cra- 
shawe, the  poet),  by  Thomas  Wriothesley,  earl  of  South- 
ampton, and  presented  with  many  other  books  to  the 
library  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  where  it  is 
marked  A.  12.  It  has  been  described  by  the  Rev.  B.  M. 
Cowie  in  the  Catalogue  of  M88,  and  Scarce  Books  of 
the  Library  of  St  John's? 

These  four  MS.,  A,  B.,  C,  D.,   had  been  selected, 
with  the  approbation  of  the  Master  of  the  EoUs,  by  my 

^  The  MS.  might  be  thought  to 
•commence  imperfectly,  hut  this  is 
not  so ;  several  other  MSS.  begin 
similarly  (c.p.,  Univ.  Coll.   Oxon. 

177;  Mert.  118).     Such  an  open-  I  1842). 

ing  indicates  that  the  work  in  this 
shape  is  an  abbreviation  of  a  larger 
*  P.  4  {Puhl  Camh,  Ant  Soc.  for 



lamented  friend  the  VexL  Archdeacon  Hardwick,  who 
had  examined  a  great  number  of  MSS.,  and  made  notes 
upon  them,  as  the  materials  upon  which  the  Latin  text* 
in  this  edition  should  be  formed,  sipecial  preference 
being  given  to  MS.  A.  It  appeared,  however,  desirable 
to  take  in  an  additional  MS.  for  the  longer  form  of  the 
chronicle,  which  is  exhibited  in  a  very  pure  form  in 
the  following  MS.,  our  E.,  whose  readings,  however,  are 
sometimes  corrected  from  the  other  MSS.,  A.  and  B., 
and  occasionally  also  from  C.  and  D.,  which  exhibit 
the  chronicle  in  the  shorter  form,  and  differ  but  very 
little  from  each  other.® 

E,  In  the  University  Library,  Cambridge. — A  folio, 
on  vellum,  of  276  leaves  (a  fly-leaf  at  the  end  haying 
been  cut  away),  each  page  containing  between  30  and 
40  lines  (or  a  little  more  than  40  in  the  last  two 
books),  the  initials  very  elaborately  ornamented,  well 
written,  in  the  latter  part  of  the  I4th  century. 

Begins  (fol.  11,  after  the  table  of  contents,  entitled 
Kalendarium  Cronicorum) :  "Prologus  primus.  Incipit 
"  prologus  in  historiam  polioronicam  Kanulphi.  Post 
"  praeclaros/'  etc. 

Ends  (fol.  275,  imder  A.D.  1352):  "circa  maritimas 
"  urbes  Anglise  et  Hibemise/* 


*  I  should  perhaps  say  here,  that 
the  marginal  summaries  are  not  a 
part  of  the  Latin  text :  they  vary 
much  in  the  different  MSS.  Usually 
I  have  taken  them  from  E.,  but  some- 
times  from  other  sources,  and  have 
occasionally  added  them  myself, 
and  more  often  omitted  them.  The 
headings  of  the  chapters,  however, 
are  in  aU  cases  taken  from  MSS.  ; 
these  also  vary,  hut  not  in  an  equal 

2  So  similar  are  C.  and  D.,  that  I 
have  often  thought  it  desirable  to 
say  "C,  not  B.,'*  of  particular 
readings.    Where,  however,  it   is 

only  recorded  that  D.  has  a  parti- 
cular reading,  it  is  less  certain  that 
C.  has  it  not.  The  MSS.  A.,  D., 
E.,  the  standsml  MS.  of  Trevisa 
(called  MS.),  and  Caxton*s  edi- 
tion, have  been  always  under  my 
eye  in  preparing  the  sheets  for 
the  press,  the  other  MSS.  have 
not.  .  "With  regard  to  B.,  when  its 
readings  are  not  recorded,  they  may 
be  presumed  to  agree  with  those  of 
E.,  with  whose  text  the  other  Latin 
MSS.  have  been  collated,  and  which 
has  been  generally  followed  in  this 



After  which  this  note  (in  the  same  hand):  *' Usque 
'^  hie  scripsit  Ranuiphus  Hykedoun  monachus  Cestren- 
"  sis,  istorum  cronicorum  compilator,  qui  obi  it  in  senec- 
"  tute  bona  — /'  where  a  later  hand  has  added  "Anno 
«  Do.  1363^ 

However,  at  fol.  273  b,  in  the  origiQal  hand,  under 
AD.  1327,  after  "ecclesia  libertatem/'  is  written  '' Ex- 
"  plicit  historia/' 

Inside  the  cover,  in  a  hand  of  the  17th  century, 
probably  Mr.  Lorton's,  "  Ranulphi  Hikeden  monachi 
"  Cestrensis  Chronica  ;**  at  foL  2,  probably  in  Wheelock's 
hand,  "Ranulfi  Cestrensis  Pol^^chronicon.'^  At  fol.  11, 
also  in  a  somewhat  late  hand:  "  Gramata  (sic)  dant 
"  prima  capitalia  nomen  agentis.'^  On  the  reverse  of 
fol.  276  (written  in  a  hand  of  the  15th  century): 
"  Iste  liber  constat  J.  Broke  monacho  eccKe  X^  Canf 
(i.e,y  Canterbury  Cathedral). 

Described  in  the  Catalogue  of  MSS,  in  the  Gam^ 
bridge  University  Library,  where  it  is  marked  li. 
3.  1.  (vol.  iii.  p.  401).  It  came  into  the  library 
shortly  before  1600.^ 

One  other  valuable  MS.  has  been  consulted  for  the 
first  three  chapters.  It  was  given  to  Winchester 
College  by  William  of  Wykeham,  with  a  continuation 
to  the  en<t  of  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  About  the 
contiauation  we  must  defer  our  remarks,  and  only 
now  say  that,  in  common  with  others,  this  MS.  has 
a  note  at  the  end  of  the  year  1342:  "Hue  usque 
"  scripsit  RanuLfds."'     Its  readings  are  mentioned  above. 

For   the  version   of  Trevisa,^  which    ends  with   an  MSS.  of 
account  of  the  treaty  of  Bi-etigny  in  the  year  1360,  ^^ej^l^this 
two  MSS.  and  Caxton's  edition  have   been  employed,  edition. 

'  Some  points  in  the  descriptions 
of  these  MSS.  belooging  to  the 
University  have  been  kindly 
liroTight  to  my  notice  by  H.  Brad- 
shaw,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  King's 
College,  who  has  the  charge  of  them. 

*  The  following  account  of  Tre- 
visa,  principally  derived  from 
Tanner*s  Bibliotheca  and  Dibdin's 
enlarged  edition  of  Ames'  Typo- 
graphical Antiquities,  may  not  be 
unacceptable.    John  Trevisa  was  a 



One  of  these  MSS.  is  followed  very  closely,  and 
adopted  as  the  standard,  and  therefore  designated  in 
the  notes   simply  as   "  MS/'     It  is  preserved  in  the 

natiye  of  Cornwall,  bom  at  Cara- 
dok,  according  to  Fuller,  some- 
time in  the  Uth  century,  entered 
the  university  of  Oxford  first  at 
Exeter  College,  then  at  Queen's 
College,  of  which  he  became  fellow. 
He  afterwards  became  Ticar  of  the 
parish  of  Berkeley  in  Gloucester- 
«hire,  and  chaplain  to  Thomas, 
fourth  Lord  Berkeley  of  Berkeley, 
(who  died  in  1416,  of  whom  we 
hare  a  large  account  in  Collins' 
Peerage  by  Brydges,  vol,  iii.  p.  606,) 
and,  in  fine,  canon  of  the  Collegiate 
church  of  Westbury  on  Severn  in 
Gloucestershire,  or,  according  to 
Dugdale,  Barotuige,  voL  ii.  p.  360,  of 
Westbury  in  Wiltshire.  He  seems  to 
have  resided  principally  in  Glouces- 
tershire (his  notes  on  the  Poli/ckr<h 
nican  having  especial  reference  to- 
that  part  of  England),  and  to  have 
occupied  a  great  part  of  his  time  in 
translating  various  Latin  works  into 
his  mother  tongue.  He  had,  how- 
ever, also  seen  foreign  countries, 
and  mentions  the  hot  baths  of 
*'  Akon  in  Almayne  and  Egges  in 
«  Savbye,*'  in  which  he  also  bathed, 
*'  and  assayed  them/'  (Polychron., 
lib.  1,  c.  47.)  Being  no  friend  to 
the  monks,  he  finds  great  &vour 
with  Bale.  He  was  living  in  1398, 
when  he  concluded  his  translation 
of  Bartholomseus'  Ve  Proprietatibus 
JRerum,  and  most  probably  as  late  as 
1408,  when  the  translation  of  Yege- 
tiuB  was  concluded ;  for  it  would 
appear  that  Trevisa  is  author  of  that 
work.  According  to  Tanner,  he  died 
in  1412.  He  is  said  to  have  been 
buried  in  the  chancel  of  the  church 

at  Berkeley.  Some  ancient  pieces 
of  almost  obliterated  writing,  partly 
in  Norman  Erench,  partly  in  Latin, 
remaining  in  the  church  at  Berkeley 
in  1805,  when  Mr.  Hughes,  at  Dib* 
din's  request,  examined  them,  are 
thought  to  be  by  Trevisa,  or  of 
Trevisa's  day  j  but  Mr.  Hughes  in- 
formed Dibdin  that  '^  not  one  certain 
"  vestige  of  him  remains  here,  nor 
'*  is  even  his  grave  in  the  church 
"  known." 

The  following  works  by  Trevisa 
are  extant :  — 

A  Dialogue  on  Translation  be- 
tween a  lord  and  a  clerk  ({.e.,  his 
patron  and  himself).  Printed  by 
Cazton  with  the  Polychronieon, 

This  dialogue  is  composed  as  an 
introduction  to  the  Polychronicon, 
which  is  directly  mentioned  in  the 
following  words :  ^^And  so  Banul- 
'*  phus,  monke  of  Chestre,  wrote  in 
"  Latyn  his  bookes  of  Cronykes, 
*'  that  descryueth  the  worlde  aboute 
^*  in  lengthe  and  in  breede,  and 
^*  maketh  mencion  and  mynde  of 
'<  doynges  and  dedes  of  meruayltes 
^  and  of  wondres,  and  rekeneth  the 
'<  yeres  to  his  last  dayes  fix>  the  first 
"  makyng  of  henen  and  of  erthe  ; 
'<  and  BO  therinne  is  grete  and 
''noble  information  and  loore  to 
**  hem  that  can  therein  rede  and 
**  vnderstande."  (Sig.  1, 2,Caxton*s 

Also  another  Diaiogus  inter  Mili- 
tern  et  Clericum,  which  Trevisa 
translated  firom  the  Latin  of  William 
of  Occam,  which  is  published  (in 
the  original)  by  Goldastus,  Mbn.  S, 
Bom.  Imp,,  vol.  i.  pp.  13-18,  and 



library  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  where  it 
is  marked  H.  1. 

This  superb  MS.  is  on  vellum,  and  contains  280 
leaves,  one  at  each  end  being  blank.     (See  facsimile.) 

The  first  18  leaves  contain  Occam's  Dialogue  inter 
Milium  et  Glericum  (occupying  nearly  nine  pages),  and 

treats  "De  Potestate  Ecclesiastica 
*'  et  Sseculari/' 

Trevisa's  translation  of  a  sennon 
by  Htzralf,  ardibishop  of  Armagh, 
preached  in  1357  at  Oxford  against 
the  mendicant  friars,  is  contained, 
together  with  the  preceding,  in  both 
the  MSS.  of  the  Pdychronicon  used 
for  this  edition,  and  in  a  Harleian 
MS.  (n.  1900). 

The  last-named  MS.  contains  also 
bis  translation  of  a  spttrious  pro- 
duction, On  the  Beginning  and  End 
of  the  Worldy  ascribed  to  Metho- 
dins,  from  which  Higden  in  this 
volume  gives  extracts.  (See  Har- 
leian Catalogue.) 

Trevisa's  tran^tion  of  Bartho- 
lomseus  de  Glanvilla  De  Proprie- 
iatibus  jRerum  was  finished,  as  he 
tells  us,  in  1398.  Wynkyn  de 
Worde  printed  it  (about  1494),  and 
it  was  more  than  once  reprinted 
in  the  following  century.  (See 

His  translation  of  the  Pdychro- 
nicon  was  concluded  (as  he  tells  us 
at  the  end)  April  18, 1387,  with  a 
continuation  by  himself,  and  a  dedi- 
cation to  Lord  Berkeley  (at  whose 
request  it  was  made),  of  which  no 
more  here. 

In  the  Bodleian  Library  (Digby, 
233)  is  a  translation  of  Vegetius' 
De  Re  Militari,  composed  at  Lord 
Berkeley's  request,  and  finished  in 
1408.  This  is  reasonably  presumed 
to  be  executed  by  Trevisa,  as  wel 

as  a  translation  of  j^gidius  Boma- 
nus'  De  Hegimine  Prineipum,  con- 
talned  in  the  same  volume. 

Of  his  other  translations,  that  of 
the  Bible,  said,  by  Caxton,  Bale, 
and  others,  to  have  been  made  by 
Trevisa,  and  possibly  stiU  extant  at 
Rome,  is  the  most  important  on  all 
accounts.  It  is  not,  however,  cer- 
tain, though  at  the  same  time  by 
no  means  improbable,  that  Trevisa 
ever  translated  the  Scriptures  at  all. 
(See  Mr.  Hughes'  letter  as  above.) 
The  remark  of  the  lord  to  the  clerk 
(Sig.  1,  3,  b.  Caxton)  :  ''  Also  thou 
♦*  wotest  where  the  Apocalips  is 
**  wryten  in  the  walles  and  roof  of 
*^  a  chappel  both  in  Latyn  and  in 
*'  Frensshe,''  has  reference  of  course 
to  the  decorations  of  Berkeley 
church  mentioned  above,  but  it 
cannot  safely  be  inferred  that  Tre- 
visa was  connected  with  them. 
They  may  have  been  earlier  than 
his  time. 

Besides  these  works,  his  Genea» 
logy  of  David,  King  of  Scotland,  is 
quoted  jfrom  a  MS.  by  Usher.  (See 

According  to  Bale,  who  has 
omitted  some  of  these  works  of  Tre- 
visa, he  also  wrote  or  translated 
Gesta  Regis  Arthuri,  BritannuB 
DescriptUmenif  Hibernics  Descrip- 
tionem,  De  MemorabUibus  Tempo- 
rum,  e  alia  plura  fedt  ac  trans-» 



Sermo  Domini  Archiepiseopi  Armachanani.  These 
works,  done  into  English  by  Trevisa,  (for  which  see  the 
note,)  are  followed  by  a  double  index  to  the  Poly^ 
ckronicon,  one  in  Latin,  one  in  English,  without  title, 
or  colophon.  They  occupy  15  leaves.  After  this  fol- 
lows the  Polychronicon,  also  without  title  or  colophon* 
The  name  of  Higden  is  not  so  much  as  mentioned  in 
the  MS.  at  alL'  At  the  beginning  is  this  note:  "Ele- 
"  gantissimum  hunc  codicem  manu  script  um  bibliothecae 
"  CoUegii  S.  Johannis  Evangelistse  donavit  magister- 
"  Baile  de  Newington,  in  agro  Middlesexise,  A.D. 
"  1674/' 

This  was  the  only  MS.  used  by  Archdeacon  Hard- 
wick,  (who,  with  great  probability,  supposes  that  it  is 
the  MS.  formerly  belonging  to  Mr.  Forster,  a  member  of 
St.  John's,  mentioned  in  the  Harleian  catalogue,  n.  1900,) 
but  it  soon  became  evident  that  it  was  necessary  to 
correct  its  errors  and  supply  its  defects  by  some 
better  aid  than  Caxton's  printed  edition.  The  sub- 
sidiary MS.  employed  for  that  purpose,  called  a.  in 
our  notes,  was  formerly  in  Archbishop  Tenison's  library, 
and  when  that  library  was  dispersed  by  public  auction, 
in  July  1861,  it  was  purchased  for  the  British  Museum, 
where  it  is  now  marked  as  24,194  of  the  Additional 

It  is  on  vellum,  and  now  consists  of  261  folio 
leaves,  in  double  columns.  An  hiatus  of  eight  leaves 
occurs  between  the  41st  chapter  of  the  third  book 
and  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  chapter  of  the  fourth 
book ;  and  again,  in  the  sixth  book,  the  scribe  ap- 
pears to  have  jumped  from  part  of  the  14th  chapter 
.  to  part  of  the  26th.  The  volume  is  otherwise  in 
the  finest  preservation,  and  contains  many  splendid 

*  Described  in  Cowie's  Catalogue 
(u.  s.),  pp.  76,  76. 
2  See  Sotheby   and  Wilkinson's 

Sale  Catalogue  of  ArchbisbopTeni- 
son's  MSS.,  lot  42,  p.  11. 













In  the  beginning  is  inserted  this  note,  on  a  leaf  of 
paper:  "Archbishop  Tenison's  Kbrary,  MS.  No.  1.  Hig- 
'*  den's  Polychronicon,  translated  by  John  de  Trevisa, 
"  finished  1387.  The  arms  upon  the  first  page  of  this 
book  are  nearly  obliterated,  yet  enough  remains  to 
show  that  they  are  those  of  Beauchamp  and  Warwick 
quarterly.  The  latter,  being  the  arms  sometimes 
fabulously  ascribed  to  the  famous  Guy,  earl  of  War- 
wick, appear  to  have  been  borne  by  the  Beauchamps 
as  feudal  arms  for  the  earldom.  On  the  33rd  page 
the  same  arms  occur  separately,  and  in  better  preser- 
vation. This  copy  of  Higden  seems,  therefore,  to  have 
been  made,  or  at  least  illuminated,  for  one  of  the 
earls  of  Warwick  of  the  family  of  Beauchamp."  To 
this  Sir  F.  Madden  has  added  the  following  remark: 
'^  The  earl  of  Warwick,  for  wliom  this  MS.  was  exe- 
cuted, is  Richard  Beauchamp,  who  died  in  1439,  and 
who  married  Margaret,^  sole  daughter  and  heiress  of 
Thomas,  Lord  Berkeley,  for  whom  the  translation  was 
made  by  Trevisa.  F.  M."  The  MS.  begins  with  the 
Bialogtis  inter  Militeifn  et  Clericwm^  which  is  followed 
by  the  Sermo  Domini  Episcopi  Armacani  (both  in 
English).  To  this  succeeds  the  double  Tabula  of  the 
Polychronicon,  and  after  it  the  work  itself ;  on  the  last 
leaf  we  have :  "  This  translacioun  is  y-ended  in  a  Thors- 
day,  the  ey^te|7e  (sic)  day  of  Aueiyl,  the  ^ere  of  our 
Lord  a  ]?owsand  |?re  hondred  foure  score  and  seuene ; 
'pe  ten]?e  zero  of  kyng  Eichard  ]?e  secounde  after  ]7e 
conquest  of  Engelonde ;  Je  lere  of  my  lordes  age 
Sire  Thomas  lorde  of  Berkeley,  J^at  made  me  make 
l^is  translacioun,  fyue  and  )?ritty.  Explicit/' 
The  MS.  in  St.  John*s  library  concludes  with  the 
very  same  words,  except  that  it  reads  "Thomas 
of  Berkeley,^'  and  has  Deo  Gratias  instead  of  E<cplicit? 











^  Dngdale  (Baronage^  yoI.  i.  p. 
247)  calls  her  Elizabeth,  daughter 
and  heir  of  Thomas,  Lord  Berkeley. 
See  also  p.  361. 

2  The  Harleian  MS.  (1900)  has 
xviij.  for  eyyteYe-j  and  this  is  quite 
light.  The  Harleian  Catalogue 
wrongly  makes  Tenison's  MS.  and 



The  name  of  a  former  owner  occurs  at  the  end  of 
the  tabula/^  WflUam  BradweU,  A.D.  1610/'  We  have 
also  at  the  end  of  the  volume, ''  Mr.  John  KnightoD/' 
"  "William  Knighton,"  and  on  the  last  leaf,  "Emanuel^ 
''  anno  Domini,  1570" 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  contents  of  this  MS. 
are  precisely  the  same  as  in  our  standard  MS.  So  very 
similar,  indeed,  are  these  two  magnificent  volumes  to 
each  other,  that  they  appear  at  first  sight  to  have  been 
executed  by  the  same  scribe.  I  compared  the  two, 
however,  in  company  with  Mr.  Bond,  of  the  British 
Museum,  and  he  pointed  out  differences  in  the  form  of 
the  8  and  the  r  in  the  two  MSS.,  which  convinced  us 
both  that  they  are  not  by  the  same  hand.  Both,  how- 
ever, are  certainly  of  the  same  period,  namely,  about  the 
reign  ot  Henry  IV.  Tenison's  MS.  was  composed  during 
the  life  of  the  first  wife  of  the  earl  of  Warwick,  for  whom 
it  was  made.  He  was  contracted  to  her  in  marriage 
in  1393,  and  she  died  in  1422.^  It  appears,  therefore,. 
that  both  these  MSS.  are  only  a  few  years  later  than 
the  date  of  Trevisa's  translation  (1387).  To  Mr.  Bond's 
very  practised  eye  the  Tenison  MS.  appears  slightly  the 
older  of  the  two. 

the  St.  John*»  MS.  read  eyghtenthe; 
there  is  no  n  in  either  of  them. 

*  Having  in  vain  endeavoured  to 
ascertain  tiiese  dates  from  books,  I 
consulted  my  learned  friend,  Mr.  C. 
H.  Cooper,  who  apprised  me  of  the 
existence  of  a  MS.  Life  of  the  Berke- 
leys,  by  Smytb,  in  the  possession  of 
the  Earl  Mtzhardinge.  By  his 
Lordship's  kindness,  and  that  of 
Mr.  J.  H.  Cooke,  who  searched  the 
volmne,!  am  enabled  to  give  the 
following  information.  **I  am  di- 
«  rected,"  says  he,  "  by  Xord  Fitz- 
«  hardinge  to  reply  to  your  note  to 
**  him  asking  some  Information  from 
*«  Smyth's  Berkeley  MSS.,  which 
^  are  in  my  cnstody  here.    Smyth 

'^  does  not  give  the  date  of  the  mar- 
"  riage  of  Elizabeth,  daughter  and 
*<  heiress  of  Thomas,  Lord  Berkeley 
'<  (fourth  of  that  name)  ;  but  he 
"  states  that  the  contract  for  the 
"  marriage  (with  Richard  Beau- 
"  champ)  was  entered  into  in  Sep- 
"tember,  17  Rich^.  11.,  and  the 
"  marriage,  it  is  therein  stated,  was 
^*  intended  to  be  solemnized  *  as  soon 
"  *  as  conveniently  may  be,*  and 
"  that  the  bride  was  then  under  the 
"  age  of  *  seaven  yeares.'  Smyth 
*'  states  that  her  death  took  place 
"28th  December,  1st  Hen.  VI., 
'<  and  that  she  was  buried  at  the 
**  monastery  of  Kingswood." 


The  orthography  is  substantially  the  same  in  both 
the  MSS.,  the  same  word  being  written  in  several  dif- 
ferent ways  in  both.  In  some  few  cases,  more  espe- 
cially, where  the  ^  occurs,  the  variations  in  the  spelling 
are  recorded.  The  z  and,^  are  expressed  in  both  MSS. 
by  the  same  character.;  and  unfortunately  the  c  and  i 
also^  so  that  it  is  sometimes  uncertain  which  letter  is 
intended  in  such  words  as  widouthy  correccioun,  &c. 
The  same  clerical  errors  likewise  frequently  occur  in 
both  MSS.,  and  can  sometimes  be  corrected  by  the  aid 
of  Caxton,  who  certainly  did  not  use  either  of  them  as 
his  standard.^ 

As  respects  the  text  of  Trevisa's  translation,  he 
followed  the  largeJr  form  of  the  chronicle,  represented 
by  A.,  B.,  E.  The  long  passage  about  the  diameter 
of  the  earth  (p.  44),  which  occurs  in  E.  only,  is  trans- 
lated by  Trevisa,  but  does  not  occur  in  the  Harleian 
version,  printed  in  this  edition.  The  section  relating 
to  Brabant  (p.  288)  occurs  in  A,  only  of  our  MSS., 
but  is  translated  in  both  the  versions.  It  is  clear, 
that  neither  translation  was  made  precisely  from  the 
text  of  any  MS.  used  for  this  edition;  there  is,  how- 
ever, little  or  nothing  in  either  of  them  which  is  not 
to  be  found  in  one  of  the  three  Latin  MSS.  above 

With  regard  to  the  merits  of  Ti^evisa's  translation.  Literary 
the   following  judgment  is    delivered  by  Mr. '  Hardy  ^^^*^ 
in  the   general  introduction  to   Petrie's    Monumenta  version. 
Historica  Britamfiica,     "  This  translation  by  Trevisa 
"  is  generally  strict  and  literal^  but  sometimes  confused  • 
"  from   a  misapprehension  of   the    author's    meaning. 
"  Occasionally  short  notices  [to  which  Trevisa's  name 

"  is  prefixed]  are  inserted  by  way  of  explanation 

"  On  the  whole,  Trevisa  appears  to  have  been  shrewd 
'*  and  weU-informed "  (p.  4).    Trevisa  appears  to  have 

^  A  Bpecimen  of  the  orthography  I  ton's  printed  text,  may  he  seen  in  - 

of  Tenison*s  MS.,  and  also  of  Cax-  I  the  Appendix. 



been  puzzled  with  the  Latinity  of  Higdeii,  which  is, 
however,  in  general  extremely  good  for  the  period,  as 
appears  by  the  following  words  which  in  liis  above- 
named  Dialogue  he  puts  into  the  mouth  of  his  patron. 
"  Though  I  can  speke,  rede,  ^  and  vnderstande  Latyn, 
"  ther  is  moche  Latyn  in  these  bookes  of  Cronykes 
"  that  I  can  not  vnderstonde  nether  thou,  without 
"  studyeng,  auisement,  and  lokyng  of  other  bookes." 
It  must  be  owned  that  Trevisa  has  occasionally  fallen 
into  the  most  ludicrous  errors,  which  a  very,  little 
"  avisemenf  might  have  avoided.  Thus  Higden  writes  : 
"  Terra  frugifera  maxime  tritici,  unde  et  earn  veteres 
"  Cereris  horreum  nuncupaverunt  f  which  Trevisa 
renders  thus :  "  Mesia  is  a  prise  lond  of  wine  and  of 
"  whete,  ferfore  the  olde  cereris  cleped  bit  a  berne^' 
(p.  173).  Again,  Higden  has  in  his  text:  "  Justinianus 
"  postmodum  litteris  et  bellis  egregius  addidit  tertiam 
"  ecclesiam  in  honorem  Divinae  Sophise,  id  est,  Domini 
**  Chiisti,  quern  ^  hagiam  sophiam '  vocavit."  The  pas- 
sage is  thus  misdone  into  English  by  our  clerk:  "  lus- 
"  tinianus  fe  emperour  bulde  afterward  the  )n-idde 
"  chirche  in  worschippe  of  Diuina  Sophia,  fat  is,  oure 
"  Lord  Crist,  that  Agia  clepel^  Diuina  Sophia,  in 
"  Englisshe  'pe  Wisdom  of  God""  (p.  181).  Again,  what 
reasonable  excuse  can  we  make  for  a  man  who  can 
render  "  Consuluit  Cecrops  ApoUinem  Delphicum''  thus, 
"  Cecrops  axede  counsaUe  of  Appolyn  Delphicus  ? " 
(p.  193).  The  reader  who  is  inclined  to  be  malicious 
may  find  gratification  in  comparing  the  obscure  Latin 
verses  quoted  by  Higden  with  Trevisa's  rendering  of 
them  (p.  237).  It  ought,  however,  to  be  borne  in  mind 
that  the  age  of  Trevisa  was  not.  an  age  of  learning  or 
of  criticism ;  the  errors  which  would  be  disgraceftd  in 
our  time  are  in  some  degree  venial  in  the  fourteenth 
century.^      Still  it  is  impossible  not  to  perceive  that 

1  Trevisa  seems  to  have  suspected 
that  his  translatioii  -was  not  always 

accurate.  In  his  Dialogue,  the  clerk 
says :  *'  Yf  a  translacion  were  made 



Higden's  scbolarship  is  very  far  superior  to  that  of  his 
translator.  As  one  of  the  earliest  specimens  of  English 
prose  (A.D.  1387),  containing  many  rare  words  and 
curious  expressions,  the  version  of  Trevisa  will  be 
gladly  welcomed  by  philologists,  who  will  not  be  over 
severe  upon  his  errors.  All  remarks  on  his  language 
and  idioms  must  be  reserved  for  the  glossary  at  the 
end  of  the  work. 

The  edition  of  Caxton,  which  Archdeacon  Hardwick  Caston's 
had  begun  to  collate  for  this  edition,  must  now  briefly  t^^J^^ 
be  noticed.  Besides  Trevisa's  translation,  he  gives,  as 
has  been  abeady  said,  the  Dialogue  of  the  lord  and 
the  clerk,  occupying  four  pages  and  a  half,  and  also 
**  The  Epystle  of  Sir  lohan  Treuisa,  chapelayn  vnto  Lord 
''  Thomas  of  Barkley,  vpon  the  translacion  of  Poly- 
"  cronycon  into  our  Englysshe  tongue,'^  occupying  about 
one   page.'      Caxton's  own  Prohemye  occupies    nearly 



*'  that  myght  be  amended  in  ony 
^'  pojnt,  somme  men  it  wold  blame  ',** 
to  which  the  lord  replies  :  "  Yf  men 
"  blame  that  is  not  worthy  to  be 
'*  blamed,  thenne  they  ben  to  blame. 
"  Clerkes  knowe  wel  ynowgh  that 
no  synfaU  man  doth  so  well  that 
•*  it  fhe  ?)  ne  myght  doo  better,  ne 
**  make  so  good  a  translacion  that 
he  (it  ?)  ne  myght  be  better." 
(Sig.  1.  3,  6.)  This  is  quite  true, 
yet  all  errors  are  not  equally  excus- 

*  The  following  portions  may  in- 
terest the  reader:  "  Welthe  and  wor- 
ship to  my  worthy  and  worshipful 
lord  sir  Thomas,  lord  of  Barkley, 
I,  lohan  Treuisa,  youre  preest  and 
**  bedeman,  obedyent  and  buxom  to 
werke  your  wiUe,  holde  in  herte, 
thenke  in  thought,  and  meen  in 
mynde  youre  nedefful  menyng 
and  speche  that  ye  spak  and  sayde 
that    ye   wold  have    Englysshe 

VOL.   I. 

















translacion  ofKanulphusofChes* 
tres  bookes  of  Cronykes  ;  therfor 
I  wole  fonde  to  take  that  trauayll 
and  make  Englysshe  translacion 
of   the    same    bookes   as    God 

graunteth   me    grace In 

somme  plax:e  I  shall  sette  word 
for  worde,  and  actyf  for  actyf, 
and  passyf  for  passif  arowe  right 
as  it  stondeth  with6ute  chaung- 
ynge  of  the  ordre  of  wordes ;  but 
in  somme  place  I  must  chaunge 
the  ordre  of  wordes,  and  sette 
actyf  for  passyf  and  ayeuward  ; 
and  in  somme  place  I  muste  sette 
a  reson  for  a  worde,  and  telle 
what  it  meneth  ;  but  for  al  such 
chaungyng  the  menyng  shal 
stande  and  not  be  chaunged.  But 
somme  words  and  names  of  coun- 
treyes,  of  londes,  of  cytees,  of 
waters,  of  ryuers,  of  montaynes 
and  hilles,  of  persons,  and  of 
places  muste  be  sette  and  stonde 




four  pages,  the  early  part  of  which  consists  of  a  re- 
coimneiidati6n  of  the  study  of  history,  after  which 
he  goes  on  to  say  that  he  **haa  delyvered  to  write 
'^  twoo  bookes  notable,*'  via.,  the  Golden  Legend  and 
the  Polycronycon,  in  which  are  comprised,  ird&t  alia, 
"  the  historial  actes  and  wonderful  dedes,  syth  the 
"  fyrst  makyng  of  heuen  and  erth  vnto  the  begynnyng 
**  of  the  regno  of  kyng  Edward  the  fourth  and  vnto 
^*  the  yere  of  our  Lord  hoccolx.,  as  by  the  ayde  of 
Almyghty  God  shal  folwe  al  a  longe  after  the  com- 
posynge  and  gadexynge  of  dan  Banulph,  monke  of 
Chestre,  fyrste  auctour  of  this  book,  and  afterward 
englisshed  by  one  Treuisa,  vycarye  of  Barkley,  (which 
atte  request  of  one  Sir  Thomas  Lord  Barkley  trans- 
lated this  sayd  book,  the  byble,  and  Bartylmew  de 
proprietatibus  rerum  out  of  Latyn  into  Englyssh,) 
and  now  at  this  tyme  simply  emprynted  and  sette 
in  forme  by  me  William  Caxton  and  a  lytel  em- 
belysshed  fro  tkolde  Toakyng,  and  also  haue  added 
suche  storyes  as  I  coude  fynde  fro  thende  that 
the  said  Banulph  fynysshed  his  book,  which  was 
the  yere  of  our  Lord  MCCCI4VIJ.,  vnto  the  yere  of  the 
same  mcocclx.,  whiche  ben  an  honderd  and  thre  yere. 
. . .  And  where  the  sayd  auctor  hath  alle  his  werke 
in  seuen  bookes,  I  haue  sette  that  whiche  I  haue 
"  added  to  after  a  parte,  and  haue  marked  it  the  laste 
"  booke."*      Caxton   elsewhere  informs  us    more  par- 

















"  for  hem  self  in  her  owne  kynde, 
'*  as  Asia,  Europa,  Affryca,  and 
u  gyrya ;  Mount  Athlas,  Syna  and 
'^  Oreb,MaraclL,Ioidan,andAmon, 
^*  Betbleem,  Nazareth,  Ihemsalem, 
'^  and  Pamaseus  ;  Hanybal,  Basyn, 
"  Assneros  and  Oyros,  and  many 
'<  suche  wordes  and  names.  Yf  ony 
"  man  make  of  these  bookes  of 
'<  Cronykes  abetter  Bnglissh  trans- 
*'  lacion  and  moore   pron%table^ 


God  do  hym  mede.''  (Sig.  1, 4. 
Caxton,  -who  has  taken  his  usual 
liberties  nith  the  orthography.) 

>  Caxton  (foU  389  b.)  &lsely 
makes  Treyisa's  translation  end  in 
1357.  '<This  translaeion  is  ended 
**  on  a  Thursdaye,  the  eyghtenthe 
«  daye  of  Apryll,  the  yere  of  our 
'^  Lord  a  thousand  thre  hondred 
^  and  Iy^.,  the  xxxj.  yere  of  kyng 
"  Edward  the  thyid  after  the  con- 

iiirrBODXJCTiOKr.  Ixiii 

tieularly  wbat  these  .  little  embeUishments  were :  <'  I^ 
"  William  Oaxton,  a  symple  perscm,  haue  endeuoyred 
*^  me  to  wryte  fyrst  ouer  all  the  sayd  book  of  pro- 
"  loconycon  (aic)^  amd  somwhat  ham  dimmged  the 
"  rude  and  old  Englyssh,  that  is  to  wete  ceriayn 
"  wordea  which  m  these  days/'  (ie.,  in  1482),  "  be 
"  neither  vsyd  ne  VTidersta/ifiden,  and  furthennore 
^^  haue  put  it  in  emprynte  to  thende  that  it  maye 
«  be  had  and  the  maters  therin  comprised  to  be 
"  knowen.^^* 

Nothing  need  be  said  here  about  Caxton^s  continuation 
of  Higden,  but  a  few  words  may  be  necessary  about 
his  manipulation  of  Trevisa.  Not  only  are  certain 
words  replaced  by  others,  but  the  whole  orthography 
is  changed,  so  that  the  English  is  no  longer  the  language 
of  the  14th,  but  of  the  15th  century.  In  parti- 
cular the  ^  has  vanished  altogether;  so  also  has  the 
]?  in  almost  every  instance ;  but  this  last  is  of  less 
moment,  as  the  MSS,  of  Trevisa  are  very  inconstant  in 
the  use  of  the  letter.  A  minute  collation  of  Caxton's 
text,  therefore,  with  that  of  the-  MSS,  used  for  the 
present  edition  is  well-nigh  impossible ;  it  must  be 
sufficient  to  note  in  general  those  readings  in  which 
there  is  a  difference  of  words^  and  not  merely  of 
forms  and  inflections.  The  reader  is  requested  to 
observe  in  this  place,  that  there  are  certaifL  words  in 
Trevisa  which  Caxton  in  general  (but  not  uniformly) 
replaces   by  others,  as  wiU  appear  from  the  following 

"  quest  of  Englond,  the  yete  of  my     p.  4.    The  last  date  mentioned  in 

*'  lordes  age,  Sir  ThomaB  Lord  of 
"  Berkley,  that  made  me  make  this 
^  translacion  fyue  and  tkyrtty." 
The  tme  date  is  1387,  and  Caxton'g 
error  has  been  corrected  in  the  Har- 
leian  MSS.  Catalogne  (n.  1900),  and 
in  the  general  introduction  to  the 
Honmuenta   Historica  Britannica, 

Trevisa's  text  is  1357  ;  hence,  per- 
haps, Caxton's  mistake;  hut  the 
chronicle  is  continned  to  the  year 

'  Fol.  390  a.,  'irhere  he  again  men- 
tions Trevisa  hy  name,  but  giyes  no 
information  "which  has  not  been 
already  set  down. 

e  2 



able,  of  variationa   iu  word»  and   expressions  taken 
from  our  first  volume.' 

^  Trevisa^s  word  or  expression,       Caxton*s  substituted  word  or  expression. 

plepe>— i-cleped 

-  callith,  p.  7 ;  called,  p.  31  (a  frequent  sub- 
stitation,  but  see  p.  111). 



-  embelysshers,  uf. 

schalle>  fonge— feng  - 

-  shall  resseyae,  id,  (frequent) ;  resseyued , 

p.  163. 



-  vnwynde,  p.  9. 

wonder  (adjective) 


-  -wonderful,  id. 



-  laboure,  p.  11. 

ich     - 


-  Ijid.    See  Addenda, 

lose   - 


-  leese  or  gleyue^  id. 

eche  - 


-  encrece,  p.  15. 

for  me  scholde  hem  knowe 

-    by  cause  men,  &;c.,  id,  (frequent.) 

lore    - 


-  doctryne,  p.  27  (frequent). 



-  named,  p.  31  (frequent,  see  p.  107). 



.  dwelle,  p.  45  (frequent). 



-   departe,  id,  (frequent). 



-  a  sounder,  p.  49  (frequent). 

pere   - 


-   lyke,  p.  49. 



-  melte,  p.  63. 

to  menynge    - 


-  to  say,  p.  69  (frequent)  ;  or,  as  moche  to 
saye  as,  p.  i03. 

efte    -           . 


-  after,  p.  71 ;    ako,  agayn,  p.  173. 



-   teke  away,  p.  73. 



-  fade,  p.  77. 

firen  (adj.)     - 


-  brennyng,  id. 

al  arewe 


'  al  along,  p.  79. 

eiiele>  nou)t  - 


•  wexe  not  seke,  p.  81. 



-   wexe  horc,  id. 



-  egge8,«rf. 



-   obedient,  p.  87. 



-   disposed,  id. 

rese  - 


-  fyghte,  p.  91. 



-  to  fore,  p.  93  (frequent). 

hatte— hi^t    - 


-  is  named,  p.  99  ;  was  named,  p.  115.  Sec 
p.  131. 



-  fylthe,  p.  109. 

as  me  trowe)>  - 


-   as  men  suppose,  p.  111. 



-  ascended,  p.  113. 



-  wylleth,  p.  119. 

ouer  (his  lotte) 


-  abone,  p.  125. 



-  helthfnl,  p,  127;  holsom,  p.  305. 



-  tents,  id. 

lesae,  lese 


'  pasture,  p.  131. 



It  has   not  been   deemed    necessary   to    warn    the 
reader   every  time    that   the   more    common    changes 

Trevisa^s  word  or  expression 

to  schedej»  and  to  falleb 

a^e    .  -  - 



toke  hem  to  rede 



happed  •  • 


grisbaytTDge  • 

fette  (to  hem) 


wem  -  -  •  ' 




were  twynnes 


(>e  i»ridde)  deel 


com  hepe 

)ede  -  -  -  - 



(sixty)  wynter 

chast(yerb)  -  -  - 

fey     -  ,  ..  - 

for  to  )>ey  amende 

skymours       -  -  - 

ontakyn  tyn   -        .   - 

mynystre       -  «           - 

to  wyfe          -  -        .   • 

vorschippe    *  -            r 

wood  "wroth    - 

a  payed         -  -       .    - 


keste              -  -           - 

copy  and  plente 

at  >e  best       - 

sprankele^     -  - 

(as  it  is  declared)  wil>ynne     - 

outlawed        .  -           - 

CaxUnCs  substituted  word  or  expression, 

'  departe  and  be&lle,  p.  133. 

-  agayn,  id,  (frequent). 

-  dyches,  p.  137. 

-  nature  and  kynde,  id.    See  p.  359. 

•  concluded,  p.  139. 

-  shameful,  p.  141. 

•  redylyer,  p.  145. 

>  happened,  p.  151. 

-  ylle  disposicionn,  p.  153. 

-  gruniynge,  p.  159. 

.  toke  (with  hem),  p.  173. 
'  ayentured,  p.  177. 

-  hurtynge  or  wemme,  p.  185. 
'  nose  thirles,  id, 

■   drowned,  p.  195. 

•  o^Gsprynge,  p.  203. 

were  bom  at  one  burthon,  p.  211. 
besette,  p.  217. 

>  part,  id, 

-  space,  p.  223 ;  also  clyfte  or  hoole,  pi  233. 
com  hupple,  p.  225. 

went,  p.  227. 

remembraunce,  p.  233. 

milting,  p.  235. 

yere,  p.  247. 

chastyse,  p.  249« 

feyth,p.  251. 

ynto  the  tyme,  &c.,  p.  253. 

scommers  or  theuys,  p.  261. 

reserued  (i.e.   except)  tin,  p.  261.      See 

p.  337. 
monasterye,  id. 
to  marie,  p.  263. 
worship  and  reuerence,  p.  265. 
sore  wrofh,  p.  275. 
paid  and  content,  p.  283. 
is  right  good,  p.  293.    See  p.  343. 
purposed,  p.  297.     , 
plente,  p.  301. 
wel  in  the  best  wyse,  p.  317. 
sperdyth,  p.  319. 
afiter,  id, 
exyled,  p.  319. 



have  been  made;  but  the  words  in  the  notes  ^'cmd 
**  80  frequmiily^"  "  avd  so  elsewhere/'  will  suflSeiently 
apprise  him  of  the  fact.  Conversely  it  has  been  some- 
times thought  worth  while  to  add  that  Caxton  has 
in  certain  places,  contrary  to  his  more  general  usage, 
retained  some  of  these  words  in  particular  passages  of 
his  text. 

But  besides  these  ^noteworthy  changes  by  Caxton, 
there  are  likewise  many  others  where  a  clause  or  even 
the  greater  part  of  a  sentence  has  been  re-cast  more 
in  accordance,  it  must  be  presumed,  with  the  phrase- 
ology of  his  own  day*  In  the  more  remarkable  in- 
stances Caxton's  text  is  given  in  the  notes,'  in  others 
it  has  been  considered  enough  to  say  *^  slightly  varied 

Trevisa^s  word  or  expression,      CaxtofiCs  substituted  word  or  expression. 

(men)  myslyleaed      - 


vsej>  -  -  - 







pi>t   - 



biddef»  meny  bedes     - 


heste  -  -  - 


be  and  al  bis  meyny  - 

gree  -  -  - 


oute  of  byleue,  p.  323« 

soft,  p.  333. 

drinen,  p.  339. 

capitayns,  p.  345.     See  p.  349. 

bedeS)  p.  355. 

aoenge,  p.  357. 

marketds,  p.  359. 

^thges,  p.  365. 

coueredy  p.  367* 

pigbt  and  stycked,  p.  369. 

goo,  p.  373. 

sbette,  p.  377. 

sayen  many  prayers,  id, 

fltanes,  p.  381. 

comanndement,  p  383. 

promise,  p.  391. 

be  and  bis  men,  p.  393. 

degree,  p.  409. 

spereled,  p.  429. 

Tbese  are  by  no  means  tbe  only 
substitutions  made  by  Caxton,  but 
ihey  comprise  fbe  principal  ones,  so 
far  as  this  ydnme  is  concerned,  and 
they  will  be  quite  sufficient  to  ap- 
prise tbe  reader  of  the  general  cha- 

racter of  bis  embellishments.  Tbe 
subject  will  be  more  minutely 
handled  in  the  Glossary. 

»  See  pp.  91,  141,  177,  179,  303, 
305,  311, 313  (especially),  315, 333, 
335,  369,  393  (especially). 



m  Cx."  *  Without  wishing  to  say  anything  in  deroga- 
tion of  the  great  patriarch  of  English  typographers,  I 
am  compelled  to  observe  that  his  edition  is  not  of 
much  critical  value,^  and  I  could  now  almost  wish 
that  it  had  not  been  employed  at  all  in  this  edition, 
but  that  another  good  MS.  had  been  used  in  its  place.^ 
However,  when  the  two  MSS.  diflfer,  and  when  Caxton 
agrees  with  one  of  them,  his  authority  is  frequently 
sufficient  to  determine  the  true  reading ;  and  there  is 
also  some  considerable  interest  in  perceiving  what 
words  and  phrases  were  falling  into  desuetude  in  Cax~ 
ton's  time,  even  though  some  of  them  be  used  by  the 
poets,  by  Spenser  in  particular,  in  times  much  pos- 
terior to  Caxton. 

The  Harleian  MS.>  n.  2261,  which  contains  the  more  The  Har- 
recent  English  translation,  now  for  the  first  time  j^^j^^^^^' 
printed  in  this  edition,  is  a  moderate-sized  quarto, 
on  paper,  and  contaiidng  449  leaves,  having  lost  at 
the  commencement  two  or  three  leaves,  viz.,  that  part 
of  the  tabula  which  contained  the  letter  A.  Each  page 
contains  from  30  to  40  lines,  neatly  written  in  a  hand 
of  the  15th  century.  The  capital  letters  and  headings 
of  chapters  and  sections  are  rubricated,  and  various 

^See  pp.  261,  313,  331,  333, 
335,  349,  355,  359,  361,  363,  369, 
371,  373,  375,  379,  381,  387,  391. 

2  Caxton,  it  has  been  very  jnstLy 
observed,  '<  exercised  the  part  of 
"-*■  editor  of  his  various  publications, 
**  by  no  means  after  the  fashion  of 
<<  Madden  and  Forshall.  Lollard 
*<  works  were  not  patronized  by 
"  the  Boyal  Caxton  press  ;  or  the 
«  Wycliflfe  Bible,  the  greatest  au- 
"  thority  for  the  history  of  old 
"  English,  would  have  represented, 
<<  as  it  came  firom  his  hands,  the 
''  spelling  and  even  the  granunar 
"  of  the  reigns  of  Edward  IV.  and 
"  Henry  Vil.      He  cared  Toothing 

^^  for  philology;  his  books  were 
*^  printed  for  the  sake  of  their 
'^  matter,  and  he  was  not  willing  to 
'^  allow  the  interest  of  the  subject 
"  to  suffer  from  the  presence  of  in- 
*^  stances  of  obsolete  spelling,  though 
^^  he  is  strangely  inconsistent  in  his 
"  orthography,*' — Christian  Rement" 
hrancer  (vol.  48,  p.  220>  These 
words  suggest  a  true  notion  of  his 
treatment  of  Higden. 

'  Such,  for  example,  as  that  at 
Glasgow,  which  Mr.  Hardwick  has 
called  in  his  MS.  memoranda ''  the 
*^  finest  in  existence."  The  Har- 
leian MS.  (n.  1900),  and  another 
in  the  Bodleian,  are  also  very  fine. 


ornamentations  occur  at  the  ends  of  books,  &c.  A  few 
remarks  are  added  in  later  hands.  The  chronicle  ends, 
foL  445,  with  an  account  of  the  spoliation  of  the  shrine 
of  Hayles,  and  of  St.  Edward  at  Westminster.  This 
appears  to  have  taken  place  in  the  same  year  as  the 
death  of  Edmund  Langley,  duke  of  York,  and  the 
expedition  of  Henry  IV.  to  Wales,  and  the  battle  with 
the  Scotch  (A.D.  1401),  which  are  mentioned  just 

The  last  words  of  the  chronicle  are:  "And  soone 
*'  after  the  shryne  of  Seynte  Edward  at  Westmonastery 
*^  was  spoylede  of  grete  rychesse  and  iewells,  and 
"  sjiecially  of  oon  table  of  golde.'^ 

After  this  follows,  in  the  same  hand,  some  verses 
on  the  kings  of  England  since  the  conquest,  Henry  VI. 
being  the  last  named.  It  is  evident,  from  the  follow- 
ing lines,  that  they  were  composed  in  his  reign. 

In  speaking  of  Henry  VI.,  he  says  : 

"  The  sixte  Henry,  brou^te  furthe  in  alle  vertu, 
**  By  iuste  tituUe  borne  to  enheritaimce, 
'^  Afore  provided  by  Criste  Jftu, 
"  To  were  ij.  crownes,  of  Ynglonde  and  of  Fraunce, 
**  To  whom  God  hathe  ^iffe  souereigne  sufficiaunce, 
"  With  vertuous  life  and  chose  hym  to  his  kny^hte, 
*'Longe  to  reioyce  and  reigne  here  in  his  ry^hte. 

After  mentioning  the  exactions  of  Pope  Benedict 
and  the  Statute  of  Provisions  (1342),  "that  noo  man 
"  scholde  brynge  suche  prouisions  in  to  his  realme  fro 
"  the  pope  in  peyne  of  prisonment  and  of  hongynge,^' 
the  translator  adds,  "  The  copilator  of  this  booke  wrote 
"  vn  to  this  tyme  "  (foL  389.  b). 

From  this  point  the  Harleian  additions  are  much 
fuller  than  those  of  Trevisa,  which  oceupy  only  two* 
pages  and  a  half,  whereas  those  in  the  Harleian  MS. 
go  on  to  the  time  of  Henry  IV.,  filling  55  leaves  (fol. 



The  name  of  "  Jacobus  Kavenscroft  '*  occurs  on 
foL  1, 

Of  the  author  of  this  translation  I  know  nothing, 
and  therefore  will  saj  little.  It  would  appear  that  he 
executed  his  translation  some  time  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  VL,  between  1432  and  1460,  and  therefore  some 
years  before  Edward  IV.  was  raised  to  the  throne.* 

In  this  MS.,  as  well  as  in  both  the  MSS.  of  Trevisa, 
the  ^  and  0  are  expressed  by  the  same  character.  The 
I?  also  occurs,  but  less  frequently.     (See  facsimile.) 

This  translator,  like  Trevisa,  follows  the  longer 
form  of  the  chronicle ;  numerous  omissions,  however, 
occur,  and  for  some  of  these  we  need,  I  believe,  seek 
no  more  profound  explanation  than  this,  that  when 
he  could  not  construe  a  sentence  he  passed  on  to  the 
next.  Thus  he  has  whoUy  omitted  to  translate  the 
verses  quoted  at  p.  236,  which  occur  in  every  MS. 
collated  for  this  edition ;  and  it  must  be  owned  that 
the  temptation  so  to  act  was  in  this  case  not  easy  to 
overcome.  The  translation  itself  is  often  bombastic,  and 
can  hardly  represent  the  spoken  English  of  any  period, 
being,  in  fact,  frequently  unintelligible  to  persons  un- 
acquainted with  Latin.  It  seems  scarcely  necessary  to 
dwell  upon  it  at  greater  length.* 

After  .the  death  of  my  lamented  friend.  Archdeacon  Archdea- 
Hardwick,  the  task  of  editing  the  Polychronicon  was  ^^ck^"^* 
committed  to  me  by  the  Master  of  the  RoEs  in  terms  very  labours  on 
kindly  expressed,  and  his  MS.  notes  were  placed*  in  my  ^^^^^* 
hands  by  our  common  friend,  the  Rev.  F.  Procter,  M.A., 
who  did  all  in  his  power  to  facilitate  my  operations. 
The  Rev.  G.  E.  Corrie,  D.D.,  Master  of  Jesus  College, 
Cambridge,  also  liberally  allowed  me  to  keep  a  copy  of 

*  Henry  VI.  was  crowned  in  Nov. 
1431  at  Notre  Dame ;  and  by  1460 
his  power  in  France  was  completely 

^  As  only  one  MS.  of  this  trans- 
lation seems  to  be  known,  I  have 

been  unable  to  correct  its  readings, 
except  occasionally  by  conjecture. 
Bnt  I  suspect  it  to  be  corrupt  in 
many  other  places,  where  I  have 
neither  guessed  nor  said  anything. 



Macray^s  British  Histoncms,  Ml  of  MS.  notes  by  the 
ArcMeacon.  He  had  proceeded  but  a  little  way,  as 
far  as  p.  89^  with  the  text  and  versions ;  and  as  the 
sheets  were  not  struck  off,  I  made  such  corrections  and 
additions  as  seemed  desirable^  and  must  consequently  be 
held  responsible  for  any  errors  which  may  be  discovered. 
It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  I  have  taken  in  two 
MSS.  in  addition  to  those  which  he  used ;  viz.  E.  for 
the  Latin  text,  and  a.  for  Trevisa.  All  the  MSS.  which 
he,  after  an  inspection  of  a  great  number,  selected, 
have  been  used  for  the  present  edition.^ 

It  now  remains  that  I  should  express  my  thanks 
to  the  Senate  of  the  University  of  Cambridge  for  per- 
mitting me  to  take  out  of  the  University  Library 
MSS.  A.  and  E. ;  to  the  Master  and  Fellows  of  Caius 
College,  Cambridge,  for  granting  me  the  like  privi- 
lege with  respect  to  their  MS.  B. ;  to  the  President 
and  Fellows  of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  for  allowing 
me  to  take  out  their  MS.  C,  and  to  retain  it  for  a 
long  time  till  the   collation  was  completed  ;  to  the 

» Ayrotd  or  two  may  herebe  said  in 
ezplaiiation  of  the  mode  of  editing. 
In  theLatin  text  Hie  orfhograpliyliafi 
been  freely  corrected  in  accordance 
wiHi  common  use,  and  &lse  spell- 
ings are  bnt  occasionally  recorded. 
In  the  Englifih,  except  in  the  case 
of  proper  names,  I  have  been  very 
unwilling  to  change  the  text  or  or- 
thography from  coijectnre;  wher- 
eyer  letters  or  words  are  in  bi^kets 
the  reader  will  at  once  be  apprised 
they  do  not  occur  in  the  standard 
MS.>  bat  are  usually  added  from  a. 
or  Cx.y  or  both.  The  proper  names 
in  the  versions  haye  given  me  much 
trouble  and  perplexity.  Whenever 
the  word  has  been  changed  into  an 
!English  dress,  as  Alisaundre,  the 
MS.  reading  has  of  course  always 

been  retained,  and  when  it  is  in  a 
manner  naturalized,  like  Afiricaand 
Babiloun,  it  has  been  half  reluc- 
tantly allowed  to  stand  $  in  the  case 
however  of  a  Latin  word  merely 
barbarised,   the  MS.  reading  has 
been  changed  into  the  classical  form, 
except  that  diphthongs  are  excluded, 
which  I  could  wish  were  baiushed 
firam  the  language  altogether.  Thus,, 
in  the  English,  I  write  (following 
the  MSS.)  «  Cesar,  Phenida,"  &c. 
both  of  which  are  sanctioned  by 
the  authorized  version  of  the  Bible. 
Still  in  many  cases  it  was  difficult 
to  judge  what  course  was  best  to  be 
followed,  and  the  reader  is  informed 
in  the  notes  what  the  MSS.  read  in 
all  cases  where  it  seemed  necessary 
to  mention  their  orthography. 


Master  and  Fellows  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge, 
for  aUowing  me  to  retain  in  long  continued  possession 
their  MS.  D.,  as  well  as  the  standard  MS.  of  Trevisa, 
and  their  fine  copy  of  Caxton's  edition  ;  also  to  the 
Rev.  J.  B.  Lightfoot,  D.D.,  Hulsean  Professor  of  Di- 
vinity, and  Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  for 
allowing  me  free  access  to  MS.  G. ;  and,  in  fine,  to  the 
Eight  Hon.  S.  H.  Walpole,  M.P,,  for  caUing  my  atten- 
tion to  the  valuable  Winchester  MS.  (W.) ;  and  to  the 
Rev.  G.  Moberly,  D.D.,  Head  Master  of  Winchester 
College,  for  politely  collating,  at  my  request,  certain 
portions  of  that  MS. 

Nor  must  I  omit  publicly  to  acknowledge  the  alle- 
viation of  my  labours  by  S.  A.  Moore,  Esq.,  of  the 
Public  Record  Office,  by  whom  the  collation  of  MSS. 
B.  and  C.  for  the  latter  part  of  this  volume,  and  for 
the  remainder  of  the  work,  has  been  made,  and  who, 
in  conjunction  with  T.  Dufius  Hardy,  Esq.,  has  much 
assisted  me  in  various  other  ways.  To  E.  A.  Bond, 
Esq.,  of  the  British  Museum,  I  am  also  under  obliga- 
tions for  the  ready  aid  of  his  great  paleographical 
knowledge.  In  conclusion,  I  must  beg  the  indulgence 
of  the  reader,  who  may  detect  errors  and  oversights 
which  are  in  some  degree  unavoidable  in  the  execution 
of  a  difficult  and  laborious  undertaking. 

St  John's  College,  Cambridge, 
October  21,  1864. 



The  Map  of  the  World. 

Cap.  I. 
The  Prologue. 

Praise  of  the  writers  of  history.  Letters  alone  keep  alive  the 
memory  of  great  actions  in  past  times,  and  sustain  laws  and 
arts  in  onr  own.  Emperors,  philosophers,  and  apostles  would 
be  almost  unknown  but  for  written  monuments.  Of  all  kinds 
of  writing,  history  is  the  noblest,  and  brings  the  most  honour 
to  its  professors.  Accordingly  the  author  proposes  to  hand 
down  the  praises  of  his  native  land  to  posterity  in  a  treatise 
culled  from  the  labours  of  various  historians.  His  friends 
urge  him  to  enlarge  his  work  into  a  general  history  of  the 
world  in  regular  chronological  order.  He  distrusts  his  own 
powers  and  attainments.  However,  he  will  endeavour  to  be  a 
gleaner  after  the  reapers,  through  following  them  at  a  humble 
distance.    Eeaders  who  may  not  have  access  to  large  libraries 

.  may  at  least  be  instructed  by  this  compendium^  Equal 
certainty  in  all  its  parts  cannot  be  looked  for  in  a  history. 
At  the  same  time  all  wonderful  accounts  are  not  to  be 
discarded  as  incredible.  Consequently  the  author  cannot 
guarantee  the  accuracy  of  every  statement,  but  only  faith- 
fully reports  what  he  finds  in  his  authorities.  At  the  same 
time  he  makes  their  labours  his  own,  by  expressing  their 
meaning  in  his  own  words.  Their  names  precede  the  sen- 
tences which  are  derived  from  them;  when  the  compiler 
himself  speaks,  he  prefixes  his  own  name*    -         -    pp.  2-20. 

Cap.  IL 
The  names  of  the  authors  alleged  in  this  booh. 

Catalogue  of  the  writers  and  their  works.  -         -    pp.  20-26. 


Cap.  in» 

The  division  of  the  worh  into  seven  books. 

The  title  Polychronicon  indicates  its  character.  Its  sevenfold 
division  follows  the  example  of  the  work  of  Creation.  The 
first  book  contains  a  map  of  the  world,  being  a  description 
of  its  principal  divisions  and  countries,  ending  with  BritaiQ. 
The  second  book  contains  a  brief  summary  of  universal 
history  from  the  Creation  of  man,  till  the  destruction  of  the 
Jewish  temple.  The  third  book  continue»  the  history  from 
the  return  from  Babylon  to  the  advent  of  Christ.  The  fourth 
book  goes  on  to  the  arrival  of  the  Saxons  in  England.  The 
fifth  thenceforward  to  the  invasion  of  the  Danes.  The  sixth 
thenceforward  to  the  Horman  conquest.  The  seventh  pro- 
ceeds from  the  conquest  till  the  author's  own  time  in  the 
reign  of  Edward  the  Third.         -  -  -    pp.  26-28. 

Cap.  IV- 

Preliminary  observations  useful  to  readers  of  the  present 


On  the  descriptions  of  places,  of  which  more  hereafter  $  also 
on  the  states  of  the  world ;  on  the  distinctions  of  dispensations ; 
on  the  successions  of  empires ;  on  the  forms  of  religions ;  on 
the  courses  of  ages ;  and  on  the  qualities  of  actions ;  and  on 
the  various  modes  of  computations  of  years.  Modes  of  com- 
puting years  among  the  Hebrews^  Greeks,  BomauB,  and 
Christians.  The  chronological  systems  of  Dionysius  Exiguus, 
and  Marianus  Scotus.  Errors  of  Dionysius.  The  method  of 
noting  dates  adopted  in  the  present  work.        *    pp.  30-40. 

Cap.  V. 
On  the  dimensions  of  the  world* 

The  survey  and  description  of  the  world  undertaken  by  com- 
mand of  Julius  Cassar.  The  length  and  breadth  of  the 
habitable  world.  The  diameter  of  the  earth ;  distance  of  hell 
from  the  earth's  surface.    -  -  -  -    pp.  40-46. 

Cap.  VI. 
On  ^  divisions  of  the  Earth. 

Boundaries  of  Europe,  Asia,  and  Africa.  -  -    pp.  46-48. 


Cap.  Vn. 

Description  of  the  parts  of  the  Earth. 

Population,  temperature,  and  'extent  of  Europe,  Asia*,  and 
Africa.  Some  geographers  reokon  only  Europe  and  Asia  as 
the  divisions  of  the  world,  counting  A&ica  as  a  part  of 
Europe.         -  -  -  .  .  -    pp«  48-52, 

Cap,  VIIL 

The  Mediterranean  Sea, 

Description  of  the  limits  and  extent  of  this  sea ;  names  of  its 
bays,  straits,  and  other  parts.  On  the  Euxine,  Froj)ontis,  and 
Hellespont.  ------    pp.  62-58. 

Cap.  IX. 

The  Ocean, 

The  ocean  encompasses  the  earth  like  a  circle.  The  tides  most 
felt  near  the  shores.  The  probable  eauses  of  this.  The  three 
great  bays  of  the  ocean  are  the  Mediterranean,  the  Caspian, 
and  the  Eed  Sea.  The  red  dye  of  that  sea  deriyed  &om  the 
shore.  The  Caspian  gates;  legendary  stories  about  them. 
On  whirlpools  in  the  Mediterranean  and  in  the  Atlantic. 

pp.  58-64. 

Cap.  X. 


The  provinces  of  the  Earthy  and  first  of  Paradise. 

Three  points  to  be  considered  concerning  Paradise ;  its  exis- 
tence, situation,  and  character.  The  four  rivers  of  Paradise. 
Paradise  is  not,  as  some  suppose,  a  region  elevated  above 
the  surface  of  the  globe.  Astronomical  considerations  dis- 
prove this.  Paradise  is  with  probability  placed  in  the  ex- 
treme bounds  of  the  east,  and  considered  to  be  a  large 
tract  of  country,  not  less  than  India  and  Egypt.  Its  name 
signifies  a  garden  of  delights ;  there  beauty  and  loveliness, 
salubrity  and  security  are  perpetual.  The  waters  of  Noah's 
flood  did  not  reach  it.  A  fiery  wall  and  cherubim  above 
it  guard  Paradise  against  the  approach  of  men  and  evil 
angels.  ------    pp,  66-78. 


Cap.  XI. 

Asia  and  its  provinces, 

Asia,  whence  so  called.  India;  its  natural  prodnctions,  cli- 
mate, tribes.  Habits  of  the  people ;  institutions  of  caste. 
Monstrous  and  strange  kiuds  of  men:  Pigmies,  gymnoso- 
pbists,  cynocephali,  <fcc.  Trees  of  the  sun  and  moon ;  they 
forbid  Alexander  to  enter  Babylon.  -  -    pp.  78-84. 

Cap.  XII. 

Extent  of  Parthia,  Signification  of  Parthi.  The  Parthians 
originally  exiles  from  Scythia.  Their  history  obscure  till 
the  Macedonian  period.  Manners  of  the  Parthians.  Dynasty 
of  the  ArsacidjB.    The  Parthian  mode  of  warfare,  pp.  84-90. 

Cap.  XIII. 

Assyria  and  the  adjacent  regions. 

Etymology  of  Assyria,  Media,  and  Persia.  Their  boundaries. 
Babylonia.  Description  of  Babylon.  Ohaldea.  Description 
of  the  Tower  of  Babel.  Arabia,  its  boundaries  and  natural 
productions.  Description  of  Mount  Sinai.  Mount  Libanus 
described;  its  natural  productions.  Syria,  its  etymology 
and  boundaries  ;  notice  of  Damascus.    -  -    pp.  92-102. 

Cap.  XIV. 

The  region  of  Jtidea, 

Judea,  whence  so  called.  Different  significations  of  the  word. 
Its  extent ;  its  length  and  breadth ;  it»s  boundaries.  JN'atural 
productions  of  Jndea.  Jerusalem,  anciently  called  Salem. 
Also  called  by  Solomon  Jerosolima,  and  by  poets  Solyma. 
Afterwards  called  -^lia  by  Hadrian.  St.  Jerome  thinks 
however,  that  Salem  is  Scythopolis  or  Bethshan.  Situation 
of  Jerusalem.  Has  no  fountains.  Mount  Sidn.  Church  of 
the  Holy  Sepulchre.  The  miracle  of  the  Holy  Fire.  Orna- 
mentation and  fortification  of  the  city  by  Solomon.  The 
Mount  of  Olives.  The  brook  Oedron  Grethsemane.  Mount 
Calvary,  The  Dead  Sea ;  its  qualities.  Pentapolis.  Apples 
of  Sodom.  -  -  -  -  -    pp.  102-118. 


Cap.  XV. 

The  region  of  Canaan, 

Canaan,  whence  so  called.  Palestine,  its  limits.  Idumea,  its 
limits ;  the  fountain  Jobyn.  Samaria  formerly  included  in 
Palestine.  It  lies  between  Judea  and  Galilee;  signification 
of  Samaritce,  Le,,  keepers*  Sichem,  now  Neapolis.  Histo- 
rical notices  of  the  city.  Galilee  lies  between  Judea  and 
Palestine.  Upper  and  Lower  Galilee.  Lake  of  Galilee. 
Ptolemais  or  Acre.  Cedar,  its  position  :  seat  of  the  Ishma- 
elites.  Otherwise  known  as  Hagarens  or  Saracens.  Their 
habits.  Phenicia ;  its  boundaries.  Phenicians  the  inventors 
of  letters.  -  -  -  -  «    pp.  120-128. 

Cap.  XVI. 


Egypt,  whence  so  called;  its  limits;  its  natural  productions. 
The  Nile.  Cause  of  its  overflowing.  Various  opinions  on 
this  subject.  «  -  -  .  «    pp.  130-134 

•    Cap.  XVII. 

Scythia  and  the  adjacent  regions. 

Scythia  partly  in  Europe,  partly  in  Asia;  its  boundaries. 
Ifabits  of  the  Scythians.  They  conquer  Egypt,  Persia,  and 
the  army  of  Alexander.  They  found  the  empires  of  Parthia 
and  Bactria,  and  their  women  that  of  the  Amazons.  Their 
three  conquests  of  Asia.  The  servile  insurrection,  and  its 
suppression.  Boundaries  of  Bactria.  Description  of  Mount 
Caucasus.  Boundaries  of  Hyrcania  ;  its  inhabitants  and 
productions.  Boundaries  of  Hiberia  and  Albania.  The  men 
and  dogs  of  Albania.  Boundaries  of  Gothia.  Character  of 
the  inhabitants;  their  descendants  in  Europe,  Asia,  and 
Africa.  Origin  of  the  Armenians.  Boundaries  and  extent 
of  Armenia.    Moimt  Ararat,      -  -  -    pp.  134-146. 

' .  Cap.  XVIII. 

Cappadocia  and  Asia  Minor, 

liunits  of  Cappadocia.    Definition  of  Asia  Minor.     The  pro- 
vinces of  Bitbynia,    Galatia,    Phrygia  Minor  or  Dardania, 

VOL.  I.  f 

Ixxyiii  '        SUMMARY  OF  CONTENTS, 

Lydia,  Pamphylia  or  Isauria,  Oilicia,  including  Lycia  or 
Lycaonia.  Amazonia  partly  in  Europe,  partly  in  Asia.  Habits 
and  goyemment  of  the  Aiuazons.  Queen  Thalestris  and  her 
correspondence  with  Alexander.  -  -    pp.  146-154. 

Cap.  XIX. 

Africa  and  its  inhabitants. 

Etymology  and  definition  of  Africa.  Its  provinces  enume- 
rated. Ethiopia  described;  character  and  habits  of  its 
monstrous  inhabitants;  the  Garamantes,  Troglodytae,  &c. ; 
the  animak  of  Ethiopia;  its  fountains.  LiiMts  and  ety- 
mology  of  Libya.    Boundaries  of  the'  Tripolitana.    Grastulia. 

pp.  154^-162. 

Cap.  XX. 

The  same,  continued. 

Boundaries  of  Kumidia.  History  of  the  foundation  of  Car- 
thage. Chronological  difficulties  about  YirgiVs  account  of 
Eneas  and  Dido.  Dimensions  of  Carthage.  Etymology  of 
Mauretania.  Its  two  divisions,  Csesariensis  and  Tingitana. 
Description  of  Mount  Atlas.     ...  -    pp.  162-168. 

Cap.  XXI. 

Europe  and  its  provinces* 

Europe,  whence  named.  Its  boundaries.  The  river  Tanais. 
Boundaries  of  the  lower  Scythia.  Short  notices  of  Alania, 
Moesia,  Sclavia,  and  Panuonia.  -  -    pp.  168-174. 

Cap.  XXII. 

Greece  and  its  provinces» 

The  ancient  and  modem  names  of  the  inhabitants  of  Greece. 
Degeneracy  of  the  later  Greeks.  Enumeration  of  the  pro- 
viQces  of  Greece.  Description  of  Thrace  or  Epirus,  and  of 
its  metropolis,  Constantinople.  The  churches  erected  by 
Constantine  and  Justinian.  Eeliques  of  the  Saints  preserved 
there.  ITotice  of  the  Lacedemonians  or  Spartans;  they  found 
Tarentum.  Boundaries  of  Macedonia.  Description  of  Moimt 
Olympus  and  Mount  Athos.    Boimdaries  of  Dalmatia.    De- 


scription  of  Achaia,  with  notices  of  Corinth.  Description  of 
Arcadia,  and  notices  of  its  products.  Thessaly ;  its  inhabi- 
tants and  natural  curiosities.  The  Lapithss  and  Centaurs 
explained.  Mount  Parnassus.  Tempe.  Deucalion's  flood. 
Helladia,  whence  so  called.  Comprises  Attica,  Boeotia,  and 
Peloponnesus.  Oecrops  founded  Acte,  afterwards  called 
Athens.  Contest  of  Minerva  and  Neptune.  Notice  of  the 
Hellespont.  Early  civilization  of  Athens.  Notices  of  her 
kings.  Etymology  of  Boeotia  ;  its  natural  curiosities*  Notice 
of  Thebes. pp.  174-196. 

Cap.  XXIIL 

Italy  and  its  provinces, 

Italy,  anciently  called  Magna  Grsecia,  Hesperia,  Satumia,  and 
Ausonia.  Why  afterwards  called  Italy.  Its  boundaries  ;  its 
rivers  and  natural  curiosities.  Enumeration  of  its  provinces. 
Notice  of  Apulia,  and  its  metropolis,  Brundusium.  Notices 
of  Campania  Major  and  Minor.  Capua,  Neapolis,  and  Virgil's 
'baths.  Ancient  inhabitants  of  Italy  before  the  Lombards 
enumerated.     Origin  and  progress  of  the  Lombards. 

pp.  198-206. 

Cap.  XXIV. 

The  city  of  Home, 

Modem  writers  on  Eome.  Legendary  accounts  of  the  building 
of  various  parts  of  the  city  by  Noah,  Janus,  Saturn,  Italus, 
Hercules,  and  EvEtnder.  Romulus  confined  them  all  within 
the  walls  of  one  city.  Date  of  his  foundation.  Enumeration 
of  the  city  gates ;  circumference  of  the  walls.  The  palaces 
of  Eome.  The  central  palace ;  the  palace  of  peace,  biiilt  by 
BomuluB ;  the  palace  of  Diocletian ;  the  palace  of  sixty  em- 
perors. The  Pantheon;  the  arch  of  Augustus;  the  arch  of 
Scipio;  the  holovitreum  destroyed  by  St.  Sebastian.  The 
temple  of  Jupiter  Capitolinus.  Origin  of  the  word  jktm&n. 
The  magical  wonders  of  the  House  of  Gold.  The  statue  of 
Bellerophon  suspended  in  mid  air.  Notices  of  theatres, 
aqueducts,  and  baths;  The  giant  Pallas  and  his  epitaph. 
Statues  of  Jupiter  and  Venus  in  Rome.  Pyramids  of  Romu- 
lus and  of  Julius  Caesar.  The  marble  horses.  Legend  of 
Praxitelkts  and  Fibia  (Praxiteles  and  Phidias).  Account  of 
the  statue  variously  said  to  represent  Theodoric,  Constan- 
tine,  Marcus,  and  Quintus  Curtius.  Account  of  the  Colossus 
removed  from  Rhodes.    Its  magical  properties.    How  de- 

f  2 


Btroyed  by  pope  Gregory.  Statue  of  the  City  of  Eome  ;  its 
miraculous  destruction.  Palace  of  Vespasian,  and  verses 
inscribed  on  a  tablet  hard  by.  -  -  -    pp,  206-238. 

Cap.  XXV. 

On  certain  institutions  of  the  Romans, 

A  Eoman  triumph ;  the  ceremonies  observed ;  the  licence  per- 
mitted. Ceremony  at  an  imperial  coronation.  Mode  of  pro- 
claiming war  among  the  Eomans.  The  diflferent  kinds  of 
toga  worn  by  different  persons.  On  the  dies  fasti  and  nefastu 
The  Quinguatria.  The  division  of  the  Boman  people  into 
two  classes  by  Romulus.  Subsequent  division  into  four 
classes.  On  the  ides,  kalends,  &c.  On  the  milites  emeriti. 
NonaricB,  why  so  called.  The  Proletarii,  Origin  of  divorce 
among  the  Bomans.  Character  of  the  Boman  emperors  and 
people.       -  -  •  -  -  -    pp.  238-252, 

Cap,  XXVL 

Germany  and  its  parts. 

Limits  of  Germany,  according  to  Isidore.  Upper  and  Lower 
Germany.  Their  various  provinces  enumerated.  The  north- 
ern regions  more  populous  and  hardy  than  the  south ;  hence 
the  vast  swarms  of  barbarous  tribes  that  have  poured  down 
from  them,  Huns,  Gt>ths,  Vandals,  Saxons,  &c.  Limits  of 
Bohemia.  Its  natural  productions.  The  Bison.  Limits  of 
Thuringia,  of  Franconia,  of  Bavaria,  of  "Westphalia,  of  Sue- 
via,  of  Saxony.  Character  of  the  Saxons.  Natural  produc- 
tions of  Germany.  Ancient  government  of  the  Saxons.  Limits 
of  Frisia.  Manners  and  government  of  the  Frisians.  Limits 
of  Seland.  Character  of  the  country  and  its  inhabitants. 
The  Scribonii,  a  people  of  north-west  Germany.  The  Seven 
Sleepers.  -  -  -  -  -  -    pp.  254-266. 

Cap-  XXVII. 

Gauly  or  France. 

Gallia,  why  so  called.  The  Galli,  the  priests  of  Cybele,  not 
named  from  Gallia,  but  from  the  river  Gallus.  Character 
bf  the  Gauls.  Limits  of  Gallia.  Its  divisions  in  the  time 
of  Julius  Caesar,  Bivers  of  France.  Its  minerals ;  plaster  of 
Paris.    Praises  of  Paris.    Tl^e  Franks,  like  most  nations  of 


Europe,  took  their  origin  from  Troy.  Antenor,  their  ances- 
tor, founded  the  city  of  the  Sicambri  in  Pannonia.  Their 
leaders  after  his  death,  Trogotus  and  Franco  5  whence  the 
nation  took  their  name.  Another  account  makes  Charle- 
magne the  author  of  the  name ;  he  released  slaves  through- 
out Gaul  in  honour  of  St.  Denys,  and  made  them  freemen  or 
Franks  of  the  saint.  From  that  time  Grallia  was  called 
France.  Others  say  that  the  emperor  Valentinian  called 
the  Sicambri  feranoly  from  the  ferocity  of  their  manners. 
The  succession  of  the  French  kings.  The  Merovingian  dy- 
nasty, and  nolbices  of  the  separate  kings.  Charles  Martel ; 
Pepin ;  Charlemagne.  The  Carlovingian  dynasty,  and  notices 
of  the  separate  kings.  Hugh  Capet,  duke  of  Burgundy,  and 
his  successors  reign  in  France.  Charlemagne's  successors 
reign  in  Italy  and  Germany  till  the  time  of  Conrad.  Enume- 
ration of  the  tribes  who  successively  occupied  Caul.  The 
provinces  of  France  recounted.  -  -    pp.  266-286. 

Cap.  XXVIII. 

Description  of  the  Provinces  of  France, 

Brabant,  famous  for  its  wool.  The  waters  of  England  not  so 
favourable  for  dyeing ;  Lincoln  however  and  London  pro- 
duce good  scarlet.  Flanders,  how  bounded;  its  inhabitants 
and  natural  productions.  The  limits  of  Picardy ;  Upper  and 
Lower  Picardy.  Normandy,  peopled  by  Danish  and  Nor- 
wegian sailors ;  its  capital  city  Bouen.  Britaimy,  twice 
occupied  by  Britons,  once  in  the  time  of  Belinus,  and  again 
in  Vortigern's  reign  j  how  bounded.  A  marvellous  fountain 
in  Britanny.  Poitou  and  Poictierfe,  how  peopled;  the  cha- 
racter of  the  inhabitants.  Aquitaine  or  Guienne,  its  boun- 
daries defined.  Anjou,  its  situation.  Gascony,  formerly 
counted.,  to  Guienne ;  the  Vascones  formerly  located  there  by 
Pompey  the  Great ;  the  inhabitants  now  known  by  the  name 
of  Basques.  Burgundy,  why  so  called ;  its  inhabitants  suffer 
from  goitre.  -  -  -  -  -  -    pp.  288-298. 

Cap.  XXIX. 


Limits  of  Spain  defined.  Hispania  Citerior  and  Ulterior; 
formerly  called  Hesperia  and  Hiberia.  Provinces  of  Spain 
enumerated.  Notice  of  Carthago  Spartaria.  Occupation  of 
Spain  by  the  Carthaginians,  Goths,  and  Saracens.  The  last 
now  coiifined  to  the  eastern  districts  of  Spain,    pp.  298-302. 


^  4  '«^      "V  V  XT 

The  Islands  of  the  Mediterranean* 

Gades  or  Cadiz  described.  Signification  of  tlie  name.  Columns 
of  Hercules.  Majorca  .and  Minorca.  !N"otice  of  SsCrdinia; 
its  marvels.  Corsica,  its  situation  described;  its  extent; 
named  from  a  woman  Oorsa;  fertility  of  its  soil.  Aradus, 
near  Tyre,  famed  for  its  sailors.  The  Cyclades,  why  so 
called.  Among  them  are  Ehodes  and  Delos.  Derivation  of 
Delos;  formerly  called  Ortygia.  The  island  of  Samos; 
historical  notices.  Samian  ware.  Cyprus  described.  Crete 
described;  its  natural  productions,  arts  and  scieuces;  the 

Sicily  described;  anciently  called  Trinacria  and  Sicania;  for- 
merly joined  by  land  to  Italy  at  Ehegium ;  derivation  of 
Ehegium,  Scylla  and  Charybdis.  The  plough  first  used 
in  Sicily;  comedy  invented  there.  The  country  abounds  in 
volcanic  rocks.  Description  of  Mount  Etna;  supposed  by 
St.  Grregory  to  be  the  place  of  tormented  souls.  Marvellous 
wells  in  Sicily,  Crickets,  which  sing  best  when  dead  and 
without  their  heads.  The  city  of  Palermo.  Sal  Agrigen- 
tinus.    The  j^olian  Islands. 

Other  islands  in  the  Euxine,  which  is  a  part  of  the  Medi-^ 
terranean,  as  Colchos  and  Patmos.        -  -    pp.  802-^18. 

Cap.  XXXI. 

The  Islands  of  the  Atlantic* 

The  Canaries  or  Fortunate  Islands ;  considered  by  the  heathen 
to  be  Paradise  by  reason  of  their  extraordinary  fertility. 
Denmark  (Dacia)  peopled  by  Goths;  character  of  the  in- 
habitants; Britain  and  Gaul  invaded  by  them;  they  intro- 
duced habits  of  drunkenness  into  Britain.  "Wyntland,  cha- 
racter of  its  inhabitants ;  they  sell  wind  to  sailors,  Iceland, 
its  situation  described ;  its  natural  productions ;  character 
and  occupation  of  its  inhabitants.  Island  of  Thule  (Tile),  or 
Island  of  the  Sun;  its  climate  described;  six  days*  sail 
distant  from  Britain.  Tills  not  the  same  as  Tile.  N'orway 
described ;  its  climate  and  natural  productions ;  its  inhabit 
tants  hunters  and  pirates.  hi*    pp.  820-328 


Cap.  XXXIL 


Ireland  largely  described  by  Giraldus  Cambrensis,  the  prin- 
cipal authority  for  this  account,  which  embraces  the  follow- 
ing subjects :  <  the  position  and  character  of  the  island ;  its 
productions  and  defects ;  its  inhabitants,  ancient  and  modem ; 
its  miracles  and  saints.  Ireland,  the  last  island  of  the  West, 
called  Hibernia  from  Hiberus,  brother  of  Hermon  (Hermo- 
nius),  a  Spaniard,  or  from  Hiberus  the  river.  Also  formerly 
«ailed  Scotia,  Position  of  Ireland  defined.  The  Irish  sea 
rough  and  almost  impassable.  From  the  Brendan  hills  to 
St.  Oolumba  it  contains  eight  days'  journey  in  length,  of 
forty  miles  each,  and  from  Dublin  to  Connaught  four  days'. 
Mountainous  and  marshy  character  of  the  country.  Great 
fertility  of  its  pastures.  Salubrity  of  the  climate.  Beef 
wholesome  there,  pork  unwholesome,  l^o  poison  produced 
there.  The  beasts,  birds,  and  fishes  of  Ireland.  The  ber- 
nacle  goose ;  its  strange  production  from  firwobd ;  eaten  by 
religious  men  on  fasting  days,  as  not  being  properly  fl^sh. 
This  opinion  refuted.    Errors  of  Bede  and  others  respecting 

,  the  natural  productions  of  Ireland.  The  precious  stones  and 
pearls  of  Ireland.  The  defects  of  the  country.  The  wheat 
produces  very  small  corns;  and  in  general  most  animals, 
man  excepted,  are  smaller  here  than  elsewhere.  Fresh- 
water fish  for  the  most  part  wanting.  Certain  kinds  of 
falcons  and  of  game  and  other  animals  also  wanting. 
Yenomous  beasts  said  to  have  been  expelled  by  St.  Patrick. 
More  probably  the  island  never  had  any.  Poisonous  crea- 
tures die  in  Ireland;  and  poison  as  it  approaches  the  Irish 
<5oast  loses  its  force.  Irish  earth-mould ,  kills  venomous 
creatures.    Ii*ish  cock-crowing.  *  ».  -    PP»  328-338. 

Cap.  XXXni. 

Ireland,  continued*     The  original  inhabitants* 

Inhabitants  of  Ireland  before  the  Deluge.  Casera  and  her 
company.  Arrival  of  Bartholanus,  descended  from  Japhet, 
three  hundred  years  after  the  Deluge.  His  family  increased 
to  nine  thousand  men,  all  of  whom,  except  Euanua,  died 
from  the  stench  of  the  carcases  of  the  giants  whom  they 
slew.  He  lived  for  fifteen  hundred  years,  till  St.  Patrick's 
time,  and  related  to  him  the  history  of  the  nation.  Scythian 
colony  under  Nimeth;  its  destruction  by  war  and  pestilence 


after  two  hundred  and  sixteen  years.     Ireland  without  in-» 
habitants  for  two  centnries.    Greek  colony  under  five  generals 
of  Nimeth's  posterity.     They  divide  the  land  into  five  parts, 
and  set  up  a  pillar  in  the  centre  of  the  country ;    Slanius 
at  length  becomes  the  sole  governor  of  the  island.    Spanish 
colony  under  Hiberus  and  Hermon,  sons  of  king  Milesius. 
Hermon  kills  his  brother  and  becomes   sole  monarch.     A 
hundred  and  thirty-one  kings  reign  from  his  time  to  the 
arrival  of  St.  Patrick.     From  the  arrival  of  the  Spaniards 
to  the  death  of  St.  Patrick   are  eighteen   hundred  years. 
The  Irish  also  called  Graitels  and  Scots.     G-aytelus,  a  grand- 
son of  Phenius,  married  Scota,  Pharaoh's  daughter.    Came 
to  Ireland  after  the  Confusion  of  Tongues,  and  composed 
the  Irish,  or  G-aelio  language.    Afterwards  Gurgentius,  son 
of  Belinus,  king  of  Britain,   introduced  some  Basques    of 
Spain,  whom  he  found  in  the  Orkneys  without  a  habitation, 
over  whom   he    placed  a  governor.     Consequently    Ireland 
belongs,  of  right,  to  Britain.     From  the  time  of  St.  Patrick 
to  Fedlimidius,   thirty-three  kings  reigned  in  four  hundred 
years.      Turgesius,  a    leader    of  Norwegian    pirates,  then 
invaded  and  conquered  the  country.     They  construct  many 
fosses  and  castles.      This  Turgesius  was    sent   over    from 
Britain  by  Gurmund,  who  reigned  there  by  right  of  conquest. 
Gurmund  known  in  England  as  the  only  conqueror  of  Ireland. 
Turgesius,  in  like  manner,  in  Ireland.     After  Gurmund's 
death,  Turgesius  fell  in  love  with  the  daughter  of  the  king 
of  Meath.     The  king  murders  him  by  stratagem,   after  he 
had   reigned  thirty  years.     Soon  afterwards  other  l^orwe- 
gians  come  to  Ireland   for  trading   purposes;    they    build 
Dublin,  Waterford,  and  Limerick.    They  at  length  quarrel 
with  the  Irish.    They  introduce  the  Sj^artlu    Seventeen  kings 
in  Ireland,   from  Turgesius  to  Rotherick,  the  last  king  of 
Connaught,-whom  Henry  the  Second  conquered.    From  Her- 
mon to  Rotherick,  eighty-one  kings  reigned,  not  crowned  nor 
consecrated,  but  raised  to  the  throne  by  lawless  violence. 

pp.  340-350. 

Cap,  XXXIV. 

Ireland^  continued.     The  manners  of  the  natives. 

The  ancient  Irish,  according  to  Solinus,  lawless,  brutal,  and 
idle  barbarians.  Their  manners  in  the  time  of  Giraldus 
Cambrensis  not  much  better.  Their  dress,  arms,  music. 
Their  dissolute  habits ;  they  refuse  to  pay  tithes ;  tteir  cow- 
ardice, perfidy,  &c.  In  Ireland  and  Wales  old  hags  change 
themselves  into  hares.     Some  Irish  conjurers  can  change 


dead  matter  into  live  swine ;  if  they  cross  water,  they  revert 
to  their  original  substance,  and  in  no  case  last  more  than 
three  days.  Marvels -always- abound  most  in  the  extremities 
of  the  world ;  and  for  that  reason  in  Ireland  also. 

pp.  350-360. 

Cap.  XXXV. 

Ireland^  continued.     The  Marvels  of  the  country* 

The  island  of  immortality.  Other  marvellous  islands.  Island 
in  a  lake  of  Ulster  containing  the  Purgatory  of  St.  Patrick, 
Marvellous  fountains  in  Ireland.  Bound  towers  visible  below 
the  surface  of  a  lake  in  Ulster  (Loch  !N"eagh).  In  Ossory  every 
seven  years  a  man  and  woman  are  changed  into  wolves. 
Petrifying  and  other  wonderful  lakes.  St.  Colman's  birds. 
Large  account  of  the  Purgatory  of  St.  Patrick,  and  of  the 
ceremonies  observed  by  those  who  do  penance  therein. 

pp.  360-376. 

Cap.  XXXVL 

Ireland^  continued.     The  Saints  of  the  country, 

Irish  saints  more  vindictive  than  others.  Character  of  the 
Irish  clergy;  chaste,  but  deep  drinkers,  'Their  bishops 
almost  wholly  taken  from  the  monastic  orders;  hence  they 
are  more  given  to  contemplation  than  to  the  active  duties. 
Many  confessors,  but  no  martyrs,  in  Ireland.  The  bishop 
of  Cashel's  satirical  explanation  of  this.  Bells  and  pastoral 
staves  much  venerated  in  Ireland.  The  staff  of  Jesus  at 
Dublin,  by  which  St.  Patrick  expelled  snakes.  Various  ways 
of  accounting  for  the  appearance  of  animals  in  islands. 

pp.  376-382. 

Cap.  XXXVn. 

Albania f  or  Scotland, 

Scotland,  its  bojjndaries.  Anciently  called  Albania,  from  AJ- 
banactus,  son  of  Brutus,  or  from  Albania,  a  province  of 
Scythia,  whence  the  Scots  also  derive  their  name.  Then 
called  Pictavia,  from  the  Picts,  and  then  Hibernia.  Its 
connexion  with  the  Irish  the  reason  of  this  designation. 
Proofs  from  Bede  that  Scotland  is  called  Hibernia.  Bar- 
barous habits  of  the  Scotch.  Their  soil  and  climate.  Their 
kings  not  crowned.     St.  Andrew  their  chief  saint.    His  his^ 


tory.  Legend  of  Ms  appearance  to  Ungus,  king  of  the  Picts, 
at  Corcenan,  and  of  the  monastic  foundations  of  Eegulas  in 
the  same  place.   -  -  -  •  -    pp.  382-394» 

Cap.  XXXVni 

Cambria^  or  Wales. 

The  reason  of  the  name.  Camhria  derived  from  Camher,  son 
of  Brutus,  who  reigned  here ;  afterwards  called  Wales,  from 
Gwalae,  daughter  of  king  Ebrancus,  who  was  married  here. 
The  praises  of  the  country.  It  aboimds  in  meat,  fruit,  and 
fish;  horses,  ozen,  and  sheep ;  all  kinds  of  grain  j  metals,  coal, 
minerals ;  honey,  milk,  meath,  ale,  &c.  In  a  word,  Wales  is 
the  pantry  of  the  earth.  G-eographical  and  political  divisions  : 
Demetia,  Yenedocia :  the  three  courts  of  Caermarthen,  An- 
glesey, and  Pengwem.  The  manners  of  the  natives:  their 
clothing,  arms,  food.  Their  character:  fickle,  intemperate, 
lazy,  predatory,  dirty.  Their  music,  clan  customs,  supersti- 
tions.  Their  state  improved  of  late  by  intercourse  with  the 
English.  They  now  acquire  property,  and  apply  themselves 
to  agriculture,  and  live  in  towns.  The  marvels  of  the  country. 
A  pool  at  Brechnockhas  strange  sounds  and  forms  of  buildings 
below  its  surface.  Birds  sing  in  honour  of  the  prince  of  the 
country,  at  his  bidding.  Goldcliff  near  Oaerleon.  The  island 
of  Barry,  near  Cardiff;  strange  sounds  heard  there  in  a 
crevice.  Pembroke;  its  earthquakes  produced  by  demons» 
A  wonderful  tumulus  at  Crucmaur.  The  island  of  Bardesey, 
its  salubrity.  Merlin  Silvestris,  who  lived  in  Arthur's  time, 
buried  there.  There  was  another  Merlin,  named  Ambro- 
sius,  the  son  of  a  goblin,  as  it  is  said,  in  the  time  of  Yorti- 
gern.  Yarious  particulars  about  the  two  Merlins.  Snowdon 
and  its  lakes,  a  floating  island  in  one  of  them;  one-eyed  perch 
and  trout  live  in  the  other.  The  spring  of  Tegengil.  Mira- 
culous stone  in  Anglesey.  The  rock  of  Hearing,  so  called 
by  the  rule  of  contrary.  An  island  near  it,  where  mice  eat 
the  viands  of  discordant  monks.  Bells  and  staves  here  vene- 
rated as  in  Ireland.  The  spring  of  Basingwerk.  The  well 
of  St.  Winifrid.  .  -  -  .    pp.  394-430. 


Iiitrod.p.  xn,,  note  4.  Add:  It  is  remarkable  that  Bale,  in  the  earlier  edition 
(1549)  of  Hie  lUustr,  IScriptorea,  does  not  mention  Roger  of  Chester  at 
All,  and  in  bis  account  of  Hugo  Vyrley  (fol.  141  b.),  says  that  he  makes 
nse  of  'Bannlphus  GestriensiB/  for  -whom  in  his  later  edition  (1559)  he 
sabstitates  'Bogeros  de  Cestria.'  I  now  very  much  doubt  whether 
Yirley  ever  quotes  Boger  by  name,  though  he  doubtless  uses  the  shorter 
form  of  the  Polychronicon, 

Page  2,  line  2,  quo  ctdviverent]  This  is  the  reading  of  the  MSS.,  and. 
except  that  advivo  seems  to  be  a  new  word,  might  well  stand ;  but 
there  is  very  little  doubt  that  quoad  tnverent  is  the  true  reading.  Com- 
pare p.  374,  note  1.  In  Gale's  MS.  (G.)  a  later  hand  has  joined  quo-ad^ 
Compare  Trevisa's  translation. 

Page  6,line  14.  The  various  reading  quadrivialiSj  supported  also  by  G., 
18  better,  and  should  be  read  in  the  text. 

Page  8,  last  line,  Provide]  Bead  Proinde ;  both  words  make  sense,  and  are 
usually  undistinguishable  in  the  MSS»,  Wt  proinde  is  doubtless  right,  and 
is  very  distinct  in  G. 

Page  9,  line  11,  for  unwraUe  read  vnwraUe;  and  similarly  in  note  11  for  . 
iinwynde  read  vnwynde. 

Page  11,  line  14,  tcA]  Add  in  a  note  /.,  Cx 

Page  13,  line  9,  the]  Bead  (with MS.) W,  and  so  at  p.  15,1. 14 }  p.  17,  L  7; 
p.  29, 1.  11.  But  the  at  p.  29, 1.  1  $  p.  41, 1.  6  ;  p.  [59, 1.  16,  is  correct. 
Our  MS.  is  not  constant  in  the  use  of  the  letter. 

Page  18,  line  1,  veri]  Bead  (with  the  MSS.)  uhi;  the  contraction  (^ 
was  misrendered. 

Page  24,  WtUielmus]  I  could  wish  that  here  and  eveiywhere  else  the  word 
were  printed  WiSe/mu^,  which  is  supported  by  most  MSS.,  when  given  at 
length.    In  this  edition  it  is  sometimes  (p.  178,  &c.)  printed  WUHebnus^ . 
All  three  forms  are  more  or  less  supported  by  authority.    Coins  de- 
cidedly preponderate  in  favour  of  WiUehnvs, 

Page  44,  line  16,  Ptolomaum]  Bead  Ptoiemaum.  (The  barbarous  reading 
vetsdned  per  incuriam,) 

Page  54.  Cancel  nots  13,  and  insert:  The  true  reference  is  to  Gir.  Cambr. 
De  Instr*  Princ,  lib.  ill  c.  20,  p.  131.    Ed.  Brewer. 

Page  64.  These  absurd  stories  about  Alexander  are  told  also  by  Pseudo- 
Methodius  Revel    Sig.  b.  iiu.     Ed.  Basil,  1504, 

Page  80.  The  reference  to  Pliny  is  correct  according  to  the  capitulation  of 
some ;  but  in  Harduin's  edition  the  chapter  is  numbered  xxii. 

Page  84.  Below  cap.  xii.  insert  in  italics  De  Parthia. 

Page  93.  Here  and  afterwards  the  marginal  notes  in  the  Harl.  MS.  had 
better  be  cancelled^  except  when  they  are  in  English. 


Page  106, 1.  1,  hit]  Read  hi.    The  same  barbarous  orthography  occurs  at 

p.  126  (bis). 
Page  120,  Capitulum  guintumdecimum]    This  should  have  been  printed 

uniformly  with  the  other  headings  in  the  Latin  text,  Cap.  XV. 
Page  121»  line  10,  yerof]  Read  \>erof  (typ.  error). 
Ibid.,  note  12,  Philisti]  Read  Philistym. 
Page  126,  line  11.    See  Pseudo-Methodius  i?€r«?.  Sig.  d.  ii.   The  following 

reference  (p.  128)  to  Methodius  is  erroneous  :  the  information  is  sub- 
stantially contained  in  Isidore,  lib.  xir.  c.  3, 
Page  162,  line  4,  for  xxi.  read  xx. ;  and  at  p.  168,  for  xxii.  read  xxi  ; 
^  and  at  p.  1 74,  for  xxiii.  read  xxii.  ;  at  p.  206,  for  xxy.  read  xxir. ;  and 

at  p.  26i6,  for  xxr.  read  xxvii.     The  capitulation  in  the  versions  is 

«orrect  in  each  case.    The  numbers  of  the  chapters  of  the  text  are  given 

correctly  in  the  summary  of  contents. 
Page  166,  note  10,  add :  Orosius  also  (lib.  i.  c.  2,  p.  31,  Hav.)  has  Malua, 
Page  174,  last  line  (compare  the  versions),  add  this  note  on  GiralduSf  can^ 

celling  note  13  at  p.  175):  The  true  reference  is  to  Girald.  Oambr  De 

Instr.  Princ.f  lib.  (or  dist)  iii,  c.  19,  p,  129.  Ed.  Brewer.  See  also  c.  xii. 
Page  178,  note  9,  cancel  most  probably.    See  Will  Malm.X>e7?€^.,  lib.  iv.p. 

548,  where  the  reference  to  Virgil  shows  that  his  text  should  be  Mysiee, 

not,  as  Mr.  Hardy  edits  it,  Mcesia, 
Page  183.    Cancel  note  11;  sede  is  quite  right,  being  the  rendering  of 

Page  197.  Harl.  version,  line  7,  Boetia]  Correct  the  MS,  reading  to  Beotia. 
Page  208,  line  2.    For  *  secundum  Estodium/  Martinus  Polonus  (lib.  ii. 

c.  4.)  has  *  demonstrat  Methodius.^ 
Page  210,  line  9.  The  true  number,  according  to  Martin,  is  not  454,  but 

432.    See  Mart.  Pol.,  Ub.  i.  c.  2,  and  c.  4.   The  omission  of  a  line  drawn 

at  an  angle  to  three  others  makes  the  difference  when  written  in  Roman 

nnmerals  (ccccliiij,,  ccccxxxij.) 
Page  222,  line  10,  Itanulphus]  Taken  from  Mart.  Pol.  s.a.  1041. 
Page  292,  note  3,  add:  Here,  as  usual,  CD.  agree  better  with  the  original 

authority.     Compare  Girald.  Camb.  Top,  Hib.,  lib.  ii.  c  8.    See  c.  7  for 

the  latter  part  of  Higden's  article. 
Page  300,  line  1,  add  a  comma  after  plana. 

Page  314,  line  penult.,  s^timo']  Higden  should  have  written  octavo. 
Page  316,  Giraldus  in  Topographia']  Made  up  from  Top.  Hib,,  lib.  ii.  c.  8 

and  lib.  i.  c.  16. 
Page  362,  note  4,  add:  In  Camden's  edition  of  Giraldus,  Top,  ffib,,  lib.  ii. 

c  5,  the  same  error  occurs. 
Page  384,  line  13,  Giraldus^  Add  in  a  note:  See  Giraldus  De  Instr,  Princ,, 

lib.  i.  c.  6. 
Page  388,  line  10,  Giraldus']  Add  in  a  note:  The  true  reference  is  to 

Girald.  De  Instr.  Princ,  lib.  i.  c.  13. 
Page  398.    Cancel  last  sentence  of  note  6.     Tiwy  in  the  text  is  right. 

See  Girald.  Descr.  Cambr.  c.  5. 


VOL.   I. 





Cap.  I. 

1.  Post  prseclaros  adiium  scriptores,  quibus  circa 
reram  notitiaim  aut  morum  modestiam  dulce  foit,  quo 
adviverent,  insudare,  illi  meiito,  velut  utile  dulci  com- 
miscentes/ grandisonis  sunt  pneconiis  attoUendi,  qui 
magnifica  priscorum  gesta^  beneficio  scripturae  posteris 

»  The  title  varies  in  the   MSS. 
See  the  Introduction. 
2  This  vord  is  wanting  in  A.C.D. 

^  gesta]  om.  A. 

*  The   whole   of  this  sentence 
wanting  in  CD, 


Crontkes  by  Sir  Iohan  Trexjisa,  Chapelayn         ' 
VNTO  Lord  Thomas  of  Barkley.* 

!•  After  solempne  and  wise  writeres  of  arte  and  of 
science,  ]>at  hadde  swettnesse  and  1  jkynge  al  hir  ^  1  jf  tjine 
to  studie  and  to  tranaille  aboute  konnyng  and  knowleche 
of  kjndeliche  ^  ]>inges  and  aboute  sobemesse  and  redinesse  of 
pewes,  fey  be  worthy  to  be'*  hiteliche  and  solemplicbe^ 
i-preysed,^  as  pey  it  were  putting  and  medlynge  to  gidre 
profi^tes^and  swetnes,  fat^  write  and  left  vs  write  ^  mer- 
uailles  and  wondres,  greet  berynge  and  dedes  of  oure  forme 
fadres/^  of  stalworthe  wyt,^*  wise  and  worthy,  and  of  dyuerse 
manere  men  fat  were  in  olde  tyme. 

RANULPHUS,  MoNKE  of  ChESTRE,  COMPILEDE  this  pre-  MS.  Haul. 


The  Firate  Prolog  higynnethe  here  i/n  to  yis  Story  of 

mony  Gronides. 

1.  After  the  nowble  wryters  of  artes,  to  whom  hit  was 
a  pleasure  in  this  life  presente  to  fixe  theire  studies  and 
laboures  abowte  the  knowlege  of  thynges  and  virtues  mo- 
raUe,  thei  ar  to  be  enhaunsede  and  exaltede  by  merite 
with  grete  preconyes,  as  inakenge  a  commixtion  of  a  thynge 
profitable  with  a  swetenesse  mellifluous,  whiche  haue  de- 
riviede  to  men  succedenge  thro  the  benefite  of  scripture 
thexcellent  gestes  of  men  precedenge. 

^  Ko  title  to  l^eyisa's  translation 
in  MS.  or  o.  The  title  given  aboye 
is  supplied  by  parts  of  lYevisa's  De- 
dicatory Epistie,  printed  by  Cx. 

*  her,  a.,  Cx. 

^  kyndley,  Cx.  (not  a.) 

*  ben,  Ox,  where  the  same  nse  of 
n  is  frequent,  both  in  the  infinitive 
and  indicative. 

*  and  solempliche]  Wanting  in  Cx. 

«  upreysed]  Ipreised,  MS.,  and  o, ; 
«nd  simiWly  elsewhere.  The  prefix 
wanting  in  Cx.,  both  here  and  ge- 

''profiyt,  a. 

*  Wt]  Wanting  in  Cx,  and  placed 
in  our  MS.  and  a.  immediately  aiter 
*  J>ey  *  (theugh),  just  preceding. 

®  i  write,  a. 

*•  fom-JftiderSf  Cx. 

"  wight,  Cx. 

A  2 


2,  In  historico  namque'  contextu  chronographorum 
jiobis*  diligentia^  delegato  relucet  clarius*  norma  mo- 
rum,''  forma  vivendi,  probitatis  incentivum,  trivium 
quoque  *  theologicarum  virtutnm  et  quadrivium  cardina- 
Hum  trabearum,  quorum  notitiam  apprehendere  sen'' 
vestigium  imitari  nostra  modicitas  non  sufficeret,  nisi 
sollicitudo  scriptorum  nostrsd  transfunderet  imperiti» 
memoriam  transactorum.  Siquidem  vita  brevis,  sensus 
hebes,  animus  torp^xs,  memoria  labens,  inutilis  de- 
mum  occupatio  nos  impediunt  multa  scire,  novercante 
semper  oblivione  memorisd  inimica.  Sed  et®  in  prae- 
sentiarum  artes  et  jura  prorsus  ruerent,  spectabilium 
actionum  exemplaria^  non   paterent,  loquendi  quoque 

tropi  et  schemata  penitus  deperirent,  nisi  in  remedium 
imperfectionis  humanae  litterarum  usum  divina  mise« 
ratio  providisset.*** 

S.  Quis,  quseso,  Csesares  hodie  sciret,  philosophos 
miraretur,    apostolos  sequeretur,    nisi  eos    insignirent 

^tm^^^wm'm  «^ 

>  namque]  Wanting  in  C. 
*  nobis]  A&er  diligentia  in  CD, 
^  dUigentia]  om.  E. 
*planius,  E. 

^  norma  monm].  noima,  (only) 
D. ;  1)oth  words  wanting  in  C. 
»9tte,  E. 
'  sen]  ant,  O.I). 

^eQ  Wanting  in  B.O.,  added 
aboye  the  line  in  "D, 

^actionum  exemplaria]  actionum 
exempla,  B  :  gestorum '  exempla,  C. 
D. ;  but  in  0.  exempla  is  qorrected 
into  exemplaria. 

^^  pravidisset,  A.  ^ 

MONACfll  CESrRBNSIlS,  LIB.  J.  5 

2.  For  in  pe  makynge  and  ^  bookes  of  stories,  fat  is  to  vs  Tbbvisa, 

i-sent  and  hjquepe  hj  grete  besynesse  of  fe  writers  of  cro-      • 

nicies,^  blase)?  and  schynej?  clerliche  pe  ri^t  rule  of  pewes, 
ensaumple  of  leuynge,  clensynge^  of  goodnes,  pe  metynge 

of  ]>e  pre  waies  of  pe  pre  vertues  of  deuynyte,  and  pe 
metynge  of  foure  weies  of  pe  fours  chiefs  vertues  of  pewes 
of  real  clopynge.  Of  pe  whiche  pinges  our  litel  konnynge 
my^te  nou^t  take  knowleche,  noper^  folwe  pe  foure,^  but 
besines  of  writers  to  oure  vnkunnynge  hadde  i-holde  and 
i-streyned^  mynde  of  olde  dedes.  For  why  schort  lyf,  dul 
witte,  and  slowe  vnderstondynge,  and  ydel  occupacioun 
lettep  vs.  to  knowe  naany  pinges;  foi'tetingnes  all  wey 
kypinge  pe  craft  of  a  stepdamme,  he^  is  enmy  of  mynde. 
Also  now,  in  our  tyme,  art,  sciens  and  lawe  al  were  i*falle, 
ensample  of  noble  dedes  were  noutt  i-knowe ;  nobilite  and 
faire  manere  of  spekynge  were  all  i-lost ;  but  pe  mercy  of 
God  had  i-ordyned  vs  of  lettres.  in  remedie  of  ^  vnparfi^t- 
nesse  of  mankynde. 

3.  I  praye  who  schulde  now  knowe  emperours,  wonder  of 
philosofres,  oper***  folwe  pe  apostles,  but  hir*^  noble  dedes 
and  hir  wonder  werkes  were  i-write  in  stories  and  so  i-kept 

2,  For  in  the  contexte  historicalle  the  rewle  off  ly venge  MS.  Habi. 
and  forme  of  vertues  moralle,  and  the  incentiue  of  manhode,      2261. 

Jiffe  grete  resplendence  thro  the  diligence  of  croniclers»  Also      

the  triuialle  of  the  vertues  theologic^le  and  quadriuialle  of  the 
Cardinalle  vertues,  to  comprehende  the  knowlege  of  whom  oure 
insufficience  sufficethe  not,  withowte  the  sollicitude  of  writers 
scholde  ti*ansfude  to  vs  the  memory  of  thynges  of  antiquite. 

For  schort  lyfe,  a  slawe  sawle,  and  a  slipper  memory  lete 
vs  to  knowe  mony  thynges,  obliuion  schewenge  helpe,  an 
enmye  alleweies  and  a  steppe  moder  to  the  memory.  For 
in  this  tyme  presente  artes  and  lawes  scholde  falle  vtterly,  . 
thexemplares  of  acciones  spectable  scholde  not  be  patent, 
the  ornate  eloquence  scholde  peresche,  but  that  diuine  mi- 
seracion  hath  prouided  vse  of  letters  in  to  the  remedy  of 
the  imperfeccion  of  man. 

3.  What  man  scholde  haue  perfecte  knowlege  of  em- 
peroures,  meruaile  of  philosophres,  and  folowe  thapostles, 
but  that  the  actes  of  writers  made  theym  nowble?    There- 

»  of,  Gx. 

^  cronykes,  Cx.  «♦ 

'  knowyng.,  Cx. 

*  prineipal,  Cx. 

*  ne,  Cx. 
^fourth,  Cx. 

'  shadde  and  abremed^  Cx. 
B  he]  wanting  in  Cx.  (not «.). 
»  o/K  o. 
^*  or  eUys^  Cx. 

'^  theyr,  Cx.,  here  and  frequently  j 
here J  a. 



monumenta  scriptorum?  Quis  denique  Lucilixun  cognos- 
ceret,  nisi  eum  Seneca  suis  epistolis  illustrasset  ?  *  Plus 
profecto  scripta  poetarum  ^  CsBsareis  laudibuis  addiderunt 
quam  omnes  mundi  divitisa  quaa  tiderunt.  Historia 
igitur^  cum  sit  testis  temporum,  memoria  vitae^  niincia^ 
vetustatis^  dotes  po'ssidet  prseminentes^  suosque  quam 
plurimum  praBrogat  professores.  Historia  namque  qua- 
dam  famae  immortalitate  peritura  renovat,  fugitiva 
revocat,  mortalia  quodammddo  perpetuat  et  conservat. 

4.  Cur  *  igitirr,*  inter  cseteros  trivialinm  tramittim 
protritores  ac  sesqiripedalium  verborum  efflatores,  qui 
Hon  minimum  ^  stadii  '^  sui  bravium  sunt  adepti,  nostri 
non  erunt  laude  digni*  orbis  quadrifidi  dimensores, 
quadriviales  ®  bistdrisg  descriptores;  immo  proculdubio, 
velut**^  tetragoni,  sine  vituperio  triumphalis  erunt 
lauresD  comprehensores  ? 

5.  Horum  nempe  merito  provocatus  et  exemplo,  non 
mea  jactanter  jaculans  nee  aliena  joculanter  jugulans," 
decrevi^  ut  potui^  geniale  solum  meum  profusioribus 
extollere  laudum  titulis^  ac  sic  ^^  tractatum  aliquem^  ex 
variis  auctorum  decerptum  **  laboribus,  de  statu  insulae 
Britannicae  ad  notitiam  cudere  futurorum. 

'  Quts,  ^.ilittsfyx^et']  Wantiiig; 
in  CD. 

^  scripta  poetarum]  Afb&r  laudibus 
in  B. ;  scriptura  prophetarum,  £. 

^  nunciuSf  C.D. 

*  Cur]  Et  at,  D. 

*  So  B.C.I). ;  erffo,  A.E, 
^  minimi,  A. 

*  studii;  B. 

^  digni  hudci  B. 

'  qttadrwudi^  B.  ;  quadrivialis, 

^*  vehit}  Wanting  in  A. 

^^jdciens^  C.)  hvAjugulans  written 
above ;  jocuhns,  A. 

"  ac  «c]  et  sie,  CD. ;  ac  si,  B, 

^^  excerptumy  CD.  j  but  corrected 
to  decerptum  in  the  former. 


in  mynde  ?     Who  schulde  knowe  Lucilium^  but  Seneca  in  Teevisa. 

his  pistles  hadde  i- write  his  dedes  ?     Writinge  of  poetes      

is  more  worthy*  to  preisynge  of  emperoures  pan.^  al  fe 
wel]>e  of  ]?is  worlde,  and  riches  ^  j>at  fey  welde^  while  fey 
were  alyue.  For  storie  is  wytnesse  of  tyme,  mynde  of  lyf, 
messager  of  eldnesse  ;*  story  weldef  passyng  doynges,  storie 
puttef  for]?  hire  6  professoures.  Dedes  fat  wolde  be  lost 
storie  rulef ;  7  dedes  fat  wolde  flee  out  of  mynde,  storye 
clepef*  a^en;^  dedes  fat   wolde    deie,   storye  kepef  hem 



4.  Wherfore,  among  ofere  tioble  trauaillours  of  fe  fre 
pathes^i*  and  faire  florischers  and  hitteres  ^^  of  wordes  and  of 
metre,  fat  hauef  of  here  trauaille  greet  pryse  i-gete,  we  mowe 
nou^t  ful  preyse  hem,  fat  in  stories  i^  metef  and  discryuef 
all  fe  worlde  wyde.  But  wifoute  eny  drede  fey  schuilef 
fongei^  her  mede  of  hym  fat  rewardef  and  qiiytef  al  fat 
wel  worchef  .^^ 

5.  By  f e  worfynesse  and  ensaumple  of  so  worfy  writeris 
i-spi^t  and  i-egged,*^  nou^t  bostynge  of  myn  owne  dedes 
nofer  skomynge  ne  blamynge  oi^'^  ofer  men  dedes,  I  haue 
y-kast  and  y-ordeyned,  as  I  may,  to  make  and  to  write  a 
tretes,  i-gadered  of  dyuerse  bookes,  of  f  e  staat  of  f  e  yldndd 
of  Britayne,  to  knowleche  of  men  fat  comef  after  ts. 

fore  a  stoty  is  the  testimony  of  tymes,  the  memory  of  life,  MS.HAnt, 
hauenge  in  possession  dowerys    preeminent,  renewenge    as      ^^^' 
thro    immortalite  thynges  like  to    peresche,  beynge  as  in  a 
maner  a  conseruatiue  perpetualle  to  thjmges  mortalle. 

5.  Wherefore  y,  wyllenge  to  folowe  the  descriptores  of 
the  storye  quadriuialle,  and  as  provocate  thro  thexemple 
of  theim,  intende  to  compile  a  tretys  of  the  state  of  the 
yle   of  Breteyne,  excerpte    of  diuerse  labores.  of  auctores* 

^  worth,  Cx.)  a. 

^  jiatf  MS.  ;  than,  Cx. 

*  rychesses,  Cx. 

*  welded,  Cx. 
^  oldnesie,  a. 

*  her,  Cx. 

^  reneweih,  Cx; ;  rehwetk,  a. 

^  callithf  Cx. 

'  a^«,  a. 

**ybr  euennore,  a. 

^^  Cx.  here  inserts  instead  of  *  an4 ' 
the  clause  *  arne  moo^te  worthy  to 

ben  praysed  ;*  thns  altering  the  con- 
struction of  the  sentence. 

"  embefysahers,  Cx. 

^*  histories,  Cx,  here  and  iVe- 

"  schuUeJi>  fimge\  shall  resseytte, 

"  werke,  Cx* 

"«o  wor>y  .  .  .  i-egged]  noble 
wryters  that  herto  fore  haue  vreton. 

"  of]  om. «; 


6.  Quod*  dum  sodalibus  meis  innotesceret,  quibus 
lamiliare  fuit  semper  ^  facta  majorum  *  speculari,  impor- 
tuna  eomm  instantia  sum  pulsattis,  ut  etiam  de  famo- 
sioribus  orbis  historiis  ab  initio  macrocosmi  usque  ad 
nostram  aatatem  non  solum  juxta  temporuul  seriem/ 
verum  etiam  juxta  singulorum  annorum  supputationem 
cougruentem  aJiqua  compilarem.^ 

7.  Cujus  negotii,  velut  Daedalini  labyrmthi,*  inextri- 
cabilem  attendens  intricationem,  rogata  sum  veritus 
attemptare.  Nam,  prseter  id  quod  soleat^  grandia 
cogitantibus  desidia  qusedam  et  segnities  obrepere, 
animadvertebam  tamen  ad  tantum  involucrum  evol- 
vendum  ingetdi  mei  disparilitatem^  necnon  et  flagitatsB 
materiss  vastitatem,  scribentium  quoque  in  hac  ^  materia 
numerum  et  auctoritatem,  ac  potissime  subsecutam 
exinde  modemorum  saturitatem;  qui  devotionis  obse- 
quium  ininus^  ut  assolet,  attendentes  super  isto  cibo 
levissimo  facile  nausearenb,  quinetiam  ad  renovata  seu 
reculcata^  semulorum  more,  linguas  acuerent,  supercilia 
arcuareni  De  quibus  Gregorius  loquitur  Nazianzenus, 
quod  "aliena  facillime  carpunt,  sed  bona  diffioilius 
'*  imitantur/'      Provide  verebar  plane  ego^  vir  videns 


^  The  test  of  this  chapter  is,  in  C. 
and  D.,  compressed  into  four  short 
sentences,  thus  : — ^**Si  quid  vero  a 
*'  fide  dissonum  aut  a  morihus  alie- 
'*  num  hie  reperiatur,  hoc  tempori 
^*  potius  quam  viro  ascribatur. 
**  Quamobrem  in  hac  assertione  . . . 
**  communico,"  (as  at  p.  18).  After 
which  :  "  Et  quamTis  .  .  .  •  prse- 
•*  scrihitur,"  (as  at  p.  20).  The  first 
part  is  rendered  in  the  Harl.  MS. 

^  semper  fuit  E. 
'  maJoriSf  A. 

*  temporum  serieni]  These  M^6i*^i^ 
transposed  in  B. 

^  comptUarenty  B. 

®  Dcsdali  in  laherintho,  B. 

"*  sohhat,  B.    ^ 

*  h<tc]   om.  B, 

^  ego]  ergo,  A, 



6.  Dan  special  frendes  *  ]?at  knewe  myn  entent  [and]  2  had  Tbbvisa. 
likynge^   to  knowe  greet  men  dedes,  prayed  me  besiliche, 

pat  I  schulde  also  write   pe  famous  stories  and  acounte  ]7e 
teres  from  pe  bygynnynge  of  pe  world  anon  *  to  oure  tyme. 

7.  poo  toke  I  hede  ]>at  fis  matir,  as  ^  laborintus,  Dedalus  ® 
hons,  ha})  many  halkes  and  burnes,  wonderful  weies,  wyn- 
dynges  and  wrynkelynges,  J>at  wil  noutt  be  vnwarled,^  me 
schamed  and  dradde  to  fynde^  so  gi'ete  and  so  gostlicbe^ 
a  bone  to  graunte.  -For  ydelnesse  and  sleujje  lettef  grete 
werkes  fat  men  wolde  worche ;  my  witt  is  ful  luyte  ^^  to 
unwralle  ^^  ]?e  wrappyinges  of  so  wonder  ^^  wei'kes :  pe 
matire  is  large,  writers  ]>eiynne  bej?  *^  many,  and  greet  for 
fulnesse  })erof ;  now  men  hep  i^  al  sad  and  take]?  fe  lasse 
Kede  and  li^tlicbe  wolde  flaterie^^  yppon  ]?is  symple  foode,^^ 
and,  as  enemyes,  whette  her  tunges  and  bende  hire  browes. 
Of  suche  men  speke])  Gregory  Nazianzenus,  pat  wille])  li^t- 
liche  blame  defau^tes  of  opere  men,  and  goodnesse  noutt 
sopelich^^  folwe.     Al  pis  ich  badde   in  mynde,  and  also  I 

6.  Whiche  laboi*e  expressede  to  my  felawes  hauenge  inop-  MS.  Haul. 
pinable    appetite    to    bebolde     gestes  of    antiquite,  y  was     2261, 
movede  thro  the  importune  instance  of  theyme  to  compile      ^""^ 
somme  thynges  of  the  famose  storyes  of  the  worlde  from 

the  creacion  of  man  vn  to  oure  age,  not   oonly  after  the  f.  1 7  b. 
ordre  of  tymes,  but   also    after   the  supputacion  of  euery 
yere  congruent. 

7.  Attendenge  the  intricacioti  inextricable  of  this  labor  pre* 
sente  as  of  the  mase  of  Dedalinus  [y]  am  preyede  to  attempte 
hit  withowte  drede ;  aduertenge  ofte  tymes  slawthe  to  met© 
men  thenkeuge  grete  thynges,  and  the  insufficience  of  my 
wytte,  and  the  obnubilous  and  clowdy  processe  of  this 
mater  y-desirede,  perauenture  men  in  these  dayes  attend- 
enge but  litelle  the  obsequy  of  deuocion  as  thei  be  wonte, 
scholde  take  disdeyne  of  this  li^hte  meyte.  Of  whomGrregorius 
Naz[i]anzett  spekethe,  seyenge,  "  Suche  men  reprove  li^htely 
"  straunge  thinges,  but  vnnethe  with  grete  difficulte  thei 
"  folowe  goode  thynges/*    Wherefore  y  seengo  the  poverte 

*  lordes,  Cx. 

2  Added  from  Cx.  and  a, 
'  desyre,  Cx. 
•  *  worlde  rnto,  Cx. 
^  as]  was,  MS.  and  a.;  corrected 
ih)m  Cx. 

*  his  kous,  a, 

*  be  unwarkd]  lyghlly  be  opened 
&nd  shewed,  Cx. 

^/ynde}  take  on  me,Cx.}  fouodc,». 

»  ferdfulf  Cx. 
^Upta,  Cx. 
"  unwynde,  Cx. 
''  wonderful,  Cx, 
"  h€e\fy  a. 
"  So  also  a. 

^^  wolde    Jlaterie']    wolde    fynde 
fawte,  Cx.  ;  flat)>ey  ft, . 
"  werke,  Cx. 
^'  so  U^thlichef  a,  * 


paupertatem  meam,  post  tantos  tubicines,  cum  sterili 
eloqido  "  rancidalum  quiddam  balba  de  nare  "  *  proferre, 
aufc  certe  sycomoros  ^  vellicans  uvam  acerbam  proponere 

8.  Quis  enim  non  lideat,  seu  ^  potius  irrideat,  /si  post 
Herculeos  labores,  si  post  Olympicos  agones  plene 
consummatos,  pygmseus  se  praeparet  *  ad  conflictum  ? 
Et  me  certe  fragili  modulantem  avena  qtus  non 
derideat,  si^  post  tarn  grandisonos  Boanerges,  qui  in 
tanto  facnndise  cataclysmo  prsefixerunt  satirse  periodum^ 
stridulo  soni  sibilo  decolorarem  tanta^  materise  majes- 
tatem?  Sed  scio  qidd  dixit  Booz  ille  clemens  pater- 
familias ad  Ruth  verecunde  colligentem  spicas  post 
terga  metentium  remanentes.  "Nemo/'  inquit,  "tibi 
"  sit  molestus.'^  Et  iterum  ait  ad  messores,  "Etiamsi 
*^  vobiscnm  metere  voluerit,  ne  prohibeatis;  et  colli* 
"  gentem  nemo  corripiat/'  Poeta  quoque  Mantuantis> 
Maro  Virgilius,  ut  ait®  Isidorus  EtymoL,^  lib.  x./ 
sive  Flaccus  iUe  Horatius,  tit  Vult  Hugo®  Pisanus  in 
suis  Derivationibus,  capitulo  prseviso ;  ^  *'  Cum  sibi 
"  improperaretur    ab    semulisi    qilod   Versus    quosdam 

^  Pers.  Sat.  i.  \,  33* 

2  sicomores,  B. 
^  sedy  A* 
*pra:patat,  A* 

« MfyrnlJ]  added  froin  B-E, 
^  xi°^  E.  (TirrODgly).    See  §  44. 

*  Perhape  jDr<Bt;«o  is  the  true  read^ 

itfg;   E.  has  proviso  i   Cx.  printsi 
ptii}isb  at  lengthj 

MONACfll   CESTREI^SIS,  LIB.  I.  11 

kuewe  mjn  owue  pouert,  and  schamede  and  dradde  after  Tbbtisa. 

so  noble  spekers,  fat  sownede  as  trompes,  to  putte  for]>  my      

bareyn  speche,  hosnes*  and  snochynge,  as  who  so^  rote]?^ 
vp  moolberyes  and  serue]'  likerous  men,  l>at  lyuef  in  lik- 
ynge,  wij>  soure  grapes. 

8.  Zif  "*  after  J?e  trauaille  ^  of  Hercules,  and  after  fe  strif, 

ioustes,  and  turnementis  ^  of  Olympy,  a  pigmey  hoskep  hym 
to  bataille  and  array  hym  to  fi^te,  who  my^te  ]>anne  leue 
to  laughe  ?  Also  who  wolde  schoute  to  skome,  ^if  I  pipe 
wij)  an  otene  reed,  and  vnhi^te  so  noble  a  mature  wij>  gris- 
baitinge,^  gruntynge  and  whistelynge,  after  so  noble  spekers 
]>at  sownede  at  ]7e  beste ;  and  of  hem  faire  facounde  and 
resonable®  speche,  folowed  and  streynede^  all  her  lyf 
tyme  ?  But  ich  haue  wel  in  mynde  what  Booz  seide  to 
Buth  ]7at  was  schamefast,  and  lase  ^°  vp  pe  eeres  after  his 
ripe  men,  "No  man,"  he  seide,   "]>e  schall  wra]?J?e5**  and 

to  his  ripe  men  he  seide,   "  ^if  te  ^^  wole  wi])  tow  rype, 

"  forbedef  hir  noutt ;  and  here  fore  to  lose  ^^  no  man  schal 
"  lette."  pe  poet,  also,  Mantuanus  Maro  Virgilius,  as  Isi- 
dorus  seij),  Eth,  libro  decimo,  and  Horatius,  as  sei})  Hugutio 
Pysanus,  In  derivationibus  ^^  suis,  capitulo  peruiso :  "  Whan 
"  enemyes  despised  Horacius  and  here  hym  an^^  honde  fat  he 

and  insufficience  of  my  connynge  after  so  splendidious  laboures  MS.  Harl. 
dredde  to  proferre   a  raw  thynge  with   bareyne   eloquence      2261. 
and  to  purpose  as  a  thynge  bytter  to  so  mellifluous  delices.      "    * 

8.  What  man  wolde  not  lathe  and  also  haue  in  derision,  if 
that  a  pigmei  scholde  make  him  redy  to  conflicte  after  the 
labores  of  Hercules  and  after  the  actes  Olimpicalle  plenerly 
flnischede  ?  What  man  wylle  not  haue  me  in  derision  inten* 
denge  to  decoloure  the  maieste  of  soe  highe  mater  after  so 
nowble  wryters?  Neuerthelesse  y  remembre  the  dicte  of 
Booz  to  Ruth  gedrenge  cornes  remaynenge  behynde  the 
backes  of  men  scherenge,  seyenge,  "  Noo  man  schalle  be  gre- 
"  vous  to  the."  Also  the  Poette  Mantuan  Maro  Virgilius,  as 
Isidorus  rehersethe,  Eth»  li°  decimo,  or  elles  Flaccus  Horatius, 
as  Hugo  Pisanus  wylle  in  his  Derivationes  (capitulo  perviso), 
when  hit  was  seyde  in  obprobry  to  hym  of  his  enmyes  and 
aduersaries,  that  he  scholde  take  some  versus  of  that  nowble 

^  Itoose,  Cx. 
'  om»  a. 

*  rechetk,  Cx. 

*  For  sf,  Cx,,  a. 

*  laboure,  Cx. 

» tourneyes,  Cx. 

^  mounng,  Cx. ;  om.  a. 

^  renable,  Cx.,  a. 

^  folowed  and  streynede]  flowed 
and  stremed,  Cx.  (stremed  also  in  a.) 

^**  leese,  Cx, ;  has,  a. 

"  she,Cx.  (not  a.),  probably  rightly. 

*2  leese  or  gleyne^  Cx.  j  UsCy  a. 

*^  diuiitacionibua,  Cx. 

"  on,  a. 



"  Homerianos  transferens  suis  immiscuisset '  carminibus, 
*'  et  ex  hoc  compilator  veterum  diceretur,  respondit: 
"  Magnarum  esse  virium  clavam  de  manu  Herculis 
*'  extorquere/' 

9.  NuUus  igitur*  me  majorum*  extdcetur,*  quaeso, 
si  sabuli  cinerisque  vicem  gero,  qusB,  quamvis  luce 
carentia  fuerint  et  impura^  subjectas  tamen  attritu 
materias  puras  sclent  reddere  et  fdlgentes,  sicut  et 
qusedam  aKa,  quae^  in  se  non  habent,  aliis®  solent 
ministrare.     Unde '  poeta  satiricus  ait : — 

"fungar  vice  cotis,  acutum 
Reddere  [quae]  ferrum  [valet]/'® 

EtGregorius  insuo  Pastorali  ait: — "Depinxi  pulchrum 
"  hominem,^  ego  pictor  foedus."  Prsesumens  igitur  de  ilia 
caritate^  quae,  secundum  Gregorium  in  Homilia,^^  vires 
ministrat,  quas  imperitia  denegat^  messuram  aggrediar 
luGubratione  plenam,  fastidiosis  forsan  despicabUem, 
sed,  ut  arbitror,  non "  inutilem  studiosis.  Intrabo, 
inquam^   in  agros  priscorum^  metentes    subsequens  si 

«.  t.:m  ■■ 

«  »1  >— I         *    «I     fii  fji 

^  immiscumet  suis,  B. 

"  crgOf  35. 

'  me  majorum]  migoram  mc,  B. 

*  exulceretur.  A, ;  extdceret,  B. 
^  quodf  B» 

•  attif  B. 

'  Vnde  et,  B. 

«Horat.  Ars  Poet.  304.  Thd 
words  in  brackets  are  Omitted  by 
Higden,  who  thus  &lsifies  the  cto- 

^  ymaginem,  B. 

^*B.  adds*(=siia  ?). 

"  non]  0111.  A. 


"  hadde  i-take  som  of  Omeres  [vers],^  and  i*medled  among  his  Treviba, 
*'  and  cleped  ^  hym  a  gaderere  of  old  wrytynges,  he  answerde     — * 
<*  and  seide,  *  It  were  wel»  greet  strengpe  to  wreste  amaoe 
"  *  oute  of  Hercules  honde.'  " 

9.  perfore  I  pray  J>at  no  man  me  blame,  "pel  ich^  fare  as 
gonnd  and  askes  ;^  ]>at^  ]70ut  ]>ei  bee]>7  dym  and  foule  hym 
self,  other  Jiinges  fey  clenseji  and  make]»  schyne  ^  ful  britt ; 
and  meny  o]>er  finges  fat  J>ey  haue]>  not  in  hem  self, 
^euef*  to  ojiere.  So  saij?  the  prophete*^  Satiricus,  "I  fare 
**  as  the  whets  ton  *^  fat  makef  yren  sharpe  and  kene."  Item, 
Gregorius  in  suo  Pastorali  seif,  "I  haue  peynt  a  wel  faire 
<<  man,  and  am  my  self  a  foule  peyntour."  J)erfore  I  truste 
on  fat  charite  fat  Qregorie  spekef  of  in  his  Omelye,  fat 
wif  ^^  vertues  and  strengfe,  fat  vnkunnynge  denyef ;  and 
auntre  me  in  to  fe  rype,^^  fat  is  ful  of  trauaille  and  wa- 
kynge,  oute  caste,^^  despised  of  envious  men  and  proude, 
and  tit  I  hope  profitable  '^  to  good  ^^  studiers  and  meke.  I 
schal  entre  in  to  f  e  feeldes  of  oure  forme  fedres,*^  and  folwe 

and  laureate  poete  callede  Homerus,  and  adde  or  inmixte  theym  MS.  Haul. 
ynto  his  werkes  and  labores,  and  callede  by  that  a  compilator     2261. 
of  oldethynges,  he  ansuerede  seyenge  that  hit  was  a  signe  of      - — 
grete  strenthte  to  take  the  mace  from  the  hpnde  of  Hercules. 
9,   Freyenge    that  noo   man   haue   indignacion   thauthe 
y  here  asches  or  sonde,  whiche  semenge  as  thynges  impure 
and    wontenge    ly^hte  be    wonte  to    yelde    pure    materes 
and  fulgent,  lyke  as  somme   thynges  be  wonte   to  mihistre 
to  other    thynges  that    thei    haue    not    in    theyme   selfe. 
Whereof  the  x>o©te  Satiricus   seythe  "  I  schalle  vse  to  make 
"  a  knyfe  scharpe    in  the  maner  of   a  whetteston,'*    And 
Seynte  Gregory  in  his  Pastoi*alles,  "  T  a  fowle  peynter  haue 
"  made  a  feyre  man  in  picture."  Wherefore  y  presumenge  of 
that  charite,  whiche,  as  Seynte  Gregory  seythe  in  an  Omely, 
ministrethe  stren^htes^  schalle  prosecute  my  processe,  pera- 
uenture  contemptible  to  fastidious  men,  but  as  y  iugge  not 
vnproStable  to  goode   studentes.    Makenge  an   entre  in  to  f.  is  a. 
the   feldes  of  olde   men,   folowenge   the   scherers   after  my 

'  Homeres  rer*w,  Cx.  j  vers  added 
from  a, 
2  caUed,  Cx. 
»  righty  Cx. 

*  >ei^,  o. 

^  asahes,  Cx.  ;  aske]>,  a.  (and  MS. 

^far,  Cx.  The  true  reading  is 
probably  *  for  >aC 

'  be,  a. 

^  schene,  a. 

*  yeue\>]  yet  yeuen,  Cx. 

^^ poet,  a, 

^^  asa  westOHf  a. 

"tt?y«c,  Cx.    The  sense  requires 

«  >c  rype']  repyng,  Cx. 
^*  in  caasy  Cx. ;  oncas,  a,,  probably 

^^  profiiabW]  it  shall  be  prouffy- 
table,  Cx. 
"  goode,  a. 
"fom'/ader$,  Cx. 

J4j  polychronicon  ranulphi  higden 

potuero,  quoquomodo  colligens  *  mihi  spicas  retnanentes, 
vel  saltern  micas  cadentes  de  mensa  dominorum,  qui 
quondam  saturati  dimiserunt  reliquias  suas  parvulis 
suis*  Sed  etiam^  de  fragmentis  cophinorum,  quae 
superfuemnt  prandentibus,  minutias*  recolligens,  quip- 
piam  adjiciam  laboribus  auctorum,  nanus  residens  in 
humeris  giganteis,  unde  non  solum  minores  ad  rudi' 
mentum  sed  et  majores  ad  exercitium  provocentur, 
ut  qui  spatiosa  ilia  materiaa  hujus  volumina  tarn  ^  late 
digesta  nondum  ^  attigerunt,  prsesenti  saltern  compendio 
instraantur ;  ubi  non  dico  sentential  subtilitas  neque  ^ 
yerborum  venustas,  sed  devotionis  sinceritas  materiae  ' 
militabit.  In  quo  quidem  compendio  universa  paene 
problemata  majorum  sunt  dicta ;  nonnuUa  vero,  qua^ 
in  libris  auctorum  minima  reperi,  ex  usu  quotidiano 
et  rerum  experientia,  quasi  de  quadam  morum  historia 
excerpsi.  Enim^  vero  multorum  notitia  gestorum 
partim  violentia  hostilitatis,  partim  desidia  scriptorum 

*  coUigans,  B. 

^  non  bene,  B. 

2ff,  E. 

'  aut,  E. 

"  micasy  B. 

'  maxime^  B. 

*  torn]  om.  B. 

^  Quum  vero,  A. 



fe  rype  men,  ^if  ich  may  any  wyse  leese  and  gadre  me  Tbevisa. 
som  eres  fat  rype  men  schedej)  and  skape]>  of  here  hondes  i  -'-^ 
o]>er,  nameliche,  ^if  I  mylte  ^  gadre  somwhat  of  J>e  crommes 
fat  fallef  of  lordes  bordes,  fat  somtyme  were  fulfilled  and 
left  hir  ^  relif  to  Mr  children»  And  also  ^if  I  mylt  gadre 
eny  scrappes  of  fe  releef  of  f e  twelf  cupes,^  and  somwhat 
putt  to  and  echo  ^  writinge  of  auctours,  as  a  dwerf  sittynge 
on  a  geauntxs  nekke  ;  wher  f  oru^  ^ongelynges  ^  mowe  be 
brou^t  to  lore  and  gretter  men  to  vse^  and  to  besynesse 
i-spyed,7  fat  fey  mowe  be  enformed  and  i-tau^t  by  fis 
Bchort  tretys,  fat  hauef  noutt  i-seie  f e  grete  yolyms  and 
large,  fat  beef  of  stories  i-write,  nou^t  sotilte  of  sentence, 
nof er  faire  florischynge  of  wordes,  but  swetnesse  of  deuocion 
of  f e  matire  schal  ^  regne  in  fis  bqok.  In  the  whiche  book 
and  treiys  wel  nyh  al  problemys  and  questiouns  of  fe 
wiseste  men  fat  ®  beef  i^  i-planted ;  also  many  f inges  fat 
bef  nou^t  i-write  in  ofer  bookes,  ich  haue  i*gadered  of  f e 
comyn,  as  fey  it  were  of  a  storye,  and  i-write  in  fis  tretis, 
for  me  11  schulde  hem  knowe  after  oure  time.  For  somdel 
by  malice  of  enemys,  somdele  by  sloufe^^  of  writeres,  know- 

power,  gedrenge  the  eres  of  comes  remanent,  or  elles  cromes  MS.  Hael. 
fallenge  from  the  table  of  lordes,  whiche  replete  lefte  frag-      2261. 

mente  to  theire  childre  and  successores,  gedrenge  the  litelle      

partes  to  men  hnngre  of  the  fragmentes  of  the  cophinnes 
remanent,  schalle  adde  somme  thynge  to  the  labores  of  auc- 
tores.  Thro  whiche  labour  lytelle  men  schalle  not  be  inducede 
oonly  to  doctrine  but  also  grete  men  schalle  be  prouocate 
to  exercise,  that  men  whiche  haue  not  seen  so  large  volumes 
of  this  mater  may  be  instructe  by  this  compendious  labor, 
where  y  say  not  that  subtilite  of  sentence  or  mellifluous 
eloquence  schal  be  expressede  in  hit,  but  sinceritie  of  deuo- 
cion schalle  schewe  obsequy  to  the  matere.  In  whom  alle- 
moste  alle  the  problemes  of  grete  men  be  seyde,  and  mony 
other  thynges  not  founde  in  the  bokes  of  auctores  whom  y 
have  excerpede,  as  in  a  maner  as  a  story  by  vse  quotidian 
and  experience  of  theyme  ;  in  parte  throws  the  knowlege  of 
mony  thynges,  parte  thro  the  violence  of  hostilite,  and  parte 

^and  gadre  me  .    .    ,    .  I  yif 
myyte^  wanting  in  Gx. 

*  here,  a.  (and  so  often.) 

*  vij,  kipes  or  lepes,  Cx. 

*  eche']  encrece,  Cx.  (not  a.) 
^  \>orw  ^<mg  peple,  a, 

*  vse"]  So  Cx. ;  vice^  MS. ;  vys,  a. 
'  i-spifed^  sette,  Cx. 

*  that,  Cx.  (t3rp.  error  for  that  shalf) 
^  \>at'\  wanting  in  Cx,    The  true 

reading  is,  perhaps,  *  >at  bee>,  l)ee> 

'^  be^y  a.  (bnt  also  hee\f  elsewhere.) 
"yorwic]  by  cause  men,  Cx.  (not  a.) 
^2  \>e  sleu\>e,  a. 
•*  The  text  is  corrupt. 



est  adempta,  ita  ut  vix  liodie  nuda  locorum  nomina 
aint  salvata. 

Quod  61  figmenta  gentilium,  si  dicta  ethnicorum, 
si  miranda  locorum  in  hoc  opusculo  interdum  inseran- 
tur,  Christiansa  tamen  religioiii  famulantur.  licuit 
enim  Virgilio  aurum  sapientiae  in  luto  Ennii  poetae 
quaerere,  et  filiis  Israel  ad  Terram  Promissam '  pro- 
ficiscentibus    uEgyptios    spoliare.      In    quibus    psene 


cunctis  aliunde  membratun  excerptis,  sed  hie  linea-^ 
mentaliter  concorporatis,  ita  seriosis  ludicra,^  ita  reli- 
giosis^  ethnica  vicissim  sunt  admixta,  ut  succinctis 
tritis  laxatisque  exoticis*  processus  series^  observetur, 
et  integra  pro  posse  Veritas  non  vacillet ;  aequalis 
tamen  utrobique  per^  omnia  teneri  non  poterit  certi- 
tudo»  Nam  divina  miracula,  secundum  Augustinum, 
De  Civitate  Dei^ '  admiranda  sunt  et  veneranda, 
non  disputatione  discutienda:  mirabilia  vero  non  sunt 
omnino  discredenda ;  cum  dicat  Hieronymus,  "  Multa 
"  incredibilia  reperies  et  non  verisimilia,  quae  nihilomi- 
"  nus  vera  sunt.    Nihil  enim  contra  naturae  Dominum® 

>  promissumiSf  B. 
^  ludibria,  B. 
'  reliosis,  A. 
*  exitiiSf  B. 

*  cereos,  A. 
®  per]  etper,  E. 

^  Dei]  Added  from  B.,  wanting 
in  A.K. 

"  Dominum  naturae,  A. 


leche  of  greet  dedes*  is  so  nyh  loste  and  forlet,  ])at  skars-  Tbevisa. 

liche  bare  names  of  places  we  hauej>  now  *  in  mynde.  

10.  })ey  feynynge  and  sawes  of  mysbileued  and  lawless 
men,  and  wondres  and  merueillis  of  dyuerse  contrees  and 
londes  be  i-planted  in  fis  book,  suche  seruej»  and  is  good 
to  be  knowe  of  Cristen  men.  Virgile  sou^t  gold  of  wit 
and  wisdom  in  the  fen  of  Ennii  pe  poete,  and  yo  children 
of  Israel,  in  hire  goynge  into  ]>e  londe  of  byheste,  spoilled 
Jie  Egipcians.  pat  is  in  oJ?er  bookes  i-write  welwyde  and 
parcel  mele  i-plaunted,  here  it  is-  i-pntte  togidre  in  role 
and  in  ordre ;  so  mer^e  to  sadnesse  and  hepen  to  Cristen, 
euerich  among  o]>ere,  ^at  straunge  stories  heef  so  abregged, 
schorted  and  i-leng]yed  j^at  Jfe  storie  is  hool,^  ia  sooj^nesse 
nou^t  i-chaunged.  NeuerJ^eles  ^  more  certeyn  som  is  i^holde 
fan  oJ>ir.  For  Augustinus,  de  Civitate  Dei,  seith  :  **  We 
"  schul  trowe  and  worschippe  ]?e  miracles  of  God  and  nou^t 
"  hem  despreue  by  despitusoun."^  Wondres  bej?  not  al  to 
be  vhtrowed :  for  Hieronymus  sei)),^  "  Meny  wondres  J)ow 
"  schalt  fynde  J>at  ]>ou  woldest  nou^t  bileue,^  and  ^it  fey 
"  bee])  ful   8o6p :  kynde  may  not  doo  a^enst  God,  Lord  of 

is  adempte   and  loste   fro   the  slawthe   of  wryters,  so  that  MS.Haiil. 
vnnethe  the  bare  names  of  places  be  saluede.    Thauthe  the      2261. 

figmentes   of  gentiles  and  dictes  of  ethnlkes  be  inmixte  to      

this  werke  thei  do  seruyce  to  the  Cristen  religion  and  feythe. 
For  it  was  lawefuUe  to  Virgille  the  nowble  poette  to  seche  the 
golde  of  sapience  in  the  cleye  of  Ennius  the  poete,  and  to  the 
childer  of  Israel  goenge  in  to  the  londe  of  promissien  to  spoile 
men  of  Egipte.  In  whom  alle  thinges  excerpte  of  ofer  men 
ar  ^  broken  in  to  smalle  membres,  but  concorporate  here  lini- 
amentally  ;  thynges  of  disporte  be  admixte  with  saddenes,  and 
dictes  ethnicalle  to  thynges  religious,  that  the  ordre  of  the 
processe  may  be  obseruede,  that  to  my  power  the  integrite 
of  trawthe  schaUe  not  ffeynte.  For  egalle  certitude  may 
not  be  holden  by  aUe  thynges  and  in  aUe  thynges.  For 
after  Seynte  Auslyn,  de  Civitate  Dei,  diuine  miracles  ar  to 
be  meruailede  and  to  be  worschipped,  not  worthy  to  be 
discussede  by  disputacion.  Thynges  to  be  meruaylede  be 
not  in  alle  maneres  to  be  taken  to  discredence,  sythe  Seynte 
lerom  seythe,  "  Thow  schalle  *®  fynde  mony  thynges  incredible 
"  and  not  lyke,  and  neuerthelesse  thei  be  trewe.  Truly  there 
"  is  noo  thynge  more  preualent  ageyne  the  dominy  of  nature 

*  So  a. ;  dredeSf  MS.  [     ®  duiputicion,  Cx.  ;  despitesoun,  a, 

'  not,  Cx.  '  Hieronymus  sei^'\  Bornme  telle,  Cx. 

*  So  Cx.  and  o. ;  lawes  of,  MS.  |  *  So  Cx.^;  i  leue^  MS. 

*  andy  Cx. ;  hool  and  so\>nesse,  o.  j  »  ar]  as,  Harl.  MS. 
s  notheles,  a.  |  ^»  So  HarL  MS. 

VOL.   I.  B 


'*  prsBvalet  ipsa  natura."  In  multis  quoque  veri  certi- 
tude nullatenus  vacUlare  videretur,  probabiliter  tamen 
dubitatur,  Dicit  enim  Isidorus,  EtymoJ.  [lib.]  xv°. :  *'  Si 
"  de  constructioue  urbis  Romae  certa  ratio  non  appareat,' 
"  non  est  mirum  si  in  aliarum  opinione  dubitetur/* 
Unde  nee  historieos  nee  eommentarios  *  varie  loquen- 
tes  condemnare  debemus,  quia  antiquitas  ipsa  creavit 
errorem.  lUorum  igitur  dictis,  secundum  Hieronymum, 
quorum  religio  fidei  [et]  moribus  non  ^  praejudicat,  nee 
veritati  agnitsa  contradicit,  fidem  eonvenit  adhibere, 

Quamobrem  in  hae  assertione  historica  periculum 
veri  statuendi  per  omnia  mihi  non  faeio,  sed  quae 
apud  di versos  auctores  legi*  sine  invidia  communico. 
Nam  et  apostolus  non,  "  Quaecunque  scripta  sunt  vera 
"  sunt/'  ait ;  sed,  "  Quaecunque  scripta  sunt,  ad  nostram 
"  doctrinam  scripta  sunt,"'  inquit.  Et  quamvis  alienum 
sit  quod  assume,   meum  tamen   facio   quod  meis  ali* 

*  apparet,  £. 

^  coi^ectarios,  B. 

'  «ec,  A. 
*  lege,  A. 


"  kjrnde."      Also  of  many  jiinges  that    se^mep    ful  soof,  Trbvisa. 

noseless    skilfulliche    me    doute]>.*      Isidorus,    Eth.,    quinto      -— ^ 

decimo,  seip :  "5^^  resoun  is  vncertayne  of  f  e  buildynge  of 

*'  the  citee  of  Eome,  what  wonder  J>ey  men  be  vncerteyn  of 

"  the  buldynge  of  oper  citees  and  townes  ?    Wherfore  we 

*'  schulle  not  blame  ^  makeres  and  writeres   of  stories,  ]>at 

*'  dyuersliche  spekej»  and  write]? ;  for  longe  passynge  of  tyme 

^'  and  elde  of  dedes   make]>  hem  vnknowe  and  writers  to 

"  erre."    J)erfore  Hieronymus  sei]>,  "  It  is  semeliche  to  trowe  ^ 

"  her   sawes   pat    wijjseip^  nou^t  oure  byleue  noJ>er  soop- 

*'  nesse  that  is  knowe." 

Wherfore  in  J?e  writynge  of  ])is  storie  I  take  noutt  vppon 
me  to  aferme  for  sodp  ^  all  p&t  I  write,  but  such  as  I  haue 
seie  ®  and  i-rad  in  dyuerse  bookes,  I  gadere  ^  and  write  wi]> 
oute  envie,  and  eomoun  to  o}>ere  men.  For  })e  apostel  seith 
nou^t,  "All  fat  is  write*  to  oure  lore  is  soop,"  but  he  seij) 
"  Al  J>at  is  i- write  to  oure  lore  *  it  is  i-write.**  And  |)ei  I 
take  it  of  oper  menis,  I  clepe  J)is  storie  myn ;  and  for  J>at 

*'  then  that  nature."     Neuerthelesse   a    dubitacion  may  be  MS.  Harl. 
movede  probably  in   mony  thynges,  where  certitude  dothe      2261. 
not  appere  to  be  variaunte.    Isidorus  seythe,  Ethi.  libro  xv**,  «  ^77" 
**  If  that  certeyne  reason  appere  not  of  the  construccion  of  * 
"  the  cite  of  Rome,  hit  is  not  mervayle  if  a  dubitacion  be 
"  movede  in  the  oppinion  of  theyme.    Wherefore  we  awe  not 
*<  to  condempne  commentatores.  and  wryters  of  stofyes  spekenge 
"  diuersely,  for  the  antiqtiite  per  of  causethe  erroure.     For  hit 
"  is  conueniente  to  tiffe  feithe  and  credulite  to  the  dictes  of 
"  those  men,  after  Seynte  lerom,  the  religion  of  whom  schew- 
"  ethe  not  preiudice   to  vertues  neiper  seythe  contrary  to 
"  the  trawthe  y-knowen."i®    If  eny  thynge  be  founde  disso- 
naunte  to   feithe  auper  diuerse  or  straunge  to  vertues  in 
this  werke,    hit    schalle  be   ascribede  raper   to    the    tyme 
then  to  man.  Wherefore  y  make  not  to  me  by  alle  thynges 
perelle  of  trawthe    to   be    ordeynede  in   this   spekenge   of 
storyes,  but  takenge  parte  withowte  envye  thynges  of  diuerse 
auctores  whom  y  haue   redde.     For   Seynte  Paule  seythe, 
That  alle  thynges  wryten  be  not  trewe,  but  alle  thynges 
wryten  be  wryten  to  oure  doctrine."  And  thau^he  y  take 
the  wordes   of  other  men,   y  make  hit  myne   that  y  pro- 


^  me  doute\>]  it  is  to  be  doubted, 

2  make  bhmeres,  a, 

^  beleue,  Cx. 

'*  So  o.;  wtjp  sej*>,  MS.  J  gaynsaye, 

'^  trouihtt,  Cx. 

*  y-seiey  a. 

'  So  a,  and  Cx. ;  gadered,  MS. 

^  y^write,  a. 

•*  to  oure  /ore]  for  oure  doctryiae 
and  loore,  Cx.  (a  has  various  words 

^*  y  knotven,  Harl.  MS.,  and  simi- 
larly elsewhere  ;  here  always  print- 
ed conjunciim. 

B  2 



quando  verbis  antiquorum  ssepe^  sententias®  profero, 
adeo  ut  quos  auctores  in  capite  libri  prsescripsero,® 
illis  utar  pro  clypeo  contra  sugillantes.  Quum*  vero 
compilator  loquitur,  sub  hac  figuratione  [R]  littera'* 

Cap.  IL 
Nomina  auctorum  in  lioc  opuscuh  aUegaiovnm? 

Eecitantub  hie®  auctorum  nomina  de  quibus  haec^ 
potissime  abstracta  ^%  est  Chronica  : 

Josephus  Judaeorum  historicus^^  insignis,^^  qui  ab 
initio  saeculi  usque  ad  xiv™.  annum  Domitiani  libros 
antiquitatum  xx,  necnon  et  de  subversione  urbis 
Hierosolymse  '^  gentisque  suee  '*  captivitate  vii.  libros  '* 

Hegesippus,  de  Excidio  TJrbis,  quern  transtulit 

Plinius,  in  xxxvil.  libris  de  Naturali  Historic.. 

Trogus  Pompeius,  in  XLiv.  libris  de  cunctis  paene 
Orbis  historiis,  quem  abbreviavit  discipulus  suus^'^ 

Eusebius^  in  Historia  Eeclesiastica,  cujus  xi,  sunt 

Historia    Ecclesiastica    Tripartita,    cujus    tres    sunt 

'  semper,  D. 

^  seiiUemHa8\  So  B.  (where  the 
word  profero  is  imtten  twice) ;  sen- 
tentiiSf  A.E. 

*  scripsero,  B, 

*  Quum]  Quando,  E. 

*  Utter  a]  om.  D. 

*  prascribetur,  D. 

'  Heading  (here  and  usually)  as 
in  B.  Prafatio  secunda  ad  historiam, 
E.    In  A.C.D*  is  no  heading. 

*  Sunt  autem  hac,  C,P, 

•  hie,  B. 

"  extroicta,  CD. 

'*  historioffraphus,  CD. 

^'  insignis]  om.  E. 

**  HierosclynuB]  So  D,E. ;  Ifiero- 
sol^itana,  A.B. 

**  sua]  om,  C 

« libros  7,  B. 

"  D.E.  add  doctor, 

>'  5«««]  Added  from  B.D.E.  In 
C.  the  reading  is  ejus, 


I  write  ofer  whiles  myn  owne  wordes  and  sentens  of   olde  Tretisa. 

men,  J?e  auctores  Jiat*  in  the  firste  bygynnynge  of  })is  book      

I  take  for  schelde  and  defeus,  me  for  to  saue  and  schilde  2 
a^enst  enemyes  fat  me  wolde  despise  strongly 3  and  blame; 
first  for  my  self  and  for  myn  owne  name  I  wiite  Hs  letter 

Capitulum  secundum. 

Here  I  write  and  reherse  f e  auctours  names  of  fe  whiche 
|?is  cronycle  is  nameliche  ^  i-gadered  and  i-drawe  :  «Josephus 
Judeorum  historicus  insignis,  qui  ab  initio  saeculi  usque  ad 
quartum  decimum  annum  t)omitiani  libros  Antiquitatum 
viginti,  necnon  et  de  subversione  civitatis  Hierosolymas, 
gentisque  suae  captivitate  septem  conscripsit.  Hegesippus,  de 
Excidio  Urbis  quem  transtulit  Ambrosius.  Plinius  in  xxxvii. 
libris,  de  Naturali  Historia.  Trogus  Pompeius,  in  xliv. 
libris,  de  cunctis  pene  orbis  historiis,  quem  abbreviavit  dis- 
cipulus  suus  Justinus.  Eusebius^  in  Historia  Ecclesiastica, 
cujus  XI.  sunt  librL     Historia  Ecclesiastica  Tripaiiiita^  cujus 

ferre  other  while  of    the  sentence    of  olde    men    by    my  MS.  Hari. 
wordes,  vsenge  the  auctores  whom  I  schalle  wryte  in  the      2261. 
begynnenenge  of  the  booke  as  a  schelde  and  defense  ageyne      """""" 
men  movenge  contrarious  thynges.     When    the  compilator 
spekethe,   the    letter    shall ,  be  proscribede    in    this   forme 
folowenge  [R]. 

Explicit  Prjefatio  prima. 

,    Capitulum  Secundum»  ^ 

The  names  of  the  auctores  been  rehersede  here,  of  whom  1 19  a. 
thys  presente  cronicle  is  abstracte.  losephup,  the  nowble 
w^te?  of  storyes  of  the  lewes,  whiche  dide  wiyte  xx« 
bookes  of  antiquite,  and  vij,  bookes  of  the  subuersion  of 
the  cyte  of  lerusalem  and  of  the  captiuite  of  the  peple 
|>er  of,  from  the  begynnenge  of  the  worlde  vn  to  the  xiiij*^* 
yere  of  Domician  themperoure.  Also  Hegesippus,  de  Ex- 
cidio Urbis,  whom  Seynte  Ambrose  translate.  Plinius,  in 
hys  xxx'^  vij.  bookes  of  Naturalle  Story es.  Trogus  Pom- 
peius,  in  hys  xl^^  iilj.  bookes,  allemoste  of  alle  the  storyea 
of  the  worlde,  whom  lustinus  his  disciple  did  abbreuiate. 
Eusebius,  in  his  Story  Ecclesiasticalle,  in  whiche  story  xj. 
bookes  be  conteynede.    Also  the  Ecclesiasticalle  Story  tri- 

'  /  settCy  or  something  similar, 
seems  to  be  omitted. 
*  hepcy  Cx. 

^  strangely^  Cx* 
*  special,  Cx. 



auctores,    8c}    Eusebius,   Hieronymus,    et^    Theodorus 


Augustinus,  de  Civitate  Dei,  potissime  in  XVIl""°-  ^  et  * 

Orosius  Hispanus,  Terraconensis  presbyter,^  in  libro 
de  Ormesta®  Mundi. 

Isidorus  Hispalensis  episcopus,  in  libro  Etymolo- 

Solinus,  de  Mirabilibus  Mundi.  ^ 

Eutropius,  in  Historia  Eomana. 

Paulus  Diaconus,  in  Historia  Longobardorum. 

Cassiodorus/  de  Gestis   Imperatorum  et  Pontificum. 

Methodius  martyr  et  episcopus,-  cui  incarcerate 
revelavit  angelus  de  mundi  statu   priacipio,®  et  fine.* 

Suetonius,  de  Gestis  Romanorum. 

Valerius  Maximus,  de  Gestis  Memorabilibus.^^ 

Macrobius,  in  Satumalibus. 

Priscianus  Grammaticus^  in  Cosmographia." 

Petrus  Comestor,^^  in  Historia  Scholastica. 

Gregorius,  de  Mirabilibus  Romse,^^ 

Beda,  de  Gestis  Anglorum. 

Item,  Beda,  de  Naturis  Eerum. 

IteTTi,  Beda,  de  Temporibus.^* 

J  Added  from  D.    ^ 

^ef]  Added  from  CD. 

*  16.  D.,  which  pkces  De  C.  Dei 
at  the  end. 

*et2  etin,  "E. 

^  C.  and  D.  add  et  discipulus  heati 

^  In  all  the  MSS.  Bespecting  the 
orthography  and  probable  import  of 
this  title,  see  Smith's  Diet,  of  Greek 
and  Homan  Biogr,,  Tol.  iii  p.  59} 
Lond.  1849. 

^  C.  and  P.  add  Senator  et  kisto-» 

^  prineipio]  Added  from  B.E. :  in 
principio,  C,  but  in  is  cancelled ;  a 
prineipio,  D. 

'  C.  and  D.  insert,  at  this  point, 
Herodotus,  Quiniilianus,  AgeUius  (i.  e, 
*■  Aldus  GeUiusJ'    D.  has  Augelius.) 

1*^  A.  adds,  here  also,  et  fine,  but 
the  words  are  run  through  by  some 
corrector  of  the  MS. 

'*  sua,  add  C.D.  $  in  Cosnwgraphia 
om.  n. 

*^  Trecensis  (?)  presbyter,  add  C. 
D.,  which  last  has  Cretensis* 

^'  Magister  Gregorius  in  libro  de, 

**  The  two  last  works  of  Bede  are 
omitted  in  D,,  and  added  in  C.  by  a 
later  hand. 


tres  sunt  auctores,  Eusebius,  Hierbnymus,  et  Theodorus  epi-  Tbevisa, 

Scopus.    Augustinus   de   Civitate    Dei,    potissime  xvii.    et      

XVIII.  Orosius  Hispanus  Terraconensis  presbyter,  in  libro 
de  Ormesta  Mundi.  Isidorus  Hispalensis  in  libro  Etymolo- 
giarum.  Solinus  de  Mirabilibus  Mundi.  Henricus  Huntyng- 
donensis  ^  archidiaconus.  Eutropius  [m]  ^  Historia  Eomana. 
Walterus  archidiaconus  Oxoniensis.  Paulus  Diaconus  in 
Historia  Longobardorum.  Alfridus  Beverlacensis  thesau- 
rariuB»  Cassiodorus  de  Gestis  Lnperatorum  et  Fontificum. 
Gralfridus  Monamutensis,  in  Historia  Bretonum.  Methodius 
etiam  ^  martyr  et  episcopus,  cui  incarcerato  revelavit  angelus 
de  mundi  statu  principio  et  fine.  Willehnus^  Ryvallensis. 
Giraldus  Cambrensis,  qui  descripsit  Topographiam  Hiber- 
niae,  Itinerarium  Walliae,  et  yitam  regis  Henrici  Secundi  sub 
triplici  distinctione.  Suetonius,  de  Gestis  Memorabilibus.  ^ 
Macrobius,  in  Saturnalibus.  Johannes  Salisburiensis  in  suo 
Polycraticon,  quem  intitulavit,  de  Nugis  Curialium  et  Phi- 
losophorum.  Priscianus  Grammaticus,  in  Cosmographia. 
Petrus  Comestor  in  Histoiua  Scholastica.  Hugutio  Pisanus 
episcopus  in  Magnis  Derivationibus  ^  suis.  Gregorius,  de 
Mirabilibus  Romae.  Vincentius  Belluacensis,  in  Speculo 
Historiali.  Beda,  de  Gestis  Anglorum.  Ivo  Carnotensis 
episcopus.  Beda,  de  Naturis  Rerum.  Historia  Francorum. 
Beda,  de  Temporibug.     Titus  Livius,  de  Gestis  Romanorum. 

partite  of  whom  be  iij.  auctores,  Eusebius,  lerom  and  Theo-  MS.Habl. 
dorus  the  byschoppe.  Seynte  Austyn  de  Civitate  'Dei,  2261. 
and  specially  in  the  xyij***^  and  xviij**®  books.  Orosius 
Hispanus,  in  his  booke  de  Ormesta  Mundi.  Isidorus  His- 
palensis, in  his  Ethimologies.  Solinus,  of  the  Meruayles  of 
the  Worlde.  Eutropius,  in  his  story  of  Romanes.  Paulus 
Diaconus  in  his  Story  of  Longobardes.  Cassiodorus,  of  the 
Gestes  of  Emperoures  and  Byschoppes.  Methodius,  martir 
and  byschoppe/  to  whom,  beenge  in  prison,  an  angelle 
schewede  of  J>e.  state  of  the  worlde,  begynnenge  and  ende. 
Suetonius,  of  the  Gestes  of  Romanes.  Valerius  Maximus, 
of  the  Gestes  of  Memorye.  Macrobius,  in  Saturnalibus.  Pri- 
cianus  Grammaticus,  in  his  Cosmographye.  Petrus  Comestor, 
in  his  Storye  Scolasticalle.  Gregorius,  of  the  Meruailes  of 
Rome.  Bede,  of  the  Gestes  of  men  of  Englonde ;  also, 
Bede,  of  the  Natures  of  Thynges ;  also,  Bede,  of  Tymes# 

*  Hontingdon,  a.                               s  s  J^ojnanorum,  Valerius  Maximus 

*  m]  Added  from  a,  and  Cx.  ^      ^^  memorahilibm,  a. 
^  ettam]  om.  Cx.  ^ 

*  W^mus,  MS.,  and  so  a  litUe  .  '  diuinacwnilms,  Cx. 
1)elow.                                                I  '  byschopf  Harl.  MS^ 


POLYCHROKICOj^  ranulphi  higden 

Gildas,^  de  Gestis  Britonum.^ 

Marianus  Scotus. 

Wilhelmus*   Malmesburiensis  monachus,    de    Gestis 
<Eegum  Anglian  et  Pontificum.* 
•    Henricus  Huntindoneiisis  *  archidiaconus. 

Waltenls  Oxoniensis  *  archidiaconus. 

Alfridus  Beverlacensis '  thesaurajius*® 

Galfddus  Monemutensis^  in  Historia^^  Britonum. 

Wnhehnus  Rievallensis." 

Giraldus  Cambrensis,  qui  descripsit  Topograpliiam 
Hibemiae,  Itinerarium  Walliae,  et  Vitam  regis  Henrici 
Secundi  sub  tripKci  distinctione. 

Johannes  Salisburiensis,^^  in  suo  Polycraticon,^^  quern" 
intitulavit  de  Nugis  Curialium  et  Philosophorum. 

Hugo  ^^  Pisanus  episcopus,  in  Magnis  ^^  Derivationibus. 

Vincenfcius  Beluacensis,  in  Speculo  Historiali. 

Ivo  Carnotensis  episcopus. 

Historia  Francorum.*' 

Titus  Livius,  de  Gestis  Romanorum. 

Martinus  pcenitentiarius  domini  papse  in  Chronicis 
suis  de  Imperatoribus  et  Pontificibus.^® 

Et    Florentius    Wigomensis    monachus^    quem    in 

^  Item  Gildas,  B. 

'  C.  and  D.  add  Nenninius  {Nen- 
ninus,  C.)  Brito  EJdugi  (read  Elvo- 
dugi)  dUcipulnsy  presbyter, 

*  WiUtelmtes]  So  B.  Variously 
imtten  and  abbreviated  in  the  MSS. 

*  C  and  D.  omit  the  title  of  the 
book.  B.  has  de  regibtis  Angli<B  et 
pontfficilfus . 

^  Hunteyngdonien,y  B. 

*  Exon.,  CD. 

'  Bleuerlacen^  B. 
'  thesaurius,  A. 
^  Munemutensis,  D. 
*•  historiis^  B. 
*'  Rivalensi&t  D. 
"  Saiesbur,  D. 

**  Pdychronican^  B.  {Polycraticon 
in  marg.  in  later  hand),  E.    A  con- 

fusion of  names  -which  is  often 
repeated  in  the  titles  of  the  present 




'*  Hugutio^  B.  (Hugo  in  marg.)» 
C.I).E.    Both  forms  are  good. 

*^  Magnis]  suiSf  CD. 

"  The  allusion  is  most  probably 
to  the  work  of  Gregory  of  Tours, 
although  in  some  MSS.  the  punctua- 
tion seems  to  imply  that  the  writer 
intended  the  Ckronicon  de  BegUnts 
Franeorum  of  Iro  of  Chartres. 
(Hardwick's  note.)  C  has  *  Ivo 
*■  Carnotensis  Episcopus,  Historui 
<  Franeorum^  T.  Livius,*  all  in  the 
margin.    I>.  omits  them  entirely. 

J*  in  cronicis  de  pontificibuSf  CD* 

MONACttI   CjeSTBENSlS,   LIB.  I,  25 

Gildas,  de   Gestis  Britouum.     Martinus  poenitentiarius  do-  TbsVisa. 
mini  papae,   in  Chronicis   suis  de  Imperatore  et  Pontifice.* 
MarianuB  Scotus.     Willelmus  Malmesburiensis  Monachus  de 
Gestis  Regum  Angliae  et  Pontificum.     Florentias   Wygor- 

Gxldas,   of   the   Gestes   of    Briteynes.       Marianus    Scotus.  MS.  Habl. 


Willelmus  *  Malmesburiensis  monachus,  of  the  Gestes  of  the      

Kynges  of  Englonde  and  of  the  Byschoppes.  Henry,  Archi- 
diacon  of  Huntyngedon.  Waltere,  Archidiacon  of  Oxford. 
Alfride,  Treasurer  of  Beuerlaye.  Galfridus  Monomutensis, 
in  his  Story  of  Britones.  Willelmus  ^  Eiuallensis.  Giral- 
dus  of  Wales,-  which  describede  Topographic  of  Irlonde, 
Itinerary  of  Wales,  and  the  Lyfe  of  Kinge  Henry  the 
Secunde,  under  a  triuialle  distinccion.  lohannes  Salesburi- 
ensis,  in  his  Policraticon,  whom  he  intitlede  de  Nugis  Curi- 
altum.  Hugo  Pisanus  Byschoppe,  in  his  Deriuaciones. 
Vincentius  Beluacensis,  in.  his  Myrrour  Historicalle.  Ivo  f.  19  K 
Byschoppe  Camotense,  of  the  Storye  of  Frensche  men. 
Titus  Liuius,  of  the  Gestes  of  Romanes.  Martinus,  the  peni- 
tentiary of  the  Pope,  in  his  Cronicles  of  Emperoures  and 
Byschoppes.    Also  Florentius,  monke  of  Wurcestre,  whom 

delmperatwibusPcnHficibus^Cx.  \      ^  WiSms,  HarL  MS.  (twice)* 



annorum  supputatione  una  ^  cum  Mariano  Scoto  ^  potis- 
sime  sum  secutus. 

Cap.  III. 

Divisio  hujus  Opusculi  i/n  septem  lihroa? 

Et  quia  prsesens  chronica  multorum  temporum  con- 
tinet  gesta,  idcirco  earn  Historiam  Polychronica/nhy^ 
a  pluralitaie  temporum  quam  continet,  censui  nuncu- 
pandam.  In  cujus  negotii  pertractatione,  exemplo  pri- 
mitivi  Opificis  sub  senario  cuncta  condentis  et  in 
septimo  *  quiescentis,  cujus  actio  nostra  est  ^  instructio, 
subtractum  opus  in  septem  libellulos''  subdistinxi. 
Quorum  primus  describit  orbis  loca,  reliqui  sex  orbis 
gesta  juxta  ®  numerum  sex  setatum.  In  primo  tamen  ® 
hujus  operis^^  libro,  more  divisi  generis  in  species,"  mappa 
mundi  describitur.  Deinde,  orbis  in  suas  partes  *^  princi- 
paliores  dividitur.  Tertio,  provincia  quaeque  partialis 
percurritur,  donee  perveniatur  ad  omnium  novissimam*^ 
Eritanniam,  tanquam  ad  speciem^*  specialissimam,^^ 
cujus    gratia    tota    prsesens    lucubtata    est     historia.^^ 

*  unal  om.  B.,  which  arranges 
the  words  of  the  sentence  diffe- 

'  C.  and  'K.QTtAtuna  cum  Mariano 
Scoto.  D.  omits  all  after  monackus. 
The  order  in  which  this  catalogue  of 
authors  appears  is  not  quite  the  same 
in  all  the  Latin  MSS.  The  text  is 
as  A.B.E. 

3  Prmfatio  tertia  ad  historiam,  E. 

*  Policraticam,  C,  (not  D.)  :  and 
similarly  in  the  colophon  of  the 
same  MS. 

*  septenariOy  B. 

*  est\  sit,  B. 

'  lihellos,  B.E. 

^  juxta]  secundum,  B. 

'^  etianij  CD. 

^®  hujus  operis,  om»  C.1).  ;  hujus 
partis,  E. 

"  more  .  .  .  species']  oto.  CD. 

^-partes  interlineated  in  later 
hand  aftef  princtpaliores  in  A. 

"  omnium  novissimam]  So  B.C.E* ; 
omnium  iwvisiimay  A.;  omnem  no^ 
vissimam,  D. 

^*  spem,  A. 

^^  tanquam  . .  spectalissimam]  om. 

*^  /.  p.  /i.,  C.  (omitting  est). 


nensis,  quern  in  annorum  supputatione,  una  cum  Mariano^  Tsbtesa* 
potissime  sum  secutus.  ^— * 

PrcBfatia  secunda  ad  Historiam. 

And  for  J)is  cronicle  *  contejme]?  berynges  and  dedes  of 
.meny  Ayme,^  ferfore  I  clepe^  it  Pollicronicon^  fat  is  fe^ 
cronicle  of  meny  tymes.  In  pe  whiche  work,  by  J>e  en- 
saumple  of  |ie  firste  Worcbere,  J>at  wrou^hte  alle  his  werkes 
in  sixe  dayes  and  reste  in  ]>e  seuenfe  (for  his  doynge  is  oure 
lore^),  ]>is  werke  I  departe  and  dele  in  seuene  boo^s.  pe 
iirste  book  descryuej?  placis  and  contrees  and  londes  knd  alle 
f e  worlde  wyde.^  pe  ofere  sixe  bokes,  by  J)e  noumbre  of 
vi.  ages,  |)at  conteynej»  ber3mge  and  dedes  from  f  e  bygyn- 
nynge  of  fe  world  vnto  oure  tyme.  Ne]?eles  in  J>e  &ste 
book  of  J>i8  werk,  as  who^  descriue}>  general,  comoun  and 
special,  mappa  mnndi  is  purtrayed  and  i-peynt,  {»at  is  ]>e 
clo|)e  pat  J)e  schap  of  fe  worlde  wide  is  i-peynted  ynne. 
panne  in  his  cheef  parties  ]?e  world  is  i-deled ;  and  for  fis 
storie  is  bytrauailled^  by  cause  of  Brytayne,  eueriche  pro- 
quince  and  londe  is  descryued  for  to  me®  come  to  Britayne 
fe  laste  of  alle,  as  most  special;  and  J^ere  ynne  is  i-conteyned 

y  folowe  specially  with  Marianus  Scotte  in  the  supputacion  MS.  Hab£« 
of  yeres.  2261. 

The  secunde  Preface  vn  to  the  storye,     Capitulum  tertium^ 

And  for  cause  that  this  cronicle  presente  conteynethe 
the  gestes  of  mony  tymes,  I  haue  studiede  that  hit  schal 
be  called  PoUcronican  of  the  pluralite  of  tymes  whom  it 
dothe  conteyne.  In  whiche  werke  y  haue  subdiuidede  in 
to  vij.  bookes,  after  the  exemple  of  the  firste  Maker 
makenge  alle  thynges  vnder  the  nowmbre  of  vj.  and  rest- 
onge  in  the  vij*^^.  The  firste  boke  of  whom  describethe 
the  places  of  the  worlde,  other  vj.  bookes  describe  the 
gestes  of  the  worlde  after  the  nowmbre  of  l?j^  ages. 
Mappa  mundi  is  describede  in  the  firste  boke  of  this 
werke,  in  the  manor  of  a  diuision  genericalle  in  to  a  di- 
uision  specificalle*  After  that  the  worlde  is  diilidede  as 
in  to  his  partes  principalle.  In  the  thrydde  euery  par*- 
cialle  province  is  discussede,  till  hit  be  commen  to  Breteyne 
the  last  prouince,  as  vn  to  a  specialite  moste  specialle  for 

^for  as  Tnocke  as  this  cronMye,  Cx, 

2  tymes,  Cx.  (not  a.) 

'  So  Cx.  and  a. ;  cleped,  MS. 

*  So  Cx.  and  «. ;  in,  MS. 

*  doctn/ne,  Cx,  |      *for  to  me]  Tntil  we,  Cx. 

VOL.  I.  B  6 

®  wyde  world,  Cx.,  and  80  just 
below,  with  other  slight  yariations. 

'  So  Cx.  J  first  who,  MS.;  first  as 
who,  a. 

'  is  trauapUed,  Cx. 



Quo^  in  loco  quindecim  contexta*  sunt  capitula,  sum- 
mariam^  quidem  sed  necessariam  insulsB  Britannic» 
notitiam  continentia,  velut  isagogse  qusedamf  primse 
ad  majores  categorias  in  libris  reliquis  subsequentes,  ut 
ctu  fortassis  plenam  ponendorum  coenam  gustare  non 
libuerit,  his  saltern^  prseviis  acruminibns®  delectetur. 
Deinde^  secundus  liber  aggreditur®  gesfca  saeculi,  cum 
descriptione  xninoris  mundi ;  verum  quia  gesta  unius- 
cujusque  setatis  non  sunt  seque  multa  et  librorum  qui- 
libet®  sequilibratam  portionem  vendicat  in  contentis,  ea 
propter  secundus  liber  quatuor  setatum  sseculi^^  conti- 
net  gesta,  a  plasmatione  scilicet  protoplasti  usque  ad  ^^ 
incensionem  templi  Judaic!.  Tertius  a  transmigratione 
populi  usque  adventum  Christi.  Quartus  a  Christo 
usque  adventum  Saxonum.  Quintus  abinde  usque 
adventum  Dacorum.  Sextus  abinde  usque  adventum 
Normannorum.  Septimus  abinde  ^^  usque  ad  sevum 
nostrum,  quod  est  sub  regno  Edwardi  Tertii  post  Con- 
qusestum.  Et  sic,  juxta  vaticinium  Isaiae  prseloquentis, 
immensitas  historisB  profluentis  percussa  est  in  septem 
rivis,  ut  jam^^  per  earn  transeant  calceati,  pateatque 
via  residuo  populo  Dei. 

*  Qmo  , . .  delectetur']  om.  CD. 
^  contexta]  om.  B. 

*  tumsummariam,  GaIe*sMS.(G.)» 
(but  non  is  interlineated),  and  so  the 
Winchester  MS.  (W.)  and  Harl. 
version ;  badly. 

^ysagoge  quidam,  A.  ;  isagoge 
qucedam  ^rima  is  probably  the  true 
reading.    See  Trevisa. 

*  B.  fudAs  descriptionihus, 

*  acruminibus]  So  B.,  apparently, 
and  Gr.,  quite  distinctly;  compare 
p.  404;  acriWni6«5,  A.E.W,;  and 
^o  Trevisa,  absurdly.'^ 

^  Thus  abridged  in  CD.:  Deinde 
secundus  liher  gesta  sectUi  cum  de- 
scriptione minoris  mundi  aggr^itur : 
quataorque  {secundus  liber  quatuor, 
0.)  istatum  continet  gesta,  sc,  ah 
Adam  usque  incensionem  templi, 

^  aggreditur  before  secundus  in  B. 

^quilibet']  qaeliter,  A.  (without, 

***  seeculij  om.  B. 

**  ad]  om.  B. 

^^  abinde"]  om.  B. 

'^  utjam]  ita  quidem  ui>  CD. 


XV.  chapitres  nedful  to  ])e  knowleche  of  the  ylond  of  Britayne,  Trevma. 

as  yeiX  it  were  an  ^  in-bryngynge  to  gretter  knowleche  in      

of er  2  Dookes  })at  folowef ;  fat  who  fat  may  nou^t  come  to 
ful  knowleche  of  fe  ful  storie,  mowe  by  such  forledynge 
haue  [lykynge]  ^  to  leeue  schrewednes  and  synne.  pe  secunde 
book  auntref  ^  forto  telle  berynge  and  dedes  wif  descrip- 
cioun  of  the  lasse  world ;  and  for  f e  ages  of  fe  world 
beef  nou^t  all  euene  of  beryng  and  of  dedes,  and  euery 
book  is  euene  and  conteynef  i-liche ;  f  erfore  f  e  secounde 
book  conteynef  fe  berynge  and  dedes  of  the  foure  ages 
from  the  makynge  of  oure  formest  fader  to  f e  brennynge  of 
f  e  temple  of  lewes,  pe  f  ridde  book  from  f  e  transmygra- 
cioun  of  fe  i)eple  to  the  comynge  of  Crist,  pe  fourfe  from 
Crist  to  fe  comynge  of  Saxouns.  pe  fifte  from  Saxons  to 
fe  Banes,  pe  sixte  from  f e  Danes  to  f e  Normans.^  pe 
seuenfe  fro  Xormans  to  oure  tyme,  fat  is,  reignynge^  of  ' 
kyng  Edwarde  fe  f ridde  after  fe  Conquest.  And  so  by 
fe  prophecie  of  Isjay,  fis  grete  storie. is  departed  in  seuene 
streemes,  so  fat  bofe  i-hosed  and  i-schod  Goddes  peple  may 
passe  f  erby. 

whom  his  present  storye  was  madei     In  whiche  place  xv.  MS.  Uxnt, 
chapitres  bene   contexte,  not   as  summary,  but  as  conteyn-      2261. 

enge  necessarily  the  knowlege  of  the  yle  of  Bryteyne.     The      

secunde  boke  tretethe  of  the  gestes  of  the  worlde,  with  a 
descripsion  of  the  lesse  worlde.  Sythe  the  gestes  of  euery 
age  be. not  egaUe  in  multitude,  and  euery  booke  chalang-  - 
ethe  his  particion  in  contentes,  ferfore  the  secunde  boke 
conteynethe  the  gestes  of  the  iiij.  ages  of  the  world,  from  the 
piasmacion  of  Adam  vn  to  the  incension  of  the  temple  of 
the  lewes.  The  thrydde  boke  conteynethe  from  the  trans- 
migracion  off  the  peple  to  the  commenge  of  Criste,  The 
iiijthe  from  Criste  to  the  commenge  of  Saxones,  The  v*^» 
from  theym  to  the  commenge  of  Danes.  The  yj^^^  from  . 
that  to  the  commenge  of  Normannes.  The  vij^**®  from 
theyme  to  our  age.  And  soe  this  presente  story  is  smyten 
in  to  vij.  ryuerers,  after  the  prophecy^  of  Ysay  that  men 
y-schoede  may  goe  by  hyt,  and  fat  the  weye  may  be  patente 
to  the  residu  peple  of  God. 

^  and,  MS. ;  txt,  Cx. 

*  j}e  o\>ere,  a. 

'  Added  from  Cx.  and  o. 

*  (fuenturethf  Cx. 

^fram  (sic)  Danes  to  Normans,  «. 
*  vnder  J»€  reignynge,  a. ;  imder  the 
regne,  Cx, 



Cap.  IV. 

De  quHmsdam  prceambuUs  utilibus    ad  opus    sub^ 


Satagentibus  *  igitur  plenam  histoiise  notitiaaoa  ap- 
prehendere  utile  foret^  octo  scire,  videlicet  descriptiones 
locorum,  status  reram,  distinctiones  tginporum,*  sue- 
cessiones  regiminum,  variationes  rituum,  decursiones 
setatum,  qualitates  actionum  ;  et  ^  in  his  ^  omnibus 
varias  prorsus  supputationes  annorum. 

Primum  istorum  in  primo  libro,  reliqua  in  reliquis 
sunt  expressa. 

Quoad  secundum  est  notjandum,  quod''  duo  sunt 
status  ;  unus  ab  exordio  mundi  usque  ad  Christum,  qui 
dicitur®  dremationi»-;  secundus,  a  Christo  usque  in 
finem,  qui  dicitur®  recondUationis, 

Quantum  ad  tertium,  nota  ^^  quod  tria  sunt  tempora  \ 
unum  ante  legem  scriptam,  secunduin,  sub  lege  scripta, 
tertium,  sub  gratia. 

Quantum  ad  quartum,  nota  quod  licet  quatuor 
fuerunt  aliquando^^  regna  principalia,  Assyrionim, 
scilicet,'^  Persarum,  Grsecorum,  et  Eomanorum,  tamen,'^ 
quoad    mundi    cursum    et    Sacree    ScripturaB    seriem, 

'  Prafatio  quarta  ad  historiam^  E. 
^  Satagentibus]  cnpientibus,  CD. 

*  utile  foret]    necessarium    erit, 

*  temporum]  om.  A, 
*e^]  om.  B. 

^  his  added  from  CD. ;  om.  A.B. 
^  est  notandum  quod]  om.  CD. 

"  qui  dieitur]  et  hie  fuit,  CD. 
»  est,  CD. 

"  CD.  om.  nota  quod^  and  so  be- 

"  aliquandofueruntf  B. 

^-  C  om.  scilicet. 

"  tamen]  After  mundiin  CD. 


Prctfaeio  Tertia  ad  HistoAam,  Teevisa. 

To  hem  fat  will  haue  ful  knowleche  of  stories  nedej>  ^      "^ — " 
ey|>te  J>inges  [to  knowe :    descrypcions  of  places,  states  of 
tnynges],2  distinccion  ^  of  tjmes,  aftir  foUowynge  of  kyng- 
doms«  dyuerste  of  liuynge,  passynge  of  ages,  maner  of  doynge, 
and  in  all  J>ese  verray  acountynge  of  ^eres. 

p6  firste  of  })ese  in  pe  firste  book,  and  J>e  ofere  in  fe  of er 
bookes  beej>  oponliche  i- write. 

Touchynge  pe  secounde  take  hede  of  tweie  states,  oon 
from  f  e  bygynnynge  of  ]>e  world  to  Criste,  and  is  i-cleped  ^ 
f 6  staat  of  mysgoynge  ;  tbe  secounde  staat  from  Criste  to 
j?e  worldes  end,  and  19  i-cleped^  fe  state  of  grace  and 
of  mercy. 

For  fe  fridde,  take  hede  of  pre  tymes,  oon  to  fore  lawe 
i- write,  pe  secounde  vndir  f e  lawe  i-write,  and  fe  fridde 
vnder  grace  and  mercy* 

For  1)0  fourthe,  take  hede  fat  somtyme  fere  were 
foure  prLipd  kyngdoms»  AsayriorL,  Persiuni,  &nBC«rum, 
Bomanorom.  Neuerf  eles  touchynge  the  '^  cours  of  the  worlde 
and  fe  processe  of  Holy  Writt,  fe  firste  kyngdom  was 
— — ■  ■■"■-  -' —     ■  '  .,-111-111—  I .1    — ,-. ,    I .   / 

The  thrydde  Preface  to  the  story e.     Capitulum  quartum.   MS.  Harl. 

Truly  viij***®  thynges    be   profitable    to  men    willenge  to      

haue  plenerly  knowelege  of  this  story  presente,  that  is  to  f-  20  a, 
say,  descripciones  of  places,  states  of  thynges,  distincciones  of 
t3rmes.  Successiones  of  gonemaunce,  yariaciones  of  cus- 
tomes,  decursiones  of  ages,  qualites  of  acciones  and  trewe 
supputaciones  of  yeres  in  alle  these  thynges.  •  The  firste  of 
these  is  in  the  firste  booke  and  ofer®  in  other  ^  books  be 
expressede.  As  vn  to  the  secunde  hit  is  to  be  attendede 
that  fer  be  ij.  states ;  oon  state  from  fe  begynnenge  of  the 
worlde  to  Criste,  whiche  is  the  state  of  deuiacion.  The 
secunde  is  fi*om  Criste  to  the  ende  of  the  worlde,  whiche 
is  the  state  of  reconsiliacion.  As  vn  to  the  thiydde  hit  is 
to  be  attendede  that  there  be  iij.  tymes;  oon  afore  the 
lawe  y-wryten.  The  secunde  vnder  the  lawe  wryten.  The 
thrydde  vnder  grace.  As  vn  to  the  iiij*^«.  hit  is  to  be 
attendede,  thau^e  fer  were  ofer  while  iiij.  principalle 
reahnes,  as  men  of  Assiria,  of  Persia,  Grekes,  and  Eomanes, 
neuerfelesse  as  after  the  course  of  the  worlde  and  ordre  of 
Holy    Scripture  the  firste    gouernayle  was  froni  Abraham 

>  it  nedeth,  Cz. 
'  distinceon,  MS. 

«  Cx.  has  "that  is  to  wete  of  the 
"  Assyryens,  Perces,  Greeks,  and 
"  Rcmayns." 

*  i-cleped]  called,  Cx.  ^  So  the  MS.    See  p.  63,  note, 

*  i'cleped'}  named,  Cx.  |       *  o]>er,  other']  See  p.  63,  note. 



primum  regimen  fait  mb  Fatribus  ab  Adam  usque 
ad  ^  Moysen ;  secundum  sub  Judicibus  ^  a  Moyse 
usque  ad  Saulem,  tertium  sub  Eegibus  a  Saule 
usque  ad  Zorobabel,  quartum  sub  Pontificibus,  a  Zoro- 
babel  usque  ad  Christum. 

Quoad  quintum,  nota  quod  quinque  ritus  fuerunt : 
primus  in  prima  setate  ^  sub  lege  naturae  communis 
erat  omnium  hominum;^  secundus  in  secunda  aetata 
inolevit  ritus  gfentilium,  quando  sub  Nino  orta  est 
idolatria :  tertius  in  tertia  setate  sub  lege  scripta 
surrexit'^  ritus  Judseorum,  quando  lex  et  circumeisio 
Judaeos  a  cseteris  distinguebat  gentibus :  ®  quartus  sub 
Christo  ritus  coepit  Ohristianorum,  quando  fides  et 
gratia  sacramentorum  informabat  vitam  eorum :  quintus'' 
sub  Macbometo  ritus  coepit  Saracenorum,  sicut  inferius 
in  quinto  libro,  post  tempora  Heraclii  imperatoris, 
plenius  ostendetur.® 

Quoad  sextum,  nota  quod  sex  sunt  aetateS;  prima 
ab  Adam  usque  ad  Noe,  secunda  a  Noe  usque  ad 
Abraham^  tertia  ab  Abraham  usque  ad  David,  quarta 
a  David  usque  ad  transmigrationem  Babylonis,^  quinta 
a  transmigratione  Babylonis  usque  ad  Christum,  sexta 

'  C.  omits  (id  after  usque  in  each 
case,  except  before  Christum, 
^judicibus]  ducibus,  B. 
^fuerunt;  d  prima  atate,  B. 

*  hominum  added  from  C.D.R 
«  erat,  CD. 

*  gentibus'}  om.  CD. 

'  quintOf  A. 

^  plenius  ostendetur"}  plenius  want- 
ing in  B.CD. ;  tempore  Heraclii 
coniinetury  CD. 

®  Babylonis']  om,  CD.E.,  and  so 


vnder  om^e  fore  fadres  from  Adam   to  Moyses ;  fe  secunde  Tkevisa. 

vnder    iuges  ^     from    Moyses    to    Saul ;    })e    Jiridde    vnder 

kynges   from   Saul    to    Zorobabel ;     pe  fourthe    vnder   bis- 
shoppis  from  Zorobabel  to  Crist. 

For  ye  fifte,  take  kepe  of  fyue  manere  of  lyuing,  ]?e  iirste 
was  in#])e  firste  age  vndir  Jje  lawe  of  kynde  comyn  to  alle 
men ;  fe  secounde  in  ]>e  secunde  age  [was]  ^  j>e  leuynge 
of  mysbyleued  men,  whan  mametrie  bygan  in  Nynus  tyme, 
kyng  of  Nynyue  ;  pe  []?ridde  in  J)e]  3  ^ridde  age  vnder  lawe 
i-write,  whan  circumsisioun  and  lawe  departed  ]?e  children 
of  Israel  from  laweles  ^  and  mysbileued  men :  pe  fourjie 
lyuynge  of  Cristen  men  bygan  vnder  Crist,  whan  byleue 
and  grace  of  sacramente  halwed  hir  lyf.^  pe  fifte  leu- 
ynge of  Sarazynes  bygan  vndir  Makomete  as  it  is  in  ]>e  ' 
fifte  ^  book,  and  after  })e  tyme  of  Heraclius  ]>e  emperour, 
opcnliche  i-schewed. 

For  je  sixte,  take  hede  of  sixe  ages ;  oon  is  from 
Adam  to  Noe ;  fe  secounde  from  Noe  to  Abraham ;  ye 
Jjridde  from  Abraham  to  Dauid ;  pe  [fourJ)e]  ^  fro  Dauid  to 
J)e  transmygracioun,  J)at  was  whan  Israel  was  i-broujt 
into  J^raldom  of  Babiloyne ;  pe  fifte  from  f e  transmy- 
gracioun to  Criste,   pe  sixte   from    Criste    to    pe    worldes 

to  Moysen.      The  secunde  was  vnder  lugges  from  Moyses  MS.  Harl. 

to   Saul.      The    thrydde    vnder  Kynges  from   Saul  vn  to      2261. 

Zorobabel.       The  iiij^«  vnder  byschoppes,  from  Zorobabel 

vn  to  Criste.     As  vn  to  the  v'^,  hit  is  to  be  attendede  that 

fere  were  y.  rytes.      The  firste  was  in  the  firste  age  vnder  Of  v.  lytes. 

the  lawe  of  nature  commune  to  euery  man.    The  secunde 

rite  began  in  the  secunde  &ge,  that  was  the  rite  of  gentiles, 

when  ydolatrye  spronge  vnder  Nino.     The  thrydde  ryte  did 

aryse  in  the  thrydde  age  vnder  the  lawe  wryten,  when  pe 

lawe  and  circumcision  made  a  distinccion  betwene  the  lewes 

and  other  folke.      The  iiij*«  ryte  is'  of  Cristen  men  that 

began  vnder  Criste,  when  feithe   and  grace  of  sacramentes 

in^rmede  the  life  of  theyme.    The  v*^«  rite  is  of  Saracenys, 

whiche  began  under  Machomete,  as  hit  schalle  be  schewede 

after  the    tyme  of   Heraclius    themperoure   more    plenerly. 

As    vn    to  the    vj*^«,  hit   is    to    be    attendede    that    there  Of  ij.  ages. 

be  vj.   ages  ;  the  fyrste  from  Adam  to  Noe  ;    the   secunde 

from    Noe    to  Abraham ;    the    thrydde    from  Abraham    to 

Dauid  ;   the   iiij*^^  from   Dauid  to  pe  transmigracion ;  the 

ythe    from    the    transmigracion    to    Criste  ;    the    vj***^  from 

'  under  iuges]  wanting  in  Cx. 
-  Added  from  Cx.  (not  in  o.) 
^  Added  from  a,  and  Cx. 
■*  lawes,  Cx. 

*  self,  Cx. 

*  So  o,  and  Cx. ;  firste^  MS. 
^  Added  from  a,  and  Cx. 

VOL.  I.  C 



a  Christd  \isque  ad  finem  mutidi.^  Ubi  est  sane  ad- 
verfcendtun  quod  estates  sseculi  non  distinguimtur 
penes  eequalitatem  annorum,  sed  penes  aliquod  mira* 
bile  contingens  in  principio  sgtatum ;  ^  ntpote  quod 
prima  tetas  incipit  a  breatione  mundi,  secunda  ab  in- 
undatione  diluyiii  terti»  a  drcumcisione  mirabili,  quarta 
ab  inchoatione  regni,  quinta  a  transmigratione  populi, 
Bexta  ab  Incamatione  Christi. 

Quoad  Beptimum,  nota  qiiod  septem  leguntur  per- 
sonse^  quorum  gesta  ®  crebrius  in  bistoriis  memorantur, 

videlicet,  principis  ^  in  regno,  militis  ^  in  bello,  judicis  * 
in  foro,  praesulis^  in  clero,  politici  in  populo,  teconomi 
in  doino,  monastic!  in  teinplo.  Ex  quibus  proradiant® 
correspondenter  septem  famosa  actionum  genera,  quae 
Stint  cotistructiones  urbium^  devictiones  hostium,  sane- 
tiones  jurium,®  correctiones  criminum,  compositio  rei 
populariS)  dispositio  '^  rei  familiaris,  adquisitio  merit! 
salutaris,"  et  in  his  jugitet*^  relucent  prsemlationes 
probortim  et  punitiones  perversorum. 

Quoad    octavum,    est    sciendum  quod    octo  fuerunt 

^  The  whole  of  the  following 
Sentence  occurs  lower  down  in  B. ; 
fuid  is  omitted  altogether  In  the 
shorter  class  of  ehlwnicles,  repre- 
fiehted  by  C.  and  t). 

2<Btoei5,  E. 

^  facta,  CD, 

*principe8,  B. 

^  mUiteSf  B, 

^judiceSf  B. 
^  prasuleSf'B* 
^  conadianty  !B. 
®  virium,  E. 

^^  dispositio   rei  /amtltaris']    om. 
CD. ;  depositio,  B. 
"  singulariSf  E. 
^^jngiterl  om.  D. 



ende.    And  here  take  hede,  }?at    ages    of   J?e  world  heep  Tretisa. 

noujt  to-deled  ^   hj  euenes  of  ^eres,  but  by  meruayles  fat      

byfel  in  her  bygynnynge ;  as  fe  .  firste  age  bygan  from 
J)e  bygynnynge  of  the  wor[l]de ;  ^  pe  secounde  from  Noes 
flood ;  pe  })ridde  from  f  e  circmnsicioun ;  pe  fourpe  from 
P^  by^nnynge  of  kynges  ;  the  fifte  from  pe  transmi- 
gracioun ;  pQ  sixte   from  the  Incamacioun  of  Grist. 

For  the  seuen]?e,  take  hede  of  seuene  persones  whos 
dedes  me  writej>^  in  istories,  }>'at  beej),"*  kyng  in  his 
rewme,  kny^t  in  bataUe,  iuge  in  plee,  bisshop  in  clergie, 
lawefulman  in  pe  peple,  housbond  in  hous, "  religious  man 
in  chirche.  Of  pe  whiche  springep  out  seuen  manere  of 
famous  doynge,  buldynge  of  citees,  victorie  of  enemyes, 
makynge  of  lawes,  correccioun  ^  of  trespas,  help  of  pe 
comyn  profilt,  gouemynge  of  meyny^  and  of  householde, 
getynge  of  olisful  mede,  in.  pe  whiche  blase]>  and  sehyne^ 
rewardynge  of  gode  men  and  punyschynge  of  euel  men. 

For   the    ey^te,  take  hede  of  ey^te  dyu^rse  manere    of 

Criste  to  the  ende  of  the  worlde.  Hyt  is  to  be  attendede  MS.  Hirl. 
that  the  ages  of  the  worlde  be  not  diuersificate  as  2261. 
anendes  the  equalites  of  yeres,  but  anendes  sommie  mer- 
uellous  thynge  happenge  in  the  begynnenge  of  that  age  ; 
as  the  firste  age  began  from  the  creation  of  man ;  the 
secunde  of  a  meruellous  invndacion  of  water  ;  the  f.  20  b. 
thrydde  of  a  meruellous  circumcision  ;  the  iiij*«  from 
the  begynnenge  of  reigne  of  kynges  ;  the  v*^  of  the 
transmigracion  of  peple ;  the  vj*^«  of  the  incarnation  off 
Criste.  As  vn  to  the  vij'^«  hit  is  to  be  attended  that 
vij.  persones  be  redde  whose  gestes  be  remembrede  ofte- 
tyi^es  in  storyes ;  that  is  to  saye,  the  person  of  a  prynce 
in  his  realme,  of  a  kny^te  in'  batelle,  of  a  iugge  in  his 
seete,  of  a  byschoppe  in  the  cleregye,  off  a  politike 
man  in  the  peple,  of  a  howsebonde  man  in  a  howse,  of 
a  contemplatif  man  in  the  chirche.  From  whom  vij. 
generalites  of  acciones  doe  precede  corespondent  to 
theyme,  whiche  be  construcciones  of  cytes,  victoryes  of 
enmyes,  sancciones  of  lawes,  correcciones  of  crymes,  com-  • 
posicion  of  a  commune  thynge,  the  disposicion  of  a  thynge 
familier,  the  adquisicion  of  a  hollesom  merite  in  whom 
the  rewardes  of  goode  men  schyne,  and  the  peyiies  of 
ylle  men.      As  vn  to  the  viij^^«  hit  is    to    be    attendede 

'  delidf  Cx. 

*  world,  a. 

'  me  writeff]  ben  vreton»  Cx. 

*  6«6)>]  is  to  irete,  Cx. 

^  In  this  aad  in  othet  places  cor- 
reecioun  or  correctioun  suits  the  MS. 
equally  well. 

*  metftie,  Cx. 

C  2 



modi  annos  calculandi  tres  apud  Hebrseos,  tres  apud 
Graecos,  uidcus  apud  Romanos,  et  unicus  modo^  apud 
Christianos.  Hebrsei  namque  tripliciter  annum  su- 
munt:  est  enim  apud  eos  annus  usualis  a^  Januario 
incipiens,  quo  utuntur  in  contractibus  :  ^  est  et 
annus  legitimus  a  Martio  incipiens,  quo  utuntur  in 
cseremoniis  suis :  est  et  apud  eos  annus  emergens,  a 
Maio  incipiens,  quando  egressi  sunt  de  iEgypto,  quo 
utuntur  in  chronicis  et  caleulationibus,  Grseci  quoque 
tripliciter  annos  notaverunt :  primo  enim  ad  glo- 
riam  Victoria©  suae  annos  connotaverunt^  a  captivitate 
Trojae ;  deinde,  incepta  Olympiade,  notaverunt  annos  ^ 
juxta  numerum  Olympiadum  ®  earundem  :  tertio,  quando 
coeperunt  super  orbem  dominari,  notaverunt  isto  modo/ 
anno  regni^  Grascorum  tali  vel  tali,  sicut  patet®  in 
libris*®  Machabaeorum*  Demum  Eomani  florentes  ab 
urbe  condita  quotaverunt,  Novissime  vero  Cliristiani 
ab  Incamatione  Domini  annos  supputarunt'* 

XJbi  erit  advertendum  cum  ad  id  '*  loci  ventum  ^^ 

fuerit,  quod  calculation*  secundum  Dionysium  Exiguum, 


'  modo]  om.  B. 

2  in,  CD. 

^  contractionibus,  A. 

*  So  A. ;  eotaverunt,  B. ;  quota- 
verunt, C.E.  (vhich  is  perhaps  the 
true  reading)  ;  notaverunt,  D. 

^  annos]  om.  D« 

^  Olympiadum]  om.  C J). 

^  isto  modo]  sic,  CD. 

■  regni]  om.  D. 
^  patet]  om.  B. 

"  lUtro,  CD, 
"  supputaverunt,  B.CD. 
'*  itt]  iUud,  C.  (in  marg.)  ;   cvm 
id  loci  fuerit,  B. 
'»  om.  A.B. 
*^  computatio,  CD. 
'*  Exiguum]  om.  CD. 



acountynge  of  teres,  pre  pe  lewes  vsej>,  pre  ]>e  Grees,  Tbbvisa. 
OQn  Romaynes,  and  Cristen  men  oon.  For  J>e  lewes  in 
tretys  and  couenauntes  haue]>  a  Zere  vsual,  and  byginef 
in  lanuarie.^  In  deuocioun  and  sacrifice  fei  haue]>  a  ^er^ 
laweful,  and  byginnef  in  Marche.  Also  }>ey  liaue]>  a 
^ere  of  apperynge  ]?at  pey  vse}?  in  calculynge  and  in 
cronicle,  and  bygynne]?  in  May,  whan  ^ey  passed  out  of 
Egipte.  Also  ye  Grees  in  fre  manere  wise  acountej)  hir 
^eres;  first,  for  ioye  of  ]>e  victorie  fey  accountejl  hir 
^eres  fi'om  pe  takynge  of  Troye ;  afterward  pel  accounted 
here  ^eres  by  Olympades,  ]?at  beej>  pe  tymes  of  here 
iustes  and  tornementis ;  but  after  J)at  pej  reignedfe,  pel 
accounted  here  ^eres  by  here  reignynge,  in  ]?is  manere 
"  anno  regni  Graecorum,  quinto  vel  tertio,  tali  vel  tali," 
sicut  patet  in  libro  Machabaeorum.  Whan  pe  Eomaynes 
wax  3  in  hir  floures  pej  acounted  hir  ^eres  by  here  reign- 
ynge in  pis  manere,  from  pe  buldynge  of  citee,^  **  ab 
"urbe  condita."  But  Cristene  men  from  pe^  Incarnaciouu 
of  Crist  aconntep  her  ^eres. 
But  whan  me  come]?  to  pat  place,  me  mote^  take  hede 

that  J>er  were  viij.  maneres  to  calcle  yeres ;  iij,  anendes  MS.  Harl. 
men  of  Ebrewe,  thre  anendes  the  Grekes,  oon  at  the  2261. 
Romanes,  and  oon  now  at  Cristen  men.  Men  of  Ebrewe  "*~" 
take  theire  yere  in  thre  maneres.  The  vsualle  yere  is 
begynnenge  from  January  anendes  theyme  whom  thei 
vse  in  contractes.  Also  a  lawefuUe  yere  begynnenge 
from  Marche,  whom  thei  vse  in  cerimonyes.  Also  there 
is  a  yere  emei'gente  as  anendes  theyme  begynnenge  from 
May  when  thei  wente  from  Egipte,  whom  thei  vse  in 
cronicles  and  calculaciones.  •  The  Grekes  note  theire  yeres 
in  thre  maneres  : — ^Li  the  firste  they  cotede  yeres  at  the 
glory  of  their  victory  from  the  captiuite  of  Troye.  After 
that  pe  Olimpias  begunne,  thei  assignede  the  nowmbre  of 
Jjeire  yeres  after  the 'nowmbre  of  theyme.  In  the  thiydde 
maner,  when  thei  began  to  haue  dominaeion,  thei  notede 
their  yeres  in  thys  maner: — ^In  suche  a  yere  in  the 
reigne  of  men  of  Grewe,  or  in  suche  a  yere,  as  hit  is 
expressede  in  tlie  bookes  of  Machabes.  At  the  laste  pe 
Romanes  floryschenge  ascribede  theire  yeres  from  the 
begynnenge  of  theire  cite  y-made.  But  nowe  laste  Cristen 
men  suppute  theire  yeres  from  the  Incarnacion,  of  Criste. 
Wherefore  hit  is  to  be  aduertisede  that  the  calculation  of 

*  lanuerCt  a. 

*  ayer,  MS.,  and  similarly  else- 
where  the  article  and.  noun  are 
sometinies  written  conjunciim. 

'  waxed,  Cx. 

^  J>6  citee^  a. 

*  >c]  om.  a. 

^  me  mote\  men  muste,  Cx. 



quem  communiter  sequitur  Gallia  et  Anglia  minus  habet 
quam  computation  Hieronymi  secundum  evangelicam 
veritatem  numero  xxii.*  annorum,  Refert  enim  Wil- 
helmus  Malmesburiensis,  lib,  iv.  de  Pontificibus,  quod 
Marianus  Scotus  et  mouachus,^  apud  Mogenciam/ 
urbem  Germaniae,  inclt^sus  circa  annum  gratise®  mlx,,^ 
sub  longo  fiolitudinis  suse  otio  chronographos  sit 
scrutatus,  dissonantiamque  cyclorum  Dionysii  Exigui 
contra  evat^gelicam  veritatem  vel  solus  vel  primus 
anima^dvertii  Nam  ab  initio  sseculi  annos  singulos 
recensens  xxxx.  annos/  qui  cyclis  prsedictis  deerant, 
auperaddidit,  magnam  et  diffusam  chronicam  commenta- 
tus.  Cujus  quidem  ®  librum  Robertus  ®  Herefordensis  ^® 
episcopus  splendide  postmodum  defloravit.  Inde  est 
quod  Vulgares  chronicse,  quae  Dionysium  praedictum  ^* 
sequuntur,  titubant  tota  die.  Nam,- teste  Hieronymo 
in  transferendo  chronicam  Eusebii,  decem  anni  defi- 
ciunt  inter  passionem  Domini  et  tempera  ^^  Vespasiani, 
et*'  iterum**  quatuordecim  anni  defidunt  circa  tem- 
pera Decii,'^  sieut  inferius  patebit  sub  sexta  seculi 
aetate.     Hunc  autem  errorem  plurimum  adauget,^^  quod 

*  he^et  a  computatione,  CD. 

*  xxv,y  B. 

*  Scotus  et]  wanting  in  CD. 

*  Magontiam,  D. ;  Mog(mciam,  E. 

*  Dominiy  CD. 
•*  1068,  C 

'  annos\  annis,  B. 
8  quidani,  A. 

^  Le*  Koltert  Lorrayne^  who  died 
in  1095. 
^^^  Herfprdensis,  B. 
^^  pr<Bdicium]  om.  B.D. 
"  temporal  tw^ipus,  B. 
^»eO  onuC 
^*  iterum]  item,  C.D. 
^^  B.  adds  Ceesaris, 
"  adaugef]  anget,  CD. 



fat  pe  calculynge  of  Denys,  fat  Engelond  and  Fraunce  fol-  Tkbvisa. 

we]>,  ha])  lasse   by  xxii.  ^ere  fan.  fe  calculynge  of  lerom,      

fat  folwef  fe  gospel.  William  Malmesbury,  libro  qumrto 
de  Pontificibus,^  seif  fat  Marianus,  Scotus  and  naonok,^ 
i-prisoned  in  Maguncia^  a  towne  of  Almayne,  aboute  fe 
^ere  of  grace  a  fowsand  and  fre  score  and  sixtene, 
loked  besiliche  in  bookes  and  acounied^  fat  Dionysius 
Exiguus  acordef  nosu^t  with  fe  Gospel  in  acountynge  of 
^eres.  For  fis  Scot,  Marianus,  acounted  all  fe  ^eres 
from  fe  bygynnynge  of  fe  worlde,  and  pntte  hit  4  to 
xxii.  ^ere,  fat  lakkede  of  Dionysius  acountes,  and  wroot 
a  grete  cronicle  and  huge;^  fe  whiche  book  Eobert  Bis- 
shop  of  Herforde  defiorede,  and  ferfore^  hit  is  fat  fe 
corny n  cronicles  fat  folwef  ^  Denys  faiUef  al  day.  For^  > 
lerom,  in  transferendo  chronicam  Ensebii  ^  self  fat  ten 
^eres  ^^  lakkef  be  tweyne  Cristes  passioun  and  Yespasianus 
tyme.  And  also  xy.n  lakkef  aboute  Decius  Cesar  his  12 
tyme  as  it  is  i-schewed  in  f e  sixt^  age^    pis  erronr  byfallef. 

Dionysius,  whom  Englonde  and  Fraunce  doe  folowe,  hathe  MS.  Maxl, 
lesse  then  the  computacion  of  Seynte  lerom  by  the  ^261. 
nowmbre  of  xx^^ij.  yere.  Also  William  Malmesburye  dothe 
reherse  in  his  booke  of  byschoppes  the  iiij^^^^  that  Ma- 
rianus a  Scotte  and  a  monke,  included  at  a  cyte  callede 
Mangotia  in  AUemeyne,  abowte  the  yere  t)f  grace  m^Lxxvj.,  f.  21  a. 
serchede  cronicles  thro  grete  study  and  labour,  aduertenge 
firste  or  sole  the  dissonaunce  of  the  cicles  after  the  os- 
culation of  litelle  Dionise  ageyn  the  trawthe  of  the  Gos- 
pelle,  whiche  accomptenge  euery  yere  from  the  begynnenge 
of  the  worlde  addede  to  the  foreseide  cicles  xx^^ij.  yere, 
makenge  a  hardo  and  a  diffiisede  cronicle,  whose  booke 
Roberte  Byschoppe  of  Herefforde  onomede  splendidiously ; 
wherefore  commune  cronicles  folowenge  Dionysius  fayle  and 
stumble  alle  day,  Seynte  lerom  wyttenes  in  the  translacion 
of  the  cronicle  of  Eusebius,  where  x.  yeres  wonte  betwene 
the  passion  of  Criste  and  tyme  of  Yaspasian,  and  also 
xiiij.  wonte  abowte  the  tymes  of  Decius  themperoure,  as 
hit  schalle  be  schewede  under  the  vj*^  age  of  the*  worlde. 
That  erroure  is  moche  encreased  in  so  moche,  that  dayes 

>  PonHficis,  MS.  and  a. 
^  and  monokl  and  the  monke,  Cx. 
^  acountede  andfonde,  a. 
*  hW]  wanting  in  Cx.  and  a. 
^  an  huge,  Cx. 
«  that  for,  Cx. 
~  I,  Cx. 

«  So  Cx. ;  -From,  MS. 

*  in  translatyng  the  cronykeofEu- 

sebii,  Cx. 

^"  that  yeres,  Cx. 
"  xij,  y&^es^  a. 
»2  Cezars,  Cx. 



frequenter  prsetermittuntur  dies  et  menses  quibus  super 
integros ,  annos  reges  regnaverunt.  Negliguntur  etiam 
intervalla  temporum  inter  fines  regnantium  et  primordia 
subsequentium.  Quapropter  unumquodque,  qixaliter*  suo 
contigerit  anno,  notabo  pro  viribus  in  hoe  scripto.  Ita 
sane  quod  columnarum  margines  juxta  gestorum  capita 
aliquando  cum  duplici  nonnunquam  cum  triplici  anno- 
rrnn  serie  purpurabo.  Ab  Abraham  etenim  usque  ad 
urbem  conditam,  annus  setatis  sseculi  et  ducis  conferetur. 
Ab  urbe  vero  ^  usque  ad  Christum,  annus  setatis  et 
urbis^  inseretur.  A  Christo  autem*  in  antea,  annus 
gratise  et  principis  parifcer*  conscribetur,®  ^  . 

Cap,  V. 

De  orbis  dimensioned 

Prisdanus  in  Gosmographia,  Ex  senatas  consulto 
censuit®  Julius  Caesar,  dum  consulatus  sui  fasces  ageret, 
omnem   orbem   per  prudentes   viros  dimetiri.^     Igitur 

^  qualiter  unuinquodqi^,  B.E. 
^  vero\    Homana  conditam   added 
in  CD. 

3  iBtatis  wrbis  et  duciSf  B.C.D. 

*  autem'}  vero,  D. 

*  pariter'\  om.  C  - 

*  After  this  follows  in  C.  a  para- 
graph of  nineteen  lines,  'w^hich  is 
wholly  out  of  place  here,  begin- 
ning : — '^  Servitia  quinque  portuum 
**  domino    regi    per  mare    debita. 

"  Vilfa  de  Ha&tyngge  3  naves. 
"  Aqua  de  Peueuesse  .  1  navem." 
Curiously  enough,  a  spaee  of  1 6 
lines  is  left  blank  in  D. 

'  Title  iranting  in  A. ;  added 
fromB.E.;  C.  and  D.  begin  thus  : — 
De  orbis  divisume,  Julius  Caesar 
diyinis  humanisque  rebus  singularl- 
ter  instructils  cum  consulatus,  etc. 

*  censait]  fecit,  C. 

»  admetirif  D.  ;  demefiriy  B. 


for  dayes  and  monthes  were  vnrekened  J>at  kynges  reign-  Trevisa. 

ede    ouer  ful  teres.     Also  dayes   and  mon])es  fat  voydede      

bytw[e]ne  tweie  kynges  were  forgendred.^  Wherfore  in 
J'is  book  I  schal  marke  as  I  may  how  and  iu  wliat^  Zeres 
such  defautes  fille  ;  so  J)at  I  schal  hi^te  ]?e  margyns  by 
]?e  hedes  of  the  stories  som  wi]?  double  and  som  wif 
treble  rewes  ^eres.^  From  Abraham  to  fe  citee  i-bulde, 
I  sette  to  gidres  fe  ^ere  of  J)e  age  of  fe  worlde  and  of 
pe  ledere ;  from  J>e  cite  i-bulde  to  Crist,  I  sette  to  gidi*e 
pe  lere  of  "*  J>e  citee  and  of  fe  ledere  ;  and  from  Crist  for- 
warder I  write  to  gidre  pG  ^ere  of  grace  and  of  |>e  prince 
Jjat  regne|>/^ 

De  orbis  dimensioned     Priscianus  in  cosmographia* 

Capitulum  quintum. 

IvLius  Cesar,  by  counsaile  of  J?e  senatoures  and  elder 
men  ^  of  Itome,  lokede '  and  serchede  stories  ^  and  bookes  of 
his  ^eres  of  doynge  and  dedes,  [and]  ^  ordeyned  wyse  men 

and  monethes  be  ouerskippede  in  whom  hit  is  seyde  kynges  MS.  Harl. 
haue  reignede  by  hoUe  yeres ;  and  also  other  spaces  of  2261. 
tymes  be  neglecte  betwene  or  amonge  the  endes  off  men 
reignenge  and  begynnenges  of  men  folowenge.  Where- 
fore y  schalle  ascribe  how  euery  thynge  hathe  bene  in 
the  yere  J>er  of  after  my  powere  in  this  presente  wrytenge. 
In  so  moche  that  y  schalle  purpulle  the  mariantes  nye 
the  hedes  of  ])e  gestes  with  a  dowble  ordre  of  yeres. 
From  Abraham  vn  to  the  cite  off  Rome  y-made,  the. yere 
of  the  age  of  tlje  worlde  and  of  the  duke  and  gouer- 
noure  schalle  be  wryten.  From  the  cite  y-made  to  Criste, 
the  yere  of  the  age  of  the  cite  and  of  the  transmigra- 
cion  schalle  be  wryten.  From  Criste,  the  yere  of  grace 
and  of  the  prynce  reignenge  that  tyme  schalle  be  wryten 
to  gedre. 

Priscian  in  his  Cosmograpkie  of  the  Dimension  of  the 

Worlde.     Capitulum  quintum. 

lulius  Cesar  ordeneide  by  the  cownselle  of  the  senate  sette 
in  pomposite  alle  the  worlde  to  be  dimencionate  by  men 
discrete   and   prudente.      Wherefore  messangers  were    sendo 

'  forgoten^  Cx. 
-  and  what,  Cx.  a. 
^  treble  yeres,  a. 

*  \>e  yere  of  the  age  of,  a. 

*  regned,  Cx. 

*  aldermen,  Cx. 
^  sought,  Cx. 

*  histories,  Cx. 

"  Added  from  Cx. 


a  consulatu    J\ilii    usque    ad    consulatum    Satumini 
per  trigmta  duos  annos  missi  sunt  legati'  dimensores, 
viri  docti,   arte   gnomonica  periti,  per   omnem  terrain 
ad  prsesides,  duces,  et  judices  provinciarum;  ut  descri- 
berent   et  mensurarent  ^  terras,  aquas,  nemora,   plana, 
concava,  montes,  coUes  atque*  itinerarium  maritimum, 
qu8B    etiam  *    loca    navigaturi    tangere  deberent.^    Et 
si    forte   aliquod  prodigium  in   his^    locis   occurreret, 
illud    senatui   reipublicsB   scripto   nunciarent.     Ranul" 
phus.    Hoc  attestatur  Hieronymus  in  transferendo  histo- 
riam  Eusebii,  libro  secundo,  capitulo  secundo,  ubi  dicit 
quod  Pilatus  praeses  Judseae  nunciavit  Tiberio  Csesari  de 
mirabilibus  quae  fecit  Jesus  in  terra  Judseae,  et  Tiberius 
nunciavit     senatui,    verum     quia    talia    non    fuerant 
senatui   prius   nunciata,'^  ilia  respuerunt.®    Priscicmus, 
Et   sic  repertum    est    per   tales    prsesidum    denuncia- 
tiones^  quod  om.nis  orbis  habet  famosa  maria  triginta, 
insulas   septuaginta  duas,  montes  famosos  quadraginta. 

'  legati  sunt,  B. 

2  et  mensurarent]  om.  B. 

*  atqtie]  om.  D. 

*  etiam]  om.  A. 

^  deberenf]  debueruat,  C.D. 

*  his"]  om.  B. 

^  sett^atui  prcenundata,  B. 

^  Hoc  .  .  .  respiierunt']  om.  A.  C. 
D. ;  added  from  B.E.  See  also  the 

^  per  . . .  denunciationes]  om.  A. 
B.C.D.;  added  from  E. 



and  redy  to  mete  and  discreue  all  fe  worlde  aboute.    pan  Tbevisa. 

from  lulius   his   tyme   to    Saturnus  tyme,   two   and  fritty      

^ere,  messangeres,  wise  men  and  wel  i-tau^t^  in  ]ie  practike 
of  gemetrie,^  konnynge  and  profitable  to  mete  ^  and  to  gesse 
hi^enesse  and  lowenesse»  leng])e  and  brede  and  depnesse 
also,  were  rediliche  i-sent  into  ^*  e^ery  londe  aboute  to  luges 
and  5  to  cheueteynes,^  to  lederes  ^  of  londes,  for  }iey  schulde 
mete  3  and  discreue  londe  and  water^  woodes  and  landes, 
valeies  and  pleynes,  downes  and  huUes,^  and  J>e  see  stronde 
and  euery  place  where  eny  man  mytt  goo  o]?er  lo  ride  ofer  i® 
schip  seily  ;  and  write  and  certifie  fe  senatoures  where  and 
what  wondres  were  i-founde.  ^.  pis  witnessith  Hieronymus, 
in  transferendo  historiam  Eusebii»  libro  secundo,  capitulo 
secundo.  pere,  he  seith,  ])at  Pilatus,  iuge  of  lewerye,**  ,cer- 
tefied  Tiberius  Cesar  of  meruayles  and  wondres  fat  Criste 
wrou^te  in  ]?e  lewerie,  and  Tiberius  certefied  ]?e  senatoures, 
but  fe  12  senatoures  trowed  ^^  nou^t,  for  J>ey  had  nou^t 
herd  [afore]  ^^  of  so  wonder  werkes.  Priseidnus,  And  so, 
by  warnynge  and  certefienge  of  cheueteynes  ^^  of  londes,  it 
was  i-founde  and  i-knowe  J^at  al  ]>e  worlde  aboute  ha}>  name 
kowthe^^  sees '7  pritty,  ylondes  'pre  score  and  twelue,  famos 

from  the  consulate   of  lulius  Cesar  vn  to  the  consulate  of  MS.  Harl. 
Saturnius,  by  xxxij*^  yere,  fro  alle  the  worlde,  to  presidentes,      2261, 
dukes,   and   iuges  of  prouinces,   that  thei   scholde  describe      "" — 
and  measure    londes,  waters,  woodes,    playnes,  concauites, 
hilles,   and  the  itinerary  of  the   see  to  whiche  places  thei*^ 
scholde   sayle,  and  towche  hyt   if  they  my^hte   fynde  eny 
meruellous  thynge  there  that  my^hte  be  schewede  to  the 
senate.      ^.     Seynte  lerom  testMethe   that   in    the    trans- 
lacion  of  fe  cronicle  of  Eusebius,  libro  ij<*,  capitulo  secundo,  £  2lb. 
where    he   saythe  that   Pilatus    presidente    of  the   lewery 
schewede  to  Tiberius  themperour   of  the   meruayles  whom 
lesus  did  amonge  the  lewes.  And  Tiberius  schewede  theyme 
to  the  senate,  whiche  despisede  theyme  in   that  thei  were 
not  schewede  a  fore  to  the  senate.  Priscian.    And  soe  hit 
is  founde  by  the  denunciaciones  that  alle  the  worlde  hathe 
xxx'^  famose   sees,  Ixxij'^  yles,  xl*»  famose  hilles,  Ixx^i  and 

1  tauiht,  a.  (not  Cx.) 

2  So  MS.  and  a ;  geometrt/e,  Cx. 

3  mesuret  Ox. 

^  redyly  sente  to,  Cx. 

^  a  omits  and» 

^  capyiayns,  Cx. 

'  goitemourSt  Cx. 

*  mesure,  Cx. 

^  montaynes  and  doumest  Cx. 

»» or,  Cx. 
"  |)C  lewery f  a, 
'*  e  omits  \>e, 
"  byleuedf  Cx. 

^*  Added  from  Cx.;  not  in  a. 
**  capytayns,  Cx. 
"  coumf  a. 

"  hath   sees   of  dyuerse    names, 
I  Cx. 



provincias  septuaginta  octo,^  urbes  insignes  trecentas 
septuaginta,  flumina  quinquaginta  septem,  gentes  cen- 
tum viginti  quinque.  Cujus  orbis  ambitus  est  trecen- 
ties^  quindecies  centena  millia  passuuui.  Longitudo 
vero  terne  habitabilis  ab  ortu^  usque  ad  occasum,  id 
est,  ab  India  usque  ad  columnas  Herculis  in  Gaditano 
freto  habet*  octies  quinquies  centena  septuaginta  octo 
milliaria.  Cujus  quidem  longitudinis  dimensio  compen- 
diosior  est  per  mare  quam  per  terras.  Latitude  auteii) 
terrse  ab^  australi  littore  oceani  ^thiopici  usque  ad 
ostium  Tanai  fluminis  in  septentrione  pene  diniidio 
minor  est  quam  prsedicta  longitudo,  et  coutinet  quin- 
quagies^  quatuor  centena  sexaginta  duo  milliaria.  Re- 
peitum  est  etiam  quod  profundissimus  locus  maris  "^ 
Mediterranei  continet  spatium  quindecim  stadiorum 
in  perpendiculo.®  Banulphus.  Secundum  Ptolomseum 
circulus  continet  quantitatem  diametri  ter,  et  septimam 
partem  tertiae  partis ;  unde  proportio  circuli  ad^  diame- 
trum  est  sicut  proportio  xxil.  ad  vii.  Ex  quo  colligitur 
quod  rotunditas  circuli  terrae  continet  viginti  millia  et 
quadraginta  milliaria ;  quse  quidem  summa,  cum  divisa 
fuerit  per  tria  et  septimam  partem  unius  tertii,  quan- 
titas    diametri    terrse   erit,    sex   millia    quingenta  fere 

^  septuaginta  octo]  68,  CD. 
^  So  E. ;  trecentaSf  B. 
^  ab  ortu  .  .  .  ]  est  ab  ortu  et  ha- 
bet,  C. 

*  et  habet,  C.D. 

*  ab']  est  ab,  C,  which  places  a 

fall  stop  after  septentrione.  So  also 
I).,  punctuation  excepted. 

« quinquagies]  quinquagesies,  C.D. 

''  pTofundiasimum  imtre^  C.D. 

^  perpendiculo]  The  remainder  of 
the  chapter  (Secundum  . . .  teiTae)  is 
omitted  in  A.B.C.D. ;  added  from  E. 



huUys  ^  fourty,  prouinces  J>re  skore  and  ey^tenc,  noble  citees  Trevisa. 

fre  hundred  pre  skore   and   ten,  grete  ryueres  seuene  and      

fifty,  dyuers  naciouns  sixe  skore  and  fyue.^  pe  roundenesse 
of  fe  worlde  aboute  is  pre  hundred  8iJ>e8  and  fiftene  sifes 
an  hondred  ]?owsand  paas.  pe  lengfe  of  fe  erpQ  ]>at  men 
wonejj  ^  ynne  from  pe  est  to  J?e  west,  Jat  is  from  Ynde  to 
Hercules  is-*  pilers  in  fe  see  Gaditan  is  ey^ti  sifes  and 
fyue  sifes  an  hundred  fre  score  and  ey^tene  mile.  But  fe 
"wej  from  oon  ^  ende  to  fat  o])er  is  wel  ^  lasse  by  water  fan 
by  londe.  pe  brede  of  ]>e  erfe  from  fe  soufe  to  fe  north, 
fat  is  from  fe  clyue^  of  occean  in  Ethiopia,  fe  londe  of 
Blomen  ^  to  fe  mouf e  of  f e  ryuer  Thany  wel  nyh  haluendel 
lasse .  fan  f e  lengf e,  and  conteynef  foure  and  fifty  hundi^ed 
and  two  and  sixty  myle.  Also  it  was  i-founde  fat  f e  dep- 
pest  place  of  f  e  see  of  myddel  erf  e  conteynef  doun  ri^t  M- 
tene  furlonge  depe.  [!^.]  ^  Tholomeus  self  fat  f e  rounde- 
nesse of  a  cercle^^*  aboute  conteynef  fre**  so  moche  as  fe 
brede  [and  the  seuendele  of  the  brede],  ^^  so  fat  f e  propor- 
cioun  of  f  e  roundenesse  aboute  of  a  cercle  is  ^^  to  f  e  brede 
as  is  fe  proporcioun  of  two  and  twenty  to  seuene.  So  it 
is  acounted  fat  fe  roundenesse  of  f e  erf e  aboute  conteynef 
twenty  f  owsand  and  fourty  myle.    ^if  we  delef  **  f  e  ^^  somme 

on  f re  and  f e  seuenf e  parte  of  fe  fridde,  f e  f iknesse  of  f e 
erf  e  f orw  oute  is  almest  sexe  f  ousand  and  fyue  ^^  hondred 

viij.  prouinces,  nowble  cites  ccclxx.,  floodes  lt»vij.  The  MS.  Hael. 
compasse  of  whiche  worlde  is  iij<^.  tymes  xv.  tymes  a  c.ra^  2261. 
of  passes.  The  longitude  of  the  erthe  habitable  from  the 
este  to  the  weste,  that  is  from  Ynde  to  the  Fillers  of 
Hercules  in  the  see  Gaditan,  hathe  viij*^^  tymes  v.  tymes 
a  clxx^'  myles  and  viij*'*^.  The  dimension  of  the  longitude 
of  whom  is  more  compendious  by  the  see  then  by  the 
londe.  The  latitude  of  the  erthe  from  the  este  syde  of 
the  occean  of  Ethioppe  vn  to  the  durre  or  be^ynnenge  of 
a  floode  callede  Thanay  in  the  northe  is  Jesse  in  the  halfe 
then  the'  longitude  a  foreseyde,  and  hit  conteynethe  1'^ 
tymes  iiij<^.  Ixij.  myles.     Also  hit  is  fbunde  that  the  depeste 

J  montaynes,  Cx. 

*  an  c.  and  fyfe  and  twenty,  Cx. 
(Similar  variations  of  expressing 
numbers  occur  elsewhere  often.) 

'  dweUe,  Cx. 

*  So  also  o  ;  piflers  ofH,,  Cx. 
^  that  oon,  Cx. 

*  moche  y  Cx. 
"  chjf^  Cx. 

*•  blak  men,  Cx.  • 
^  Added  from  a. 

^®  acercle,  MS.,  and  similarly  in 
many  other  places. 

"  thryes,  Cx. 

"  Added  fi-om  a  and  Cx.  (There 
is  some  Tarlation  in  expressing  the 
words  following.) 

"  a,  MS.,  but  cancelled  by  a  dot. 

"  So  also  a  ;  departe,  Cx. 

^^  fat,  a. 

**  avdfyue']  foure,  cr. 



milliaria,  quia  novem  ad  inimis  desuiit  de  hoc  numero. 
Et  sic  erunt  sex  millia  quadringenta  nonaginta  unum. 
Proinde  si  hoc  diametrum  dimidiaveris,  erUnt  a  centro 
terrad  usque  ad  superficiem  ejus  tria  millia  ducenta 
quadraginta  qiunque  milliaria  et  quaedaia  minuta.  Ex 
quo  liquet  quot  sutit  milliaria  a  superficie  terrse  usque 
ad  infernum,  secundum  quod  infernus  didtur  esse  in 
medio  terrse. 

Cap.  VL 

De  orbis  divisione, 

AugU8tinu8  de  Giviiate  De%  libro  xvi.  cap,  viii. 
Nota*  quod  orbis  terrarum  universus  oceano  cinctus 
in  tres  dividitur  partes,  Asiam,  Europam  et^  Africam. 
Quern  si  in  tres  partes  ^  dividas,  Asia  secundum  nume- 
rum  erit  tertia,  secundum  magnitudinem  erit  dimidia; 
quae  tendehs  a  meridie  per  orientem  usque  ad  septeii- 
trionem  oceano  undique  clauditur,^  sed  ab  occidente 
mari  magno  finitur.  Beda,  de  NaiuriB  rerum.^  Sunt- 
que^   termini   ejus    ostium  Nili   fluminis  in  austro   et 

'  C.  begins  thus :  —  [0]rbem 
igitar  si  in  tres  parted  dividas,  Asia 
secimdmn  numernm,  &c.  So  also 
!>,,  omitting  igitur, 

2  ef]  om.  B. 

^partes]  om.  B. 

*  clauditur']  concladitur,  CD. 

^  reruin]  wanting  in  A.B. ;  added 
fromE.  The  whole  extract  from 
Beda  wanting  in  CD. 

^  que]  So  E.  ;  quta,  A. 



inyle,^  for  nyne  myle  lakkef  at  fe  leste  of  ]>at  somme.     So  Trevisa. 

fere  Bchal  be  sexe  powsand  foure  ^  hondred  four  ^  score  and      

elleuene  myle.  pan  half  J>e  ]>iknesse  of  ]?e  erfe  inward  and 
doun  ritt  is  pre  powsand  two  hundred  and  fyue  and  fourty 
myle  and  somwhat  ouer,  as  it  were  half  a  myle.  So  ^if  helle 
is  in  4  myddel  of  pe  erfe  doun  ri^t,  me  myjte  knowe  how 
meny  myle  is^  to  helle. 

De  orbis  divisione,    Augustintis  de  Civitate  Dei^  libra  sexto*' 
decimOy  capitulo  octavo^     Capitulum  sextum. 

For  fjD  delynge**  of  ])e  worlde  take  hede  fat  fe  grete 
see  of  occean  byclippef  al  fe  erfe  aboute,  and  fe  erfe  is 
i-deled  ^  in  fre  ^  grete  parties.  Asia  is  J?at  oon,^  Europa  ]?at 
oper,  and  Affrica  fe  fridde.  But  fese*^  fre  parties  beej?*^ 
not  alle  euene  and  yliche  moche  ;^2  for  Asia,  oon  of  ]?e  ]>re, 
conteynej)  half  ]?e  erfe,  and  strecchef  from  fe  south  by  fe 
est  anon  to  fe  *^  north,  and  is  i-closed  aboute  with  fe  see 
of  occean ;  but  he  ^**  endep  westwards  at  J?e  grete  see. 
BedUy  de  Naturis.^^     His  endes  beef  f e  mouth  of  f e  ryuer 

place  in  the  see  M editerrany  or  occean  conteynethe  the  space  MS.  Hasl. 
of  XV.  forlonges  by  a  plumme  of  ledde.  2261, 

Of  the  diuision  of  the  worlde.  Augustinus  de  Civitate 
Dei^  libra  sextodecimo^  capitulo  octavo,  Capitulum 

Also  hit  is  to  be  attendede  that  alle  the  worlde  cincte 
to  the  occean  is  diuided  in  to  iij.  partes,  Asie,  Europe,  and 
Affi:yke ;  whiche  diuidede  in  to  thre  partes,  Asia  after 
nowmbre  schalle  be  the  thrydde  part,  and  after  magnitude 
the  halfe,  whiche  goenge  from  the  meridien  or  sowthe  by 
the  este  vn  to  the  northe,  is  compassede  on  euery  syde 
with  the  occean,  and  in  the  weste  hit  is  finischede  with 
the  grete  see.  Beda^  de  Naturis,  The  termes  of  whom 
be  the  begynnenge  and  durre  of  a  floode  callede  Nilus  in 
the   sowthe,   descendenge  by  the   northe  occean  and  water 

^fyve  hcynderd  four  score  and 
enleuen  myle,  Cx.  (also  he  omits  all 
that  follows,  till  Tkenne  half,  §•<?.) 

^fyue,  Cx. 

'  So  Cx.;  nyne,  MS. 

*  in  ]>e,  0. 

*  it  isf  Cx. 

*  departing,  Cx. 
^  departed,  Cx. 

VOL.  L 

*  a\n'e  yn  \>re,  «. 
®  Asia  that  is  oon  part,  Gx. 
^»  the,  Cx. 

"  ben,  Cx.,  and  similarly  else- 

"  euen  lyke  moche,  Cx. 
*'  eeste  vnto,  Cx. 
"  it,  Cx. 
"  nature,  MS. 

C  8  +- 


amnis  Tanais  in  aqailone.  laidorus,  libro  quarto^ 
decimo,  capitulo  quarto.  Altera  pars,  Europa,  a  fluvio 
Tanai  descendens  per  septentrionalem  oceanum  in  fines 
Hispanise  porrecta  ab  oriente  et  meridie,  mari  magno 
jtingitiir,  et  in  Gades  insula  finitur.  Itenfty  Isidorus, 
ca/pitulo  qumto.  Tertia  pars^  Africa,  protenditur  ab 
occidente  in  meridiem  usque  in  finem  -^gypti.  Et  hsB* 
duae  partes,  Africa  et  Europa,  inter  se  marine  bracHo 
distinguuntur.  Plinius,  libro  tertio,  capitvlo  prima, 
Cujus  marini  brachii^  fauces  ortginales*  quindedm 
millia  passuum  habent  in  longitudine,  et  quinque  millia 
passuum  in  latitudine/  a  quibus  faucibus  mare  medi- 
terraneum  exoriens  per  varia  brachia  introrsus  versus 
terram  distenditur. 

Car  VIL 

Be  partium  orbis  deacriptione.^ 

Pli/nius,  libro  sexto.  Tenendum®  est  quod  Asia  sit^ 
quantitate  maxima,^  Europa®  minor,  sed  par  est*^  in 
populorum  numerosa  generositate ;  Africa  vero  et  situ 

*  JEgyptu  Et  Aa]  JEgypti  pro- 
tenditur.   Hse,  &c.,  CD. 

2  marini  hrachii]  om.  D,  ;  inter- 
lin.  in  C.   ^ 

*  criginaks^  om,  C. 

^  'B^oantAet quinque  . . .  latiiudine, 
C.  reads  thus  after  laiitudine: — 
**  Idem,  Mare  mediterranenm  sur- 
*^  gens  per  yaria  brachia  distendi- 
<<  tor/'    D.  has  indeque  for  idem. 

*  The  title  added  from  B. 

*  C.  and  D.  begin  thus  : — *^  Asia 
^*  quantitate  maxima,  Europa  minor» 

^  sitl  partium  terras,  add.  B. 
^  magna,  E. 

»  Europa']  vero,  add.  B. 
*•  est]  om.  CD. 


Kilus  in  J)e  souJ>,  and  of  J>e  rjruer  Thanays  in  pe  norj)e,  Tkevisa. 
[That  other  parte,  Europa,  stretcheth  dounward  fro  the  — ^ 
riuer  Thanays  hy  the  northe] '  occean  to  ]>e  costes  of 
Spayne,  and  ioynej?  to  fe  grete  see  by  este  and  by,  south, 
and  ende])  in  pe  Uond  G-ades«  Isidorus,  libra  quarto  de- 
cimo,  capitulo  quarto.  Affrica,  fe  fridde  parte,  strecchej? 
from  the.  west  to  ]?e  southe,  anon  to  2  j)e  coste  of  Egipte, 
and  pese  tweie  parties,  Af&ica  and  Europa,  be]>  departed 
atweyne^  by  fe^  arme  of  fe  see.  PliniuSy  libra  tertio^ 
capitulo  prima,  pe  mouthes  of  f  e  ^  arme  conteyne]^  fiftene 
fowsand  paas  in  lengfe,  and  fyue  fowsand  paas  in  brede; 
and  of  J>ilke  mouj^es  ,  pe  ^  see  of  myddel  erfe  bygynnefj^ 
and  by  dyuers  armes  spredep  and  wexe))  inward  the 

De  partium   orhis   deseriptione,      PliniuSy  libra  sexto; 
Priscianus  in  Casmographia.     Capitulum  septimum, 

Asia  is  most   in  quantite,  Europa   is   lasse,    and   pere^ 
in  noumbre  of  peple;    bot  Africa   is   lest   of  alle  ]>e  }>re 

of   Thanais  in  the  northe.      IsidoruSy    libra    14,    cop«Vw/o  MS.  Harl. 
quarto.    Europa,  that  other  parte,  from  the  floode  callede      ^^^^* 
Thanay,  descendenge  from  the  northe  ocean  extendede  from 
the  este  and  meridienin  to  the  costes  of  Speyne  is  ioynede 
to  the  grete  see  and  finischede  in  an  yle  callede  Cades.  Isi" 
dorusy  capitulo  quinto.    The  thridde  parte,  which  is  Af]^ica, 
is  protendede  from  the  weste  in  to  the  meridien  in  to  the 
coste  of  Egipte.    And  these  partes,  Europe    and    AfTrike, 
be  dividede  a  sundre  thro  an  arme  of  the  see,    Plinius,  libra 
tertiOy  capitulo  prima.     The  chekes  and  begynnenges  of  f.  22  a. 
those  armes  of  the  see  haue  in  longitude  xv.  m^  of  passes, 
and  V.  m*  passes  in  latitude,  from  whom  the  see  mediter- 
ranye  begynnenge  by  diuerse  armes  is  distendede  towarde 

Of  the  Descripcion  of  Partes  of  the   Warlde.      Plinius, 
libra  sexto.     Capitulum  septimum. 

Hit  is  to  be  holden  that  Asia  is  moste  in  quantite, 
Europa  lesse  in  quantite,  but  egalle  in  the  numerous  gene- 
rosite  of  peple.      Affrike  is  leste  in  quantite  of  partes  in 

*  The  words  mthin.  brackets  are 
added  from  Cx.  and  a,  which  latter 
reads  theater. 

*  southe  imto,  Cx. 
'  a  sounder,  Cx. 

*  atiy  Cx. 

^  diatj  Cx.  and  a. 

«  o/'K  MS.  o;  txt,  Cx. 

^  Itfke,  Cx. 

VOL.  I.  D 


et  populis*  parfcium  est  minima.  Priscia/rms,  in 
Ooamographia,  Idcirco^  qui  res  humanas  evidentius 
agnoverunt  ddas  tantum  orbis  partes  accipiendas  cen- 
suerunt,^  scilicet  Asiam  solummodo*  et  Europam; 
Afrieam  vero  censuenmt^Europse  fiuibus  deputaadam» 
qtda  et  *  spatio  latitudinis  eget  et  ®  malo  climati  sulb- 
jacet,  laborat  quoque  corrupto  aere,  feris,  et  venenis. 
Idcirco*  qui  earn  tertiam  orbis  partem  posuerunt/  non 
spatiorum  mensuras  sed  divisionum  rationes  secuti  sunt, 
et  tanquam  situ  pessimo  languidam  partem  ab  optimis 
resecanmt.  Itaque^  A&ica^  natura  sui^^  minus  habet 
spatii,  et  inclementia  coeli  plus  habet  desert!  Et  cum 
Africa  sit  modica,  plus  tameu  '^  terres  in  ea  solis  ardore 
quam  in  Europa  frigoris  rigore  manet  inhabitata. 
Cuncta  namque  animantia  sive  gerrainantia  tolerabilius 
ad  summum  frigoris  quam  ad  summum  ardoris  accedunt. 
Item,  PUnivs,  libra  sexto.  Inde  est  quod  Europa 
corpore   majores,    viribus    fortiores,    animo    audaciores. 

^  etfitu  etpoptdis]  at  the  end  of 
the  sentence  in  CD.,  which  also 
omit  est 

*  idcirco]  ideo,  CD.  (twice.) 
'  censuerunt]  suaseront,  CD. 

*  solummodo]  tantnmmodo,  CD. 

*  quia  ef]  et  quia,  D. 
^  et]  om.  D. 

^  qui  earn  orbis  terrcB  posuerunt 
tertiam  partem,  B. 

^  Itaque']  Ita,  B. 

^Africa']  om.  D. ;  added  in  later 
hand  in  C 

*o  sui]  sua,  A. 

"  tamen]  oin.  B. 


parties  bo]>e  in  place  and  in  noumbre  of  peple ;   and  per--  Tretisa. 

fore    somme  men,    fatknowe^  men  and  londes,   acountede      

but  tweie  parties  of  fe  erfe  onliche,  Asia  and  Europa; 
and  ]>e7  acountede  j^at  Africa  longe]?  to  Europa,  for  Africa 
is  narwe  in  brede ;  and  yuel  doers,  comipte  ayre,  wylde 
bestes  and  venemous  wonej)^  ]?erynne,  perfore  fey  fat 
acountef  Affi*ica  ]>e  fridde  part  aconntef  not  by  space  and 
mesure  of  lengfe  and  brede,  bot  by  dyuerse  disposieiouns 
better  and  worse,  and  departef  Afirica  from  Europa  and 
Asia,  as  a  sore  membre  fat  is  nou^t  from  membres  fat 
beef  bole  and  sounde  and  in  good  poynt  at  f e  beste. 
Also  Aflrica  in  his  kynde  haf  lasse  space,  and  for  fe 
sturnesse  of  heuene  he  haf  f e  more  wildernes.  [And 
though  Affryca  be  lytil,  it  hath  more  wyldernes]  ^  and 
waste  loude,  for  grete  brennynge  and-*  hete  of  fe  sonne, 
fan  Europa,  for  all  fe  chil  and  greet  colde  fat  ofte^  is 
ferynne.  For  why  all  fat  lyuef  and  growef  may  bettre 
endure  wif  colde  fan  wif  hete ;  bote  mesure  rule  ^  bof e, 
PlimuSy  Ubro  sexto,  perfore  it  is  fat  Europa  norischef 
and  bryngeth  forf  men  huger  and  gretter  of  body, 
my^tier  of  strengf e,  hardier  and  bolder  of  herte,  and  fairer  7 

site  and  in  peple.  PnscianuSy  in  his  Cosmographye,  ^S.  Haul. 
Therefore  men  that  hade  euidente  knowlege  perceyvede  ^^^* 
ij.  partes  of  the  worlde  to  be  taken,  that  is  to  say,  Asia 
and  Europa,  deputenge  or  ordeynenge  the  partes  of  Affiike 
to  be  added  to  the  costes  off  Europa.  For  Afirike  hathe 
nede  to  the  space  of  latitude,  subiecte  to  an  ylle  coste  and 
laboi'enge  with  a  corrupte  aier,  with  wilde  bestes,  and  venom, 
perfore  men  puttenge  hit  the  thrydde  parte  of  the  worlde 
fblowede  not  the  measures  of  spaces  but  reasones  of  diuision, 
departenge  hit  as  a  wailenge  parte  in  the  wurste  site  and 
ordre  from  the  beste  places.  Also  Ai&ike  of  his  nature 
bathe  leste  space  and  moste  of  deserte  in  the  clemency 
of  heuyn.  And  with  owte  dowte  thau^he  Affi:ike  be  leste 
in  quantite,  ^itte  f  er  is  moore  grownde  inhabitable  in  hyt 
thro  the  heete  of  the  sonne  then  is  in  Europe  thro  rigornesse 
of  colde.  Truly  alle  thynges  lyffenge  or  groenge  accede 
moore  tollerably  to  the  hieste  colde  then  to  ^e  hieste 
heete.  Plinius,  libro  sexto,  perfore  the  cause  is  that 
men  in  Europe  be  more  grete  in  body,  more  my^hty  in 
strenghte,  moore  bolde  in  herte,  more  feire  in  beaute,  then 

-  dweUen,  Cx. 

*  The  words  in  brackets  added 
from  Cx.  and  a,  which  latter  has  he 
for  it. 

*  of,  Cx. 

*  Omitted  in  Cx. 

^  rulethf  Cx.  (not  a.) 
'  So  Cx.  ;  /aire,  MS. 

B   2 


specie  pulchriores  efficit  populos  quam  Africa.*  Nana 
radius  solans  per  continuam  permanentiaTn  super  Afros 
exhauriendo  ^  eonun  humores  efficit  corpore  breviores, 
cute  nigriores^  crine  crispiores,  et  per  evaporationem 
spirituum  fadt  animo  defectiores.'  E  contra  est*  do 
septentrionalibus  pbpulis,  in^  quibus  frigore  exterius** 
poros  oppilante  pinguescunt  humores ;  et  inde  fiunt 
homiues  corpulentiores,  candidiores^  et^  interius  cali- 
diores,  ac  per  hoc^  audaciores. 

Cap.  VIIL 


De  mari  magna  sive  Mediterraneol 

PUnius,  libra  tertio,  capitula  prima.  Est  itaque^*^ 
maris  magni  origo  in  "  occidente  apud  Herculis  columnas, 
ubi  oceanus  Atlanticus  irrumpens^^  in  terras  facit  Ga- 
ditanum  fretum ;  (cujus  longitudo  in  quindecim  millia 
passuum^'  extenditur;  latitudo  vero  in  qtdnque  millia 
expanditur ;)  ^*  ad  sui  dexteram  habens  Africam»^^  ad 
laevam  vero  *^  Europam ;  indeque  in  maria  interna  dif- 
funditur/^  cujus  termini  sunt  amnis*®  Tanais  ad  boream 

*  Africa]  aut  Asia,  add«  CD. 
^  exhauriendo  after  humores  in  0  JD. 
'  animo  defeciioresl  sicciores,  C. 

*  e8t\  om.  C. 
^  de    septentrionibus  in,  C, ;    de 

septentrionaJibus  in,  D. 

*  exterius  9&er  poros  in  CD.  |       '*  Africam  habens,  CD. 

'«  vero]  om.  B. 

^®  Est  itaque]  om.  CD.  ;  tVa,  B. 
"ta]  estin,C.r>. 
"  irrumpens]  So,  CD.E. ;   erum- 
pens,  A.B. 

'^  millia  passuum]  milliaria,  CD. 
"  latitudo  ..,expandttur]  om.  CD. 

^  et]  om.  CD. 

"  ac  per  hoc]  et  per  consequens, 


•  Title  added  from  E. 

"  infunditur,  D.,  and  so  C  origi- 
nally,  it  would  aeem. 
amnis]  amnes,  CD. 



of  schap,  J?au  Ai&ica.      For  fe   son  beme    al   wey   abide]>  Tbevisa. 

vppon  ))e  men  of  AflGrica,  and  drawe]'  oute  J?e  humours,  and      

make^  hem  schorfc  of  body,*  blak"  of  skyn,  crips  of  heer, 
and  by  di*awing  oute  of  spirites  makef  hem  cowai'd  of 
herte.  pe  contrarie  is  of  nor|>eren^  men,  in  J)e  whiche^ 
colde  wip  oute  stoppe]>  smale  holes  and  poorus,  and  holde]> 
the  hete  wij>  ynne ;  and  so  make]>  hem  fatter,  gretter,  and 
whitter  and  hatter^  with  inne,  and  so  hardier  and  boldere 
of  herte* 

De  mart  magno  medio^  sive  Mediterraneo,    Plinius^  libra 
tertio,  capitulo  prima,     Capifulum  actavum» 

Thanke  Jje  grete  see  of  myddel  erj?e  bygynnej)  in  fe 
west  at  Hercules  pilers ;  fere  fe  see  of  occean  of  Athlant 
brekej>  out,  and  makep  the  see  Gaditan.  pe  lengfe  of  pat 
see  is  fiftene  ]>owsand  paas,  and  pe  brede  fyue  powsand 
paas,  and  hap  in  pe  ri^t  side  Affirica,  and  in  pe  lefte  side 
Europa ;  and  perof  springep  pe  ynnere  sees,  pe  endes 
perof   is    pe    water   Thany   an    pe  norp  side,  and  Nilus  in 

in  Affrike.     For  the  beame  of  the  sonne  beenge  continually  MS.  Haul. 
by  contynualle  permanence  on  men  of  Afirike  consumenge      2261, 

theire  humores,  causethe  theyme  to  be  more  scborte  of  body,      

more  blacke  of  skynne,  tnore  crispedde  in  heire,  also  more 
feynte  in  herte  by  the  euaporacion  of  spirites :  hit  is 
in  contrary  wyse  of  men  beenge  in  pe  northe  partes ;  for 
colde  causenge  opilacion  and  stoppenge  the  poores  ex- 
terially  causethe  humores  to  be  fatte,  that  makethe  men 
moi'e  of  body,  moore  whyte,  and  moore  hoote  interially, 
and  by  that  moore  bolde. 

Of  the  grete   see   ar  Mediterranye,     PUnius^    libra  tertia, 
capitulo  prima.     Capitulum  octavum. 

The  begynnenge '  of  the  grete  see  is  in  the  weste,  at 
the  pyllers  of  Hercules,  where  the  occean  Atlantyke 
brekenge  vp  to  londes  makethe  the  see  Gadltan.  Thef  22  b- 
longitude  of  whom  is  protendede  in  to  xv.  m^  of  passes. 
The  latitude  of  hit  is  extente  in  to  v.  m*  passes,  hauenge 
at  the  ryjhte  parte  of  hit  Affrike,  at  the  lyfte  parte 
Europe :  after  that  hit  is  diffusede  in  to  sees  internalle. 
The  termes  of  whom  be  the  water  of  Thanays  at  the  northe, 

^  hodyes,  Ct, 
^  nor\>r€ne,  a. 

'  Omitted  in  Cx.  (typ,  error.) 
*  and  hatter"]  omitted  in  Cxw 



et  Nilus  ad  austrum.^  Isidorus,  Uhro  nono,  cap.  vi.^ 
Mare  magnum  fluens  ex  oceano  vergit  in  meridiem, 
deinde  in  aquilonem,^  cujus  primus  sinns  Balearis  fun* 
ditur  in  Hispanias.  Deinde  sinus*  Gallicus  alluit^  pro- 
vindam  Karbonensem,  mox  Ligusticud  urbem  Januam. 

Post  hoc  ®  Tyrrhenus  sive  lonius  Italiam  attingit ;  inde  "^ 
Siculus,  qui  a  Sicilia  ad  Cretam  vadit ;  deinde  Creticus, 
qui  in  Pamphyliam  et  -^gyptum  tendit ;  inde  Helle- 
spontus,  qui  versus  septentrionem   magnis  anfractibus 

retortus ;  sed  juxta  Grseciam  apud  Bosporum  ®  in  an^ 
gustiam  septem  stadiomm  restringitur,  ubi  rex  Xerxes 
pontem  fecit  de  navibus,  ut  Graeciam  invaderet.  ^ 
Pliwius,  libra  sexto,  capitvXo  primo,  Ibi  tarn  strictum 
est  mare  inter  orbes  Asise  et  Europsa,  ut  alitum^^ 
cantus  et"  canum  latratus,  nisi  ventus  impediat/^  in- 
vicem  audiantur.  OiraJdus,  distinct  prima,  capitulo 
decimo}^  Mare  illud  strictum  didtur  brachium  Sancti 
Georgii  quod  urbem  Constantinopolim  prseterfluit"  ac 

*  aitstrum]  IseVaatt,  CD. 

=^  Sic  E. ;  Ub.  3civ.,  A.B.C.  The 
true  reference  is  to  Isid.  Qrig.  lib. 
xiii.  tf.  16. 

'  in  aquilonem]  ftd  septentrionem» 

*sinu8]  om»  D.;  added  in  later 
hand  in  C 

^aUuit']  ainbil^B. 

« h&c]  haec;  D. 

^mcfe]  deinde,  B. 

"^Bosporum]  Bosforum,  A.  &c., 
intending  the  incorrect  form  Bos" 

^  inwidiBrtt]  ingfederetur,  CD. 

*^  allium]  hominum,  E. 

»» et]  adi  B, 

^-nisi  ventus  impediat  after  au- 
diantur in  CiD.    . 

^*  quarto,  B.C^D.  The  passage 
does  not  occur  in  the  excerpts  from 
either  chapter,  edited  bjr  Mr.  Brewer. 
See  Girald.  De  instr,  Princ,  pp.  186, 
194.  (Lond*  1846.)  Unfortunately, 
the  first  book  or  distinction  is  not 
printed  entire. 

^*  prater^uit]  prfletfefltiit,  Ei}  praj- 
valuit,  B. 



J'e  sou)>  side.  IsidoruSy  Itbro  deeimo  quarto,  pe  grete  see  Tbbvisa. 
Sowynge  oute  of  occean  *  tume])  into  ])e  souj?,  and  fan  into  — 
]'e  north.  Baleaius,  ]7e  firste  greet  hauen  and  passage  of 
)rat  see^^  schede)»  into  Spajne.  pan  ]>e  o]>er  mouth  GallicuB 
passe]>  by  pe  prouince  of  Narbon ;  fan  Ligustius  by  lanua, 
a  citee  ;  fan  Tyrrhenus  to  Ytaly  arechef  ;  ^  jjan  fe  haaen  of 
Sicilia  passef  to  Greta ;  fan  f e  passage  of  Greta  strecchef 
in  to  Pamphylia  and  Egipte.  pere  han  fe  streen^  of  fe 
grete  hauene  and  moufe  Hellespontus  brekef  oute  abrode 
in  greet  wawes  and  stremes,  and  tornef  nor]?warde.  But 
bisides  Grees  at  Bo[s]forum,  he  ^  wexef  narwe  and  strai^te 
as  f e  space  of  seuen  forlonge  ;  ^  and  fere  Xerxes  ?  f e  kyng 
made  ouer  a  brigge^  of  schippes  for  to  passe  in  to  Grees 
and  werre  fere  ynne.  PliniuSy  libra  sexto^  capitulo  prima. 
pere  f e  see  is  so  narwe  bytwene  Europa  and  Asia,  fat  me  ^ 
may  hire  in  eyf er  side  oute  of  of er  houndes  berke,  and 
foules  synge,  but  *°  weder  and  wynde  lette.  GiralduSy  distinct, 
primay  capitulo  decima.  pat  narwe  see  ^^  is  i-cleped  ^^  Seint 
Georges  Arme,    and  strecchef    forf    by    Gonstantinopolim, 

and  Nilus  at  the  sowthe.  IsidaruSy  libra  quarta  deeimo.  MS.  Hari.. 
The  grete  see  flowenge  from  the  occean  turnethe  in  to- the  2261. 
sowthe,  after  that  in  to  the  northe,  the  fyrste  end  of  whom 
is  in  to  Speyne  ;  after  that  hit  floethe  in  to  the  prouince 
Narbonense  ;  after  that  the  bosom  of  f  e  water  Ligusticus 
watrethe  the  cite  callede  lanua ;  after  that  the  see  Tyren 
atteynethe  to  Ytaly.  Then  Siculus  goethe  from  Sicille  to 
Grete.  Then  the  water  callede  Creticus  in  to  Famphyliam 
and  to  Egipte.  Then  the  see  Elesponte  retorte  with  grete 
passage  turnethe  to  the  northe,  but  abowte  Grece,  nye  a 
place  namede  Bosforus,  hit  is  restreynede  in  to  the  streyte- 
nesse  of  vij.  forlonges  where  kynge  Xerxes  7  made  a  brigge 
off  schippes  that  he  my^hte  goe  in  to  Grece.  Plinius^  libra 
sexto,  capitulo  prima.  The  see  is  so  streyte  fer  betwene 
the  costes  of  Asia  and  of  Europe,  that  the  singenge  of 
bryddes  and  berkenge  of  dogges  may  be  herde  to  gedre, 
with  owte  the  wynde  cause  resistence.  Giraldus,  distinct, 
prima,  capitulo  deeimo.  That  streyte  see  is  callede  the  arme 
of  seynte  George,  whiche  flowethe  abowte    Constantinople, 

*  the  occean,  Cx, 
■^  Cx.  adds  andi 

*  archeth,  Cx. 

*  Sic  MS. ;  streem,  a,  andfrothens 
the  streme.  Ox, 

*  Bofomit,  Ox. 
^furlonges,  Cx. 

'  Exerces,  MS.  and  a. ;  Xerses, 
Harl.  MS.    Here  and  elsewhere  the 

classical  orthography  is  restored, 
when  the  word  does  not  appear  to 
be  in  a  manner  anglicised,  e.g., 

*  brydge,  Cx. 

•  men,  Cx. 
»»6«f^,  Cx. 
"p/aec,  Cx. 
'*  named,  Cx. 



orbis  gemini '  discrimen  fistciens  tarn  Asiam  quam  Euro- 
pam  delambit.  Ibi  quoque  est  Insula  Abydos.^  Id' 
dorus,  libra  nono.^  Indeque  pontus  diffusus  versus 
septentrionem  facit  Propontideiu.  Inde  etiam  stringi- 
tur*  in  secentos  passus  et  fit  Thracius;  inde^  Ponticus 
sinus  amplissimus  qui  ^  ab  aquilone  allambens ''  Thi*a- 
ciam  et  Moesiam®  extenditur  versus  ^  Moeotides  paludes ; 
ibique  recipit  fluvium  Tanaim,^^  inde  versus  orientem 
expansos  transit  juxta  Asiam  minorem  usque  ad  fines 
IberisB  et  ArmeniaB,  quod  quidem  mare  dicitur  Eux- 
inum.  Isidorus,  libra  nono}^  Et  est  illud  mare  dul- 
cius,  brevius,  nebulosius  propter  accurrentia  undique'^ 
flumina.  In  quo  quidem  amplo^^  sinu  sunt  insulsa 
Colchos/*  Patmos  et  aliae.'*  Plinius,  Ubro  sexto,  capir 
tulo  quinto}^  Nee  refluit  Ponticus  sinus  sicut*''  cetera 
inaria,  sed  semper  fluit  in  Propontidem  et  Hellespontum. 
Ramdphus}^  Cujus  rei  causa  poterit  esse  quod  impetus 
fluminum  a  tergo  labentium*®  urgent  *°  pontum  Eux- 
inum  ^^  ad  continuum  fluxum.    Nee  valet  sestus  Helles* 

*  gemini]  om,  B. 

^  Insula  Abydos]  This  is  clearly 
Higden's  text,  whose  error  is  due 
to  Isidore  {Orig,  xiv.  6).  C.  and  D. 
have  Aludos,  by  a  clerical  error. 

'  B.  does  not  notice  that  a  new 
quotation  begins. 

*  etiam  stringittir]  et  constringi* 
tur,  C. 

*  inde]  Sic  C.D.E. ;  unde,  A. 
^  qui]  Sic  C.D.E.  ;  quia,  A. 

'  aquilone]  occidentegyrans,  CD. 

^  Maeaiam]  Misiam,  or  Missiam, 
MSS.,  and  similarly  the  yersions. 

^  extenditur  versus]  ad  aquilonem 
tangit,  D.,  and  so  probably  C,  ori- 
ginally, in  which  corrections  are 
made  in  a  later  hand. 

'®  effluvium  Thanay  recipit,  CD. 

"  The  title  of  the  extract  is 
omitted  in  CD.E.  B.  has  14». 
Neither  the  9th  nor  14th  book  seems 
to  be  had  in  view.  * 

**  undique]  om.  CD. 

"  ampk>]  om,  CD. 

"  Chakia  is  probably  intended. 
Trevisa  has  Calchos,  Nothing  in 
Isid.  lib.  ix.  corresponds  to  this. 

"  aliiB]  quaedam  aliae,  CD. 

'*  The  book  only  (not  the  chapter) 
cited  in  A.B.CD. 

'^  sicut]  ut,  CD. 

^*  C  and  D.  omit  ^anulphus» 

^^  lambentiuni,  D. 

-•«  urgety  CD. 

**  JEuxinum]  om.  CD. 


and  bytwene  Earopa  and  Asia ;  and  in  ]?at  see  is  }>e  Uond  Tbevisa. 

Abydos.    IsidoruSy  libra  nono.    panne  ]?e  see  schedef  nor])-       

ward,  and  make)?  fe  see  Propontides.  penne  he  narwef  to 
J?e  narwenesse  of  sex  hondred  paas,  [and]  i  is  J>e  se^  Trach. 
panne  fe  grete  see  ^  Ponticus  ]?at  passe j>  by  north  by  Thracia 
andMoesia,  strecchef  to  ye  wateres  and  maryS  of  Maeotides, 
and  fongef  -*  fere  ^e  ryuer  Thanays.  penne  he  strecchef 
estward,  and  passe]?  by  ])e  lasse  Asia,  anon  to^  pe  endes  of 
Iberia  and  Armenye.  And  ]?at  see  is  i-cleped^  Euxinum. 
IsidoruSy  libra  nana.  And  J>at  see  is  swetter,  schorter, 
and  more  mysty,  for  fresshe  ryneres  al  aboute  turne]>  and 
falle]?7  ]}erto.  In  ]?at  grete  mouthe  and  baye^  hep  ilondes 
Calchos,  Patraos,^  and  ofere.  Plinius,  libra  sexto.  And 
]?e  see  Ponticus  Howe])  not  no]>er'^  turnef  a^en  as  o]>ere 
sees  doo)>,  but  euere  turne]?  ^^  into  ]?e  see  Propontidem  and 
Hellespontum.  R.  pe  cause  l>ere  of  is  my^te  and  streng))e 
of  ryueres  and  bakwateres,  ]>at  rennej)  ])erto,  dryuef  for]? 
|>e  see  Euxinum  alway  in  oon  cours.  And  po  strengjje 
and  j)e  flood  of  J?e  see  Hellesponticus,  ]?at  is  fer  from  occean, 

compassenge  abowte  also  as  welle  Affrike  as  Europe.     There  MS.  Harl, 
is  an  yle  callede  Abydos.     IsidoruSy  libra  nana.     The  see      2261. 

callede  Pontus, '  difiusede    from    }>ens    towarde    the  norfche      

makethe  the  see  callede  Propontides.  And  from  thens 
hit  is  streynede  also  into  vj^  passes  a[nd]  causethe  a  water 
named  Thracius.^^  Then  the  see  Pontike  compassenge  abowte 
from  the  northe  the  londes  of  Thracia  and  Moesia  is  ex- 
tendede  towarde  Maeotides  Paludes  where  hit  receyvethe  a 
floode  named  Thanay,  which  extendede  towarde  the  este 
goethe  towarde  Asia  the  lesse  to  the  costes  of  Hiberia 
and  of  Armeny,  whiche  is  callede  the  see  Eusyne.  Isidorus, 
libra  nana*  That  see  is  moore  swete,  more  schorte  for 
floodes,  accurrente  on  euery  side.  In  the  grete  arme  of 
whom  be  yles  callede  Colchos,  Patmos,®  and  oJ)er.  PliniuSy 
libra  sexto.  The  see  Pontike  reflowethe  not  as  other  sees, 
but  hyt  dothe  floe  alle  weies  in  to  that  see  Propontides 
and  Elesponte.  ^>*  The  cause  may  be  assignede  that  im- 
petuosites  of  floedes  in  the  backe  of  hit  constreyne  the 
the  see  Eusyne  to  floenge  continualle,  and  Elesponte  deriuate 

*  Added  from  Cx.,  and  a. 
'  >esg,  MS. ;  the  sed  Cx. 

*  t/ie  see<,  Cx. 

*  receyuetky  Cx. 
^  Asia  vntOy  Cx. 

*  named,  Cx. 

'  renne  andfaUeUf  Cx. 

«  So  Cx.  ;   \>ayy  a, ;    Ny,  MS., 

which  adds  and  baye  after  o\fere  in 
the  line  ibllowing. 

'  Patmosi  Pdthmos,  MS.  andHai'I. 

"  ne,  Cx.,  who  omits  aso\»ere  sees 

"  renn^th,  Cx. 

^^  Tmckeusy  Harl,  MS.  Trcvisa 
has  also  mangled  the  word. 



ponticus,  tanqnam  longius  at  oceano  derivatus,  tarn 
validum^  impetum  retorquere.  Isidorus,  libra  nono.^ 
Et  sicut  terra  cum  una  sit  pro  diversis  tamen  locis 
et  causis  variis  appellatur  vocabulis,  ita  hoc  mare  mag- 
num' pro  diversis  regionibus^  insulis,  oppidis,  gentibus, 
quas  allambit/  et  eventibus  diversimode  nominatur.     ^ 

Cap.  IX. 

De  Oceano, 

Iddorus,  libro  tertio  dedmo.^ 

MoLEM^  terrae  ambit  oceanus  ia  modum  circuli  oras 
terrarum ,  6ircumplectens,  altemisque  SBstibus  accedit  et 
recedit ;  respirantibus  enim  in  profundum  ventis  aut  re- 
vomit  maria  aut  absorbed  Plinius,  libro  secundo,  cap. 
xcix.  ^tus  oceaiai  intumescit  super  Britanniam  octo- 
genis  cubitis.  Et  magis  deprehenduntur  hi  motus  circa  ^ 
littora  maris  ®  quam  in  alto  pelago ;  quin  et  in  ®  extremis 
corporum  partibus  ^^  pulsus  venarum  magis  sentiuntur 
quam  in  ^^  medio  corporum.^^    Omnis  autem  ^^    S6stus 

^  tam  vaUdufn}  tantum,  CD. 
2  14".  B.   The  true  reference  is  to 

lib.  xiii.  Ci  16. 

^  CB.iidJ),9.dd8iveMediterraneum, 

*  quas  cMambit']  om.  G.  D. 

*  quarto  decimo,  B,,. "wrongly.  See 
lib.  xiii.  c.  15. 

«  C.  and  B.  begin  thus:—"  Ocea- 
'^  nus  in  circnfi  modum*  ambit  orbem 
**  oras/'  etc.  •     , 

'  circa]  juxta,  B. 

®  maris]  om.  CD. 

^  et  in]  om.  A. ;    ad^d  from  C 
D.E. ;  et,  om.  B. 

^^  partibus]  om.  B. 

^^  in]  om.  A. 

^^  quam  in  medio  corporum]  om. 

^^  autem]  etiam»  E. ;  quoque^  CD. 

monachi  cestrensis,  lib.  l  50 

may   uou^t   -wij^stonde    ]>e   course    and   fe    Btvengpe  of  per  Tbeyisa. 

strong  stremes  fat  renne])  ^  ]>at  course.    IsidoruSy  libra  nono,      

As  ]»e  er]7e  pat  is  oon  hap  dyuerse  names  by  cause  of  dyuer» 
[places,  so  the  ^  grete  see  by  cause  of  dyuerse]  ^  kyngdoms, 
ylondes,  peple,  citees,  and  townes  pat  he^  passep  by,  and 
happes  pat  fallep  perynne  is  dyuersliche  i-nempned^  and 
hap  dyuers  names. 

De  oceano.    Isidorus,  libra  decima  teriia,     CapUulum 


The  see  of  occean  byclippep  al  pe  erpe  aboute  as  a  garlond, 
and  by  tymes  comep  and  goop  ebbynge  and  flowynge,  and 
swelowep  ^  in  sees,  and  castep  hem  vp  ;  and  wyndes  blowep 
perynne.  Plinitis,  libra  secundo^  capifulo  99.  pe  hi^e  flood 
of  occean  arisep  vp  7  pe  costes  of  Bretaine  foure  score  cubitis 
hite.  And  pat  risynge  and  depnesse  is  better  i-knowe  by  ^ 
pe  deues  pan  in  the  hif  e  see ;  for  betynge  of  veynes  is  bettre 
i^knowe  in  pe  vttre  parties  of  bodies  ®  pan  ynward  and  ^  in 
pe  myddel  wipynne.     Euerich  flood  arist  ^^  more  in  occean 

so  ferre  from  the  occean  may  not  returue  ageyne  that  huge  MS.  Habl. 
impetuosite,     Isidarus,  libra  nana.    And  neuerthelesse,  sythe      2261. 

the   erthe  is  oon  or  londe,   and  callede  in  diuerse  names      

thro  diuerse  causes  and  diuerse  places^  soe  in  lyke  wyse  the  ^-  23  a. 
grete  see  is  namede  in  diuerse  manors  for  diuerse  regiones, 
yies,  cites^  and  peple  that  hit  compassethe. 

Of  the  Occean.   Isidarus  Eth,  libra  tertia  decima,   Capitulum 


The  occean  compassethe  the  erthe  in  the  maner  of  a 
cercle,  foldenge  abowte  the  regiones  of  londes,  commethe 
to,  and  recedethe;  the  wyndes  respirenge  and  restenge  in 
the  profundite  of  hit,  auper  hit  flowethe  furthe  or  retractethe, 
the  sees  in  to  hit.  Plinius^  libra  secunda,  capitulo  99, 
The  heete  and  feruence  of  the  occean  swellethe  on  Bre- 
teyne  viij<^^^  cubites  and  moore,  the  movenges  be  depre- 
hendede  raper  abowte  the  sides  of  the  sees  then  in  an 
oper  hie  see.  For  the  pulses  of  the  veynes  be  felede 
moore  in  the  extremites  than  in  the  myddes  of  the  body. 
Euery  heete  and  feruence  hathe  more  invndacion   in  the , 

^  eof  neh  a. 

^  )>tff,  a. 

"  Added  fsova  Cx.  and  a. 

*  it,  Cx. 

*  tutmed,  Cx. 

^Jioweth,  Cx.  (typ.  error.) 

'  vpon,  Cx,,  a. 
*  tke  hodyy  Cx. 
» Om.  Cx. 
^'  aryseihy  Cx. 
"  A  bltmder  for  80. 



magis  inundat  ia  oceano  quam  in  mari  magno,  sive 
quia  totura  ia  universitate  sua  *  animosius  est  quam  in 
parte,  sive  quia  magnitudo  patens  efficacius  sentit  vim 

sideris  lunaris  quam  angustia^  coarctata.  Quamobrem 
neo  lacus  nee  amnes  eo  modo  moventur.  Plinitis,  libra 
secundo,  capitulo  septuagesimo.^  Oeeanus  in  varies 
sinus  infusus  versus  terram  plerisque  in  locis  interna 
maria  pene  tangit,  adeo  ut  sinus  Kubri  maris  qui  Ara- 
bicus  dieitur  eentum  quinquaginta  millibus  passuum 
vix  distet  ab  ^Egyptio  mari;  Caspius  vero  sinus  tre- 
centis  septuaginta  quinque  millibus  a  ponto  distet* 
Euxino.^  Beda  de  Natuoris.  Inter  omnes  siaus  quos 
oeeanus  versus  terras  procreat,  tres  sunt  famosiores. 
Primus  est  fretum  Gaditanum  sive  Atlanticum,  quod 


ab  oceldente  erumpens^  mare  magnum  in  medio  ter- 
rarum  facit  Seoundus  sinus  dieitur^  mare  Caspium, 
quod  a  Vxdturno  ingrediens  dividit  borealem  partem 
Indiae  a   Scythia^    ac    versus    Euxinum   mare    tendit« 

*  sua]  om,  D. ;  inte^liueated  in 

^  angustia]  in  angu&  (i,e.  angas- 
turn  ?),  C.,  which  as  well  as  3). 
arranges  the  words  in  this  clause 

*  The  true  reference  is  to  lib.  ii. 
c.  68. 

*  dUtet  at  the  end  of  the  sentence 
in  CD. 

^C.  and  D.  omit  the  extracts 
from  Bede,  Solinus,  and  Rannlphus^ 
beginning  again  from  Faulus  :  — 
Suntphtres  aquarum  voragines, 

*  erumpens]  irrumpens,  B.B. 
'  Secuttdus  est,  B. 


}>an  in  pe  grete  see ;  fat  is,  for  fe  hoole  to  gidre  is  my^tier  Tbevma, 
and  stranger  fan  any  partie  by  hem  ^  self,  ofer  for  J)e  hole  — -* 
occean  is  grete  and  huge  and  fongef^  more  worchynge  of 
fe  mone  fan  eny  partie  by  hym  self  fat  is  smallere  and 
lasse.  pcrcfore  lakus,  ryueres,  pondus,  aad  ojmre  fresche 
wateres  nofer^  ebbef  ne  flowef  as  occean  dof.  PliniuSy 
lihro  seeundOf  capitulo  sexto,^  Occean  spredef  and  schedef 
in  to  dyuers  mouthes  and  costes  toward  fe  lend,  and  in 
many  places  wel  nyh  touchef  f e  ynner  sees  so  nygh  fat 
f e  mouf e  [fat  is  cleped  Arabicus,  and  is  f e  mouf ]  ^  and  f e 
coste  of  f  e  Rede  see  [is  fro  the  see  of  Egypte  ;  but  fifty 
thousand  paas ;  also  the  mouth  and  see]  ^  fat  is  i-cleped  ^ 
Caspius  is  but  f  re  hundred  f  re  score  and  fiftene  myle  from 
fe  grete  see  fat  is  i-cleped^  Euxinus.  Beda^  de  Naturis» 
Amonge  alle  fe  mouthes  and  sees  fat  comef  toward  fe 
londe  and  out  of  occean,*  fre  been  most  famous  i-holde. 
pe  firste  ^  mouthe  and  see  haf  tweie  names,  and  is  i-cleped  7 
Gaditanus  and  Atlanticus  also,  pe  secounde  is  i-cleped^ 
Caspius,  and  entref  toward  f  e  norf  est,**®  and  departef  by 
twene  fe  norf  side  of  Inde^*  and  Scythi^  fat  londe,  and  so  *^ 
strecchef  towarde  fe  grete  moufe  and  see  fat  is  i^cleped 

occean  then  in  the  grete  see.     The  cause  is  for  euery  thynge  MS.  Habl. 
is  of  more  animosite  and  audacite  in   his   vniversalle  then      2261. 

his  parte   pai'cialle.      And  also   for  the  patente  magnitude      

felethe  by  more  efficacite  the  strenjhte  of  f e  moone  then 
a  see  coartate ;  wherefore  a  lake  and  other  waters  be 
not  y-movede  in  that  maner.  Plinius^  libro  2®,  capitulo  7®» 
The  occean  infusede  in  to  diuerse  places  towarde  londes 
towchethe  alle  moste  the  entiere  sees  in  mony  places,  in 
so  moche  that  a  parte  of  the  Redde  see  whiche  is  callede 
Arabicus  is  vnnethe  distante  from  Egipte  a  c.  T»  m'  of  passes. 
The  see  callede  Caspius  is  distante  by  ccc.  Ixxv.  m^  passes 
from  the  see  caUede  Eusyne.  Beda,  De  Naturis,  Amonge 
alle  the  armes  of  the  occean,  that  hit  dothe  cause,  thre  be 
of  moste  nowble  fame.  The  firste  is  the  see  G-aditan,  or 
Autlantike,  whiche  brekenge  vp  from  the  weste  makethe 
the  grete  see  in  the  myddes  of  the  erthe.  The  secunde 
see  is  callede  the  see  of  Caspius,  whiche  goenge  from  the 
sowthe  este,  diuidethe  the  northe  pai'te  ofi*  Ynde  from  Scythia, 
and  goethe  from  that  to  the  see  Eusyne.    The  thrydde  is 

*  /urn,  a. 

"^  cdUed,  Cx. 

^  receyueth,  Cx. 

•  the  ocean,  Cx, 

» ne,  Cx. 

»  Om.  Cx. 

*  septimOf  a:    See  the  Latin  text. 

*"  out  of  north  easty  Cx. 

^  Added  from  a. 

"  So«.;/»rfa,MS. 

*  Added  from  Ox.  and  a. 

« thaty  Cx. 



Tertius  sinus  dicitur  mare  Rubrum,  quod  ab  euro  orbis 


iutrans  dividit  austxalem  partem  Indise  ab  Ethiopia  et 
^gypto,  indeque  progrediens  in  duos  sinus  scinditur, 
quorum  Persicus  sinus  aquilonem  petit,  Arabicus  vero 
versus  mare  magnum  petit  ocddentem.  Hoc  autem 
mare  Eubrum  nomen  suum  a  roseo  colore  trahit,  quern 
tamen  non  naturaliter  habet,  sed  a  vicinis  littoribus, 
quae  sanguineo  colore  rubent,  inficitur ;  ideoque  minium 
acutum^  et  rubrae  gemmae  inde  leguntur.  8olinu8, 
Juxta  mare  Oaspimn  sunt  montes  Caspii  habentes  in 
longum*  VIL  millia  passuum^  in  lato^  vix  plaustro  per- 
meabHes;  laterum  saxa^  liquentibus  inter  se  salis  venis, 
exundant  bumorem^  affluentem.  Qui  constrictus  vi 
caloris  velut  in  sestivam  ^  glaciem  corporatur,  et  ita  labes 
nimia  accessum  vetat.^  Pr^terea  viginti  octo  milUbus  I 
passuum  spatio  tractus  omnis  peragitur.  Humus  arida 
sine  prsesidio  sitit,  et  tunc  serpentes  undique  confluunt, 

*  B.  adds  est. 

*  So  A.B.E.  Perhaps  longo  or 
longitudine  (see  Harl.  MS.)  may  be 
the  true  reading. 

^  latitudinef  B. 

*  A.  has  et  before  humorem. 

^  astivum,  A.E. 

*^  vetatj  negat,  E. 

^  miHibus']  milia^  E.  Millium 
would  be  a  better  reading.  See 



Euxinufl.     pe  J^ridde  mou]>e  and  see  is  J?e  Rede  see,  and  Tbbvisa. 

come]?  of  pe  north  est,  and  departef  pe  south  side  of  Inde      

from  Ethiopia  and  Egipte  from  ]?ilke  tweye  londes.  pan 
pe  Bede  see  strecche]>  £orp,  and  departe]>  in  tweie  mouthes 
and  sees,  pat  oon  is  i-cleped  *  Persicus,  and  strecche}>  nor]?" 
ward,  fat  oJ>er  is  i-cleped  ^  Arabicus,  and  strecche]>  westward 
and  toward  pe  grete  see.  pe^  Rede  see  is  nou^t  rede  of 
kynde,  but  aflasche}>^  and  waschej?  oon^  rede  clyues  and 
stones,  and  so  is  i-died  rede  as  a  rose,  perfore  of  pe  clyues 
and  strondes  of  pe  Reed  see  is  i-gadered  vermylon  and  rede 
precious  stones.  Solinus,  By  pe  see  fat  is  i-cleped  ^  Caspius 
beef  hulles,  fat  beef  i-cleped  fe  hilles  of  Caspi,^  and  hauef 
in  lengf  e  seuen  f  owsand  paas,  and  in  brede  vnnef  e  f  e  space 
of  a  cart  wey.  In  f  e  sides  of  f e  hulles  of  Caspii  salt  veynes 
mullef  7  and  woseth  out©  humours,  and  moysture  i-dried  and 
i-dunge  by  hete  of  f  e  sonne  ioynef  and  cleuef  to  gideres, 
as  is  of  ere  ^  glas  j  and  somme  ^  may  nou^t  clymbe  on  f  e 
hilles,  f  e  wey  is  so  slider.  Also  euerich  drau^t  is  ful  drawe 
in  fe  space  of  ey^te  and  twenty  fousand  paas ;  fe  londe 
is  drie  wifoute  socbure,  and  adders    and    serpentes   fallef 

callede  the  Redde  see,  which  entrenge  from  the  este  parte  MS.  Harl. 
of  the  worlde   diuidethe  the   sowthe  parte  of  Ynde  from      2261. 

Ethioppe  and    Egipte,   which  takenge  his  progreSse   from      

thens  is  departede  in  to  ij.  armes,  of  whom  the  ^^  arme  Per- 
sicaUe,  or  of  f  e  *®  cuntre  of  Perse,  dothe  aske  the  northe. 
The  see  of  Araby  askethe  the  weste  towarde  the  grete 
see.  That  Redde  see,  takenge  his  name  of  a  redde  color 
whom  hyt  hathe  not  naturally,  but  of  nye  places  to  hyt, 
whiche  be  redde  like  to  the  colour  of  bloode,  where  redde 
precious  stones  be  founde.  SoUnus.  The  hiUes  callede 
Caspii  be  nye  the  see  callede  Caspius,  as  longenge  to  them, 
hauenge  in  longitude  vij.  m*  of  passes,  in  latitude  vnnethe  f.  23  b. 
permeable  with  oxen,  the  stonys  of  whom  as  meltenge  thro 
the  veynes  of  salte  mixte  amonge  theyme  causethe  an  humor 
affluente  ;  whiche  compacte  and  constructe  thro  the  heete  of 
the  sonne,  is  incorporate  as  in  to  yse,  and  soe  the  slipper 
waye  deneyethe  commenge  to  theyme.  That  drye  grownde 
thurstethe  as  with  owte  presidye.    Then  the  serpentes  take 

*  i-^leped]  named,  Cx.  (twice.) 
^>ts,  a. 

^  itflassheihy  Qx., 
'*  on  thCt  Cx. 

*  called,  Cx. 

^  Caspiif  a,  and  so  MS>  below. 
'  melte,  Cx. 

*  as  yse  or,  Cx. 

'  80  meuy  Cx. 

^«  J»c  .  .  .  the]  So  Harl,  MS.,  and 
similarly  the  MS.  of  Trevisa  on  this 
page  has  muUejp  and  wo$eih ;  whence 
the  inconstancy  of  the  use  of  j? 
clearly  appears,  when  they  were 
written.    See  also  p.  31. 



ita  ut  nisi  in  hyeme  accessns  omnia  negatur.^  Ranul- 
phu8.  Et  secundum  Marcianum  portse  Caspise  ferrets 
trabibus  sunt  obseratae,  quae  vemo  tempore  serpentibus 
obcluduntur ;  ^  et  secundum  Magistrum  in  liistoriis*  ad 
preces  Alexandri  Magni,  hi  montes  invicem*  cohaese- 
runfc.^  Paukvs,  in  Historia  Longobardorum,  libro 
primo,^  Sunt  etiam  plures  aquarum  voragines  sive 
vortigines  juxta  marium  margines '  e  quibus  duse  sunt 
in  mari  mediterraneo  inter  Italiam  et  Siciliam,  Scylla 
scilicet  et  Charybdis,  de  quibus  Virgilius  loquitur  — 

Dextrum  Scylla  latus,  laevum  implacata  Charybdis.* 

Sunt  et  aliae  voragines  in  oceano,  quarum  una  in  occi- 
deatali  littore  Britanniae  minoris^  umbilicus*^  maris 
dicitur  ;  alia  quoque  inter  Britanniam  et  Galliciam,"  quae 
bis  in  die  naturali  fluctus  sorbere  et  rursus  evomere 
navesque  attrahere  et  rejicere  tanta  velocitate  dicuntur, 
ut  sagittarum  lapsura  imitari  videantur. 

'  S0A.B.E.  The  syntax  requires 
negetur ;  but  the  error  may  be  Hig- 
4en*s  own. 

^  ohscinduntuTj  B. 

3  Magistntm  historiarum,  B. 

*  ad  invieemf  B. 

«So  B.E.;  sunt  (f6r  sibif)  ad- 
heserunty  A. 

^  The  extract  from  Paulus  is 
wanting  in  A.  ;  down  to  Charyhdis 

added  iVom  £.  ;  B.  omits  the  title 
of  the  extract,  and  begins  it  (after 
Charybdis)  tbns :  Sunt  et  alias,  &c. 

"^  jnxta  marium  margines]  om.  J>, 

*  impUcata,  £.    (Obsidet  governs 
these  accnsatiyes,  ^n,  iii.  421.) 

•  minorisi  om.  CD. 

**  Sic  C. ;  umbilicttm,  A.B.D.E, 
»  So  the  MSS. 



J>erto ;   so  fat,  but  it  be  wynter,  J)ere  may  no  man  come  Trevisa. 

perynne.    l|.     Martianus   sell?  ]?at  ]>e  *  ^ates  of  Caspij  bee]>      

i-steke^  wij>  yren  barres,  and  in  springyng  tyme  faste  i-barred 
for  serpentes  and  addres  j  and  pe  Maister  3  of  pe  stories 
sayth,4  jjat  at  fe  prayeres  of  kyng  Alisaundre  Caspij  hulles 
were  i-closed  and  ioyned  to  gidres-  Paulus^  in  historia 
Longobardoruniy  libra  prima,  pere  beef  many  swolwynges 
and  whirlynges  of  wateres  by  fe  see  brynkes  ^  tweyne  beef 
in  fe  see  of  myddel  erfe  bytwene  Itali  and  J>e  londe  ^  Sicilia. 
pilke  tweie  swolwes  beef  i-cleped  ^  Scylla  and  Charybdis ; 
of  f  e  wbiche  spekef  Virgil,  and  seif :  Scylla  is  perilous  in 
f  e  rijt  side,  and  Charybdis  in  f  e  lift  side.  Of  ere  swelowes 
and  periles  of  wateres  7  beef  in  occean  ;  oon  is  in  f  e  west 
clif  of  litel  ^  Bretayne,  And  is  i-cleped  ^  f  e  nauel  of  f  e  see  ; 
f e  tofer  ^^  is  bytwene  Bretayne  and  Gallicia,  and  it  is  i-seide 
fat  f ese  swelowes  twyes  in  f e  nyit  and  day  swelowef  ynne 
stremes  and  ilodes,  and  castef  hem  vp  aje.*^  Also  he  ^^ 
drawef  in  schippes,  and  castef  hem  vp  a^en,^^  ^  swiftliche 
as  an  arwe  to  a  manis  sight,  ^4 

theire  confluence  to  hyt  on  euery  syde,  in  so  moche  that  MS.  Habl. 
commenge  to  theyme  is  denyede,  but  in  wynter.     I^.    And      2261. 

after  Martian  the  ^ates  of  theyme  be  lockede  with  cheynes  of 

jTne,  whiche  be  stopped  in  the  somer  tyme  with  serpentes. 
And  after  the  Maister  in  storyes,  those  hilles  wente  to  gedre 
at  the  preyers  of  kynge  Alexander.  PauluSy  in  historia 
Longohardorum^  libra  prima.  Also  there  be  monye  deipe 
places  of  waters  nye  to  the  sydes  of  the  sees,  of  whom 
tweyne  be  in  the  grete  see  betwene  Ytaly  and  Siciile. 
Also  there  be  other  swaloes  of  the  see  in  the  occean.  Oon 
of  theym  is  in  the  weste  side  of  Briteyne  the  less,  y-namede 
the  navelle  of  the  see.  That  of  er  is  betwene  Briteyne  and 
Fraunce,  whiche  be  seyde  to  deuoure  waters  and  evomette 
theyme  twyes  in  a  day,  drawenge  to  theyme  schippes  and 
puttenge  theyme  aweye  with  suche  a  swiftenesse,  that  thei 
appere  to  folowe  the  schote  of  an  arowe. 

^  a.  omits  )>e. 
'^  faste  shettef  Cx. 

*  So  Cx.,  (who  has  ofhisioryes)'^ 
maistreSf  MS, 

*  sajftli]  Added  Irom  Cx,  and  a. 

*  Uonde,  Cx, 

*  called^  Cx, 
'  watery  Cx. 

VOL,  I. 

8  Om.  Cx. 

»  caUed,  Cx. 

^«  otkeTy  Cx. 

"  agayn,  Cx,  (not  a.) 

'-'  it,  Cx. 

"  casted  hem  agayn,  Cx. 

^^  So  the  MS.  (not,  as  usually,  si'^t) 



Cap.  X. 

De  provmoUs  Orbis.    Et  primo  de  Paradiso? 

ClBCA  notitiam  Faradisi  terrestiis  tria  potissime  sunt 
advertenda ;  primo  namque  quoad  ejus  existentiam 
seu  conditionein  quaeritur  an  sit ;  secundo  quoad  ejus 
positionem  quseritur  ubi  sit ;  terfcio  quoad  ejus  deacrip- 
tionem  qusBritur  quails  sit  De  primo  notandum  est 
quod  ejus  existentias  ^  attestantur  quatuor  ;  videlicet 
nanrationes  historiarum,^  qusB  comparant  Paradiso  loca 
Sodomse  antequam  subverteretur.  Secundo,  testimo- 
nia  experfcorum,  qui  se  vidisse  locum  iUum  scripserunt. 
Tertio,  quatuor  flumina  inde  exeuntia>  quorum  origo  in 
Paradisi.  D.ostro  habitabili  nee  in  man  nee  in  fonte  uspiam  repe- 
ritur,  cum  tamen  circa  hoc  per  reges  JEgypti  et  alios 
jfrequenter  ftierit  elaboratum.  Idcirco,  teste  Isidoro,* 
XIII.  Etymolog.,  Hieronymus  animadvertit  de  Paradisi 
fluminibua  aliter  fore  sentiendum  quam  auctores  tradi- 


^  Paradiso]  £.  adds  in  the  title  : 
— *'  Et  opinionibns  circa  ipsun  lo- 
"  cum."  .  C.  omits  aU  after  OrhtSy 
and  all  the  early  part  of  the  chapter 
(see  helo^) ;  and  the  rest  also  is  so 
much  transposed  that  its  readings 
can  be  but  imperfectly  represented. 
D.  agrees  exactly  with  G.  in  its 
arrangement,  and  has  not  a  single 

various  readjng  of  importance,  and, 
indoc3,  very  few  deviations  of  any 

'  existentiam,  B. 

*  historiaruni]  Om.  B.,  which  has 
also  hca  Sodomw  before  Paradiso, 

*  This  extract  from  Isidore  is  sub- 
stantially the  same  in  C. 



De  provincii$  orbis;  primo  de  Paradiso,     Capitulum       Tkevisa, 

deeimum,  '       

Fob  f e  knowleche  of  erfelyche  Paradys  pre  poyntes  moste 
be  i-knowe,  Wherfore  pre  questiouns  beef  i-axed  ;  f  e  firste 
questioun  axe)),^  Xif  eny  suche  place  is  on  erpe  ?  pe  secounde 

axi}),i  Whiderw^arde  or  where  is  Paradys  in  erfe  ?  J>e  ]>ridde 
aske]>,i  What  contraye  or  what  placed  is  Paradys  in  erfe? 
For  J)e  firste,  foure  manere  witnesses  we  hauej?  }>at  Paradys 
is  in  erpe  ;  first  stories  ]>at  likne]>  Sodom,  or^  hit  were 
ouertorned,  to  Paradise  ;  ]>e  secounde  witnes  is  of  ^  hem  fat 
assaiede  and^  write  and  seide,  fat  fey  had  i-seie^  fat  place; 
f e  f ridde  witnesse  beef  ^  f e  foure  ryueres,  fat  rennef  out 
of  Paradyse  ;  for  f  e  heed  of  filke  ryueres  beef  nou^t  i-founde 
in  see,  nof er  in  fresche^water,  nof er  in  londe  fat  men  wonef  ^ 
ynne,  fey^  kynges  of  Egipt  and  many  ofer  trauailled  wel 
ofte  and  sou^te  f ereafter.  perfore  IsidLore],  xiii.  Eth., 
self  fat  Hieronymus^  toke  hede  fat  oufer  vnderstondynge 
bihouef  of  f e  ryueres   of  Paradys,    fan   auctours  writef  ; 

^^^^^^^^^^^M^^^^^^^^i^^^^»^! ■■■■»■■  ■  ■■  .    .,       ■.■■■■     ■■■■  I  ll^l      ■■  I     ^        ■     ^fc^^»  !■    ■ ^l  [■■■MM  ,        ^>^t^^»^^^»^»W||  I  ,       Mil        ^m^^^^ 

Of  the  Prouinces  of  the  Worlde^  and  firste  of  Paradise.     MS.  Harl. 

Capitulum  decimum,  2^^i* 

Thre  thynges  ar  to  be  aduertisede  principally  as  abowte 
the  knowlege  of  Paradise.  Fyrste  hit  is  inquirede.  as  vn 
to  the  existence  o£  hit  other  ^^  condicion  whef  er  hit  be.  In 
the  secunde  hit  is  inquirede  as  vn  to  the  posicion  of  hyt 
where  hit  is.  In  the  thrydde  hit  is  inqilirede  in  what 
maner  hit  is.  Of  the  fyrste,.  hit  is  to  be  attendede  that  iiij 
thynges  here  wyttenesse  to  the  beenge  of  hit,  that  is  to  say, 
narraciones  of  storyes,  the  whiche  do  comparate  the  places 
of  Sodomye  to  Paradise  afore  the  subuersion  of  theyme.  In 
the  secunde,  the  testimonies  of  men  experte  whiche  haue 
writen  theyme  to  haue  seen  that  place.  In  the  thrydde,  iiij. 
waters  flowenge  from  hit,  the  begynnenge  of  whom  was 
not  founde  in  oure  partes  habitable,  neif  er  in  the  see,  neither 
in  eny  other  welle  whiche  hathe  be  laborede  by  diuerse 
kynges  of  Egipte  and  other  men  ofte  tymes.  Therefore, 
Isidorus  wyttenesse  xiij<».  Eth.,  Seynte  lerom  perceyvethe 
other  wise  of  the  floodes  of  Paradise  then  other  auctores 

*  a.  has  the  same  variations  of 
spelling  ;  Cx.  has  axeth  in  all  three 

.^  coniray  and  place,  Ox. 
'  er,  Cx. 

*  So  Cx.;  witnesst};»  qf^  MS. 

^  and]  om.  Ox.,  who  has  lorote, 

*  seen,  Cx. 

^  So  a.  ;  wytnes  hen,  Cx. ;  tctV- 
ne8si\>  that  bee\>,  MS. 

»  dwelkf  Cx, 

^  leronimus,  MS.,  and  so  often; 
Iherom,  Cx. 

"  So  the  MS.,  but  or  the  is  pro- 
bably the  true  reading. 

K    2 



derunt.  Dicit '  enirn  Basilius  in  Hexaemeron  et  Isidorus 
Etymolog.,  libro  xiv.,  et  Josephus,  libro  primo,  quod  de 
Paradisi  altissimo  monte  cadentes  aqusB  lacum  efficiunt^ 
de  quo  velut  de  fonte  quatuor  flumina  nascuntur.  Pe- 
truSy^  capitvlo  qmirtodecvmo.  •  Quorum  primus  Phison 
qui  interpretatur  inv/adatio  educitur  in  Indiam  tra- 
liens  secum  aureas  arenas^  et  dictus  est  Ganges  a  Gan- 
garo  rege  Indise,  quod  interpretatur  caterva ;  eo  quod 
decern  flumina  recipiat.  Secundus  fluvius  dictus  est 
Gyon,  qui  et  Nilus,  eircuitque  *  iEthiopiam  et  jEgyptum. 
Tertius  fluvius  Tigris  secundum  Josephum  dicitur  Dig- 
latL/  quod  sonat  acutumy  eo  quod  velox  sit  ut  tigris, 
et  vadit  contra  Assyrios.  Quartus  fluvius  Euphrates, 
quod  sonat  fmgifer,  vadit  contra  Chaldfeos.^  Isidorus, 
libro  tertio  dedmo*^  Salustius  auctor  certissimus  as- 
sent quod  de  Cerauniis^  montibus  Armenia  ad  pedem 
Caucasi  montis   oritur  fons^  qui  caput  est  duorum  flu- 

*  These  extracts  are  more  fully  ex- 
hibited in  G.  and  D.,  thus  :  Basilius 
Hexaem»  Igitur  de  paradisi  altis^ 
simo  monte  cadentes  aquse  magnmn 
faciunt  lacum,  ex  quo  Yelut  ex  uno 
fonte  quatuor  nascuntur  flumina. 
Isid,  lib,  4  (sic).  De  medio  enim 
Paradisi  fons  prorumpens  totum 
nemus  irrigat  *,  dividitur  quoque  in 
quatuor  flumina  nascentia.  Jose- 
phus li.  1.  Nam  Phison  educatur 
in  Indiam,  Euphrates  et  Tigris  in 
mare  ruhrum  feruntur.  Gihon  vero 
per  JEgyptum  fluens  Nilum  facit. 

2  The  extract  from  Pe/rus  is  con- 

tained in  G.  and  D.,  but  abbreviated. 
B.  has  4  for  14. 

'  que]  So  B. ;  om.  A.E.  j  et  cir- 
cuity CD. 

^DiglatK]  Bilath,  E. ;  Diglat, 

*  The  MSS.  of  text  and  versions 
omit  h  in  the  first  syllable.  In  the 
former  it  is  corrected. 

•  qtiarlo  decimo,  E.,  wrongly.  See 
lib,  xiii.  c.  21.  s.  10..  This  extract 
is  also  contained  in  0.,  but  much 

^  Cerauneisy  MSS. 



also  Bosilius,  in  Hexaemeron,  Ysid[ore],  Eth.  lib.  quarto  de-  Trbvisa. 
cimo,  and  losephus,  libro  primo,  seijj  fat  wateres  fallynge  of  — - 
J>e  hi  Jest  *  hiile  of  Paradys  makef  a  grete  ponde,  and  out 
of  fat  ponde  (as  it  were  of  a  welle)  J?e  foure  ryueres 
sprlngef.  PetruSy  capitulo  quarto  decimo^  Of  fe  whiche  foure 
lyueres  f e  firste  is  Phison,  and  is  to  menynge  ful  wexynge 
of  plente ;  fat  ryuer  Phison  passef  into  Inde,  and  draweth 
wif  hym  golden  graueL  Phison  haf  anofer  name,  and  is 
i-cleped  Ganges  of  a  kynge^  of  Ynde  fat  was  i-cleped 
Gangarius ;  but  Ganges ^  is  to  menynge^  Jfelmvschippe  and 
compani/e,  for  he  fongef  ten  greet  ryueres  fat  rennef  ferto. 
J)e  secounde  is  i-cleped  Gyon  and  Nilus  also,  and  goof 
aboute  Ethiopia  and  Egipt.  pe  fridde  is  Tigris,  and,  as . 
losephus  self,  Diglath  also,  fat  is  to  menynge,^  sckarp^  for 
he^  is  swift  as  tigris,  fat  is  a  wel^  swift  best;  and  Tigris 
passef  toward  Assyria  fat  londe.  pe  fourf e  is  Euphrates,  fat 
is  to  menynge  frucfuous  and  fruit  bererCy  and  gof  toward 
Caldea  fat  londe7  IsidoruSy  libro  tertio  decimo.  J)e  moste 
certeyn  auctor,  Salustius,  seif,  fat  fere  comef  a  welle  oute 
of  Cerauneys,  f  e  hulles  of  Armenye,  and  springef  out  at  ^  f  e 
foote  of  f e  liulle  fat  is  i-cleped  Caucasus  ;  and  fat  welle  is 

have  diffinede,  Basilius  In  his  Hexaemeron  and  Isidorus,  libro  MS.  Haul. 
quartodecimo  Eth ,  and  losephus,  libro  primo,^  that  waters  ^261. 
fallenge  from  Paradise  make  a  lake,  from  whom  iiij.  flowedes  ^  " 
liathe  iheire  begynnenge  as  of  a  welle.  PetruSy  capitulo 
quarto  decimo.  The  firste  iloode  of  whom  is  calledde  Phison, 
the  invndacion  of  whom  is  educede  in  to  Ynde,  drawerige 
with  hit  grauelle  of  gdlde,  whiche  is  callede  Ganges  off  a 
kynge  some  time  in  Ynde  Gangarius  by  name,  whiche  is 
called  a  cumpanye  by  interpretacion,  in  that  hit  dothe 
receyve  x.  floedes.  The  secunde  is  callede  Gybn  or  Nilus, 
whiche  compassethe  Ethioppe  and  Egipte.  The  thrydde 
Iloode  is  callede  Tigris,  after  losephus  hit  is  called  Dig- 
lath, whiche  sowndethe  scharpe,  in  so  moche  that  hit  is 
swifte  as  a  tigre,  and  goethe  ageynes  Assiriones.  The  furthe 
is  callede  Euphrates,  that  sowndethe  as  plentuous  of  come, 
whiche  goethe  ageyne  men  of  Calde.  IsidoruSy  libro  tertio 
decimo,  Salustius,  the  moste  certeyne  auctor,  seythe  that  a 
welle  is  spi'onge  from  the  highe  hilles  of  Armenye,  at  the 
foote  of  the  hille  callede  Caucasus,  whiche  welle  is  the  hede 

*  ofheyyeste^  a. 

2  So  a. ;  MS.  askynge. 
^  So  Cx. ;  GanguSf  MS. 

*  to  sayy  Cx.,  who  has,  however, 
to  menynge  above. 

*  it,  Cx.  (and  so  ofteo). 

»  ryght,  Cx. 

^  \*cfour\>e , ,  e  J>a<  lanfl]  om.  Cx. 

«  of,  Cx. 

^  seiciiy  or  some  such  word,  has 

been  omitted. 



minum  Tigiis  et  Euphratis  ;  qui  *  aliquotiens  separantur, 
aliquotiens  inter  se  commiscenttir.*  Saepe,  a  terra'  ab- 
sorbentur,  et  iterum  emergunt  ;*  et  tandem  post  longum 
circa  Mesopotamiam  circuitum  descendnnt  in  mare  Ru- 
brum,  Banulphus.^  Et  Nilus  licet  legatur  ^  a  Paradiso 
procedere,  quidam  tamen  asseverant  ipsum  oriri  in  occi- 
dentali  parte  jEthiojnae  non  procul  ab  Atlantico  monte, 
qui  inde  circuiens  -^thiopiam  descendit  per  jEgyptum. 
De  cujus  proprietate  vide  infra,  capitulo  jEgyptus. 
Quarto  existentise ''  Paradisi  attestatur  fama  diuturna. 
Nam  famse  diutuma^  et  UleBas  multum  est  credendum* 
Sed  fama  de  paradiso  stetit  inconcussa  per  sex  millia 
aniiorum  et  amplius,  quia  a  principio  mundi  usque  ad 
dies  nostros.  Fama  autem  de  re  falsa  cadere  consuevit 
aut  per  oblivionem  aut  per  coutrariam  opinionem.  De 
secundo,  quod  est  ejus  situatio  seu  positio  ubinam  sit, 
non  est  putandum  secundum  quosdam  brevis  intellectiis 
ei  paucse  experientise  Paradisum  esse  regionem  longo- 

*  quia,  A. 

2  So  B.0.£. ;  intercommiscentur^  A. 

*  a  terra]  teirsB,  B. 

*  et  iterum  emergunt']  et  locis  ite- 
rum in  ploribus  emergunt,  CD. 

*  Tlie  whole  of  this  long  extract 
from  Ranvipkusi^  omiited  in  0.  and 
B.,  except  so  much  as  is  contained 

ill  the  following  sentence^  which 
closes  the  chapter  :  "  Inde  est  quod 
"  de  ortu  eorum  varia  leguntar ; 
**  quod  Ganges  dicitur  :iasci  in  locis 
"  Caacasi  month's  ;  Nilus  non  pro- 
"  cul  ah  Atlante  monte  ;  Tigris  et 
"  Euphrates  in  Armenia.*' 

«  licet  legatur]  legitur,  B. 

'  existentiaTfif  B. 



j>e  hede  of  tweie  ryueres  [of  Tigris   and  of  Euphrates,   pe  Teeyisa. 

whiche  tweie  ryuers]*  somtyme  beef  i-deled  atwynne^  and      : 

somtyme  i-melled^  to  gidres,  and  ofte  tyme  J>ey  bee}> 
i-swelewed  into  fe  erfe,  and  efte^  springef  up  aien,  and 
longe  after  goob  aboute  Mesopotamia^  f&t  londe,  aild  doun- 
ward  into  J>e  Kede  see.  "Eji.  And  fey  me  ^  rede  in  bookes 
fat  Nilus  comef  out  of  Paradys,  ^it  som  men  affermef 
and  seif  7  j>at  Nilus  springef  in  f  e  west  side  of  f  e  londe  of 
Ethiopia,  noutt  fer  from  fe  hil  fat  is  i-cleped  Atlas,^  and  . 
gof  aboute  Ethiopia  and  dounward  by  Egipt.  Loke^  fe 
propurte  of  Nilus  in  fe  chapitre  Egiptus.  pe  fourfe  wit- 
nesse  and  preef,  f aifc  suche  a  place  is  in  erf e  fat  is  i-cleped 
Paradys,  is  olde  fame  and  longe  durynge  5  for  me  schal 
trowe  ^^  olde  fame,  fat  is  nou^t  wif seide ;  but  fame  of  Para- 
dys haf  i-dured  ^^  wif oute  wif  seienge  '*  sexe  f owsand  ^ere 
and  more  ;  for  from  f  e  bygynnynge  of  f  e  world  anon  to 
oure  dayes  [it  haf  endured.  And]  ^^  fame  fat  is  false  diiref 
nou^t  so  longe,  for  it  fallif  out  of  mynde,  ofer  is  des- 
preued  by  sof enesse  i-knowe.  Of  f e  secounde  questioun,  fat 
axef  in  whiche  side  of  f  e  worlde  and  in  what  place 
Paradys  schulde  be ;  fey  ^^  schort  witted  men  and  litel  of 

of  tweyne  waters,  that  is  to  saye,  of  Tigris  and  Euphrates,  MS.  Habl. 
whiche  be  other  while  separate  and  oferwhile  commixte,  ^^^' 
oftetyme  devourede  of  the  erthei  and  at  the  laste  thei  descende 
abowte  Mesopotamy  in  to  the  Bedde  see.  ^.  And  thau^he 
men  say  that  Nilus  dothe  precede  from  Paradise,  some  men 
afferme  hit  to  haue  his  begynnenge  in  the  weste  parte  of 
Ethiop,  not  ferre  from  the  mownte  Atlantike,  whiche  com- 
passenge  Ethioppe  descendethe  by  Egipte,  of  the  properte 
off  whom  beholde  with  in  the  chapitre  Egiptus.  In  the  iiij*^% 
the  olde  fame  berrethe  testimonye  to  the  existence  of  Para- 
dise. But  trewely  the  fame  of  Paradise  hathe  stonde  as 
inconcussede  by  vj.  mX,  yeres  and  more.  The  fame  of  a 
false  thynge  is  wonte  to  falle  aufer  by  obliuion,  other  by 
oppinion  contrarious.  Of  the  secunde,  where  it  is,  hit  is  I^aradisos. 
not  to  take  to  credence  after  some  men  of  pover  and  breve 
iutellecte,  and  also   of  lytelle  experience,  Paradise  to  be  a 

*  Added  from  a.  and  Cx.  Here, 
and  commonly,  the  versions  Tvrite 

*  departed  a  sonder,  Cx. 
®  medlidy  Cx. 

*  after,  Cx. 

^  Macepoianea,  MS.  and  a. ;  Me- 
sopotonyUy  Cx. 

^  mertt  Cx.,  and  so  in  many  other 
places,  where  MS.  and  o.  agree  in 
reading  me,  aye,  &c. 

^  affermen  and  saye,  Cx.,  to  whom 
this  plural  seems  unknown. 

«  Athlas,  MSa  and  Cx. 

*  Sechcy  Cx. 

^*  bileue,  Cx. 

^^  endured^  Cx.,  and  endureth  for 
dure]},  below. 

*2  gayn  sayetig,  Cx.^  but  toitliseyde 

"  Added  from  Cx.  (not  in  a.) 

^^  though  that,  Cx. 



maris  tractu  a  nostro  habitabili  distantem  ac^  usque 
ad  lunarem  circulum  elevatum ;  quia  hoc  nee  natura 
patitur  nee  ratio ;  quia,  si  separaretur  a  nostro  habi- 
tabili,  nee  aqua  nee  aer  tantam  molem  sufferre  x>osset. 
Item  cum  elementum  ignis  oecupet^  totum  intermedium 
spatium  inter  aereura  circulum  et  lunarem,^  constat  ibi 
non  esse"  Paradisum ;  cum  nihil  vegetabile  ibi  vivere 
posset.  Item  hoc  dato  locus  ille  sic  elevatus  inducerei 
aliquando  eclipsim  lunarem,  maxime  in  partibus  terraj 
orientalibus  ;*  sed  de  tali  eclipsi  nihil  audivimus  hucus- 
que.  Item  si  Paradisus  separaretur  a  nostro  habitabili, 
quomodo^  tunc  pervenirent  ad  nostrum  habitabile  ilia 
quatuor  flumina  prsedicta  per  tarn  vastum  mare  vel  per 
aerem  intermedium  ?  Si  autem  dicatur  quod  Paradisus 
sit  aliquantulum  contigua®  nostro  habitabili,  videtur 
quod  terria  non  sit  sphserica,  sicut  communiter  descripta 
est.  a  doctis ;  immo  tunc  foret  oblonga.     Sed  hoc  stare 

*  ac]  et,  B, 

2  occupet]  So  A. ;  occupat,  B.E, 
^  So  B.  E.  5    aerem  et   circulum 
lunarem,  A. 

^  in  terris  or.,  E. 

*  So  B.B. ;  qualiter,  A. 

«  conttgua^  So  the  MSS.  A.B.E. 

(C.  and  D.  do  not  contaiu  the  pas~ 
sage).  Either  the  text  should  be 
altered  to  contiguusy  or,  more  pro- 
bably, regio  should  be  added  after 
siL  It  is  possible,  however,  that 
Higden  himself  may  have  regarded 
Paradisus  as  a  feminine  noun. 



assay  seie  fat  Pai'adys  is  longe  seillynge  out  of  erj>e '  fat  Trevjsa. 

men  woneJ>  ynne,  and  also  departed  from  J>e  erfe  and  2  hi^e      

as  pe  moue, — hit  is  not  to  trowynge;^  for  kynde^  and 
resoim  bofe  wifseie}?.*  For  ^if  Paradys  were  departed 
atwynne  from  |>e  erfe  fat  men  wonef  ynne,  nofer^  water 
nofer^  aier  my^te  bere  suche  a  burfen.  Also  fe  fuyi*c^ 
occupief  al  fe  myddel  space  bytwene  the  aier  and  f e 
mone,  fan  Paradys  is  nou^t  fare ;  foi'  fan  nof ing  myjte 
lyue  ferynne.  Also  ^if  Paradys  were  so  hite,  somtyme  it 
schulde  byneme  ^  f  e  li^t,  and  make  f  e  clips  ^  of  f  e  mone  ; 
but  of  suche^^  eclipse  herde  we  neuere.  Also  ^if  Paradys 
were  so  hi^e,  and  departed  in  sender  ^^  from  euery  ofer  ^^ 
lond  and  erfe,  how  schulde  fe  foure  ryueres  fat  springef 
out  of  Paradys  passe  by  fe  aier  and  fe  wide  see  and 
come  in  to  londes  fat  men  wonef  ynne  ?  And  ^if  me 
seith  fat  Paradys  is  so  hi^e  and  in  oon  *^  place  contynued  ^* 
to  f e  erfe  fat  men  wonef  ynne,  fan  f e  erfe  is  euen  longe  ^^ 
and  nou^t  rounde  al  aboute,  as  wise  men  descryuef  hit ; 
bot  fat  may  not  stonde :  for  it  is  i-knowe  by  •  experience 

region  in  grete  distaunce  from  this  worlde  habitable,  eleuate  MS.  Hasi,. 
vn  to  the  cercle  of  the  moone.     For  nature  wylle  not  sufFre      2261. 

that,    neither  reason.      For    if   hit  were  separate  in  tliat      

manor  from  this  worlde  habitable,  neither  the  aier,  neither 
the  water,  my^hte  susteyne  suche  a  burden  and  hevynesse. 
Also  sythe  the  elemente  of  fyre  occupyethe  alle  the  mydelle 
place  betwene  the  cercle  of  the  aier  and  of  the  moone,  where-  f,  24  b. 
fore  hit  may  be  concludede  Paradise  not  to  be  there,  sythe 
noo  thynge  vegetable  may  luiue  lyfe  fer.  That  grauntede, 
that  place  scholde  induce  otherwhile  the  eclipse  of  the  moone, 
and  specially  in  the  este  partes  of  the  erthe  ;  but  we  haue 
not  herde  of  such  eclipse  vn  to  this  presento  tyme.  Also 
if  Paradise  were  separable  from  oure  places  habitable,  how 
scholde  the  iiij.  flowedes  aforeseyde  atteyne  to  oure  habit- 
acles  by  so  grete  a  see  other  by  the  aier  intermediate  ?  If 
hit  be  seyde  that  hit  is  in  a  maner  contiguate  to  oure  place 
habitable,  then  hit  scholde  appere  that  the  erthe  were  not 
rownde,  as  hit  is  describede  of  discrete  men,  but  longe, 
and  by  consequent  hit   scholde  yelde   a  schado  inegaUe  in 

*  J>c  er\>e,  cu,  Cx. 

*  Cx,  adds  is, 

'  to  be  bileued,  Cx. 

*  nature,  Cx. 

*  Cx.  adds  it, 

*  Kc,  Cx.,  twice. 

'  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  yerj>c,  MS.  (cle- 
rical error.) 

*  bynyjtie,  a.  ;  take  away,  Cx. 

^  Tnake  eclips,  a.,  Cx. 

'^  Cx.  adds  an, 

"  asGndcTy  o.,  Cx. 

12  Cm.  Cx. 

"  00  and  one,  Cx. 

"  it  coniynuetk,  Cx. 

"  is  enknff,  Cx.  (typogr.  error  ?). 



non   potest,  cum  constet  per  jiige  experimentum,  quod 

umbra  terrse  in  omni  eclipsi  lunari  faciat  pyramidem 

totundam ;   quare  liquet  quod  terra  cum  suis  parlibus 

Paradisus   sit   rotunda.     Unde  concludunt   docti  quod  Paradisus 

in  extremis 

finibus       terrestria  sit  in  extremis  finibus  orientis,  et  quod  sit 

onentis  ■ 

situatur.  magna  porfcio  corporis  terrae,  non  minor  quam  India* 
aut  -«Egyptus,  utpote  locus  toti  ^  generi  humano^  si  non 
peccasset,  deputandus.  ^  De  tertio,  quod  est  ejus  de- 
sciiptio,  qualis  sit/  sciendum  est^  Secundum  Isidorum, 
libro  xiv°.  capitulo  tertio,  quod  Paradisi  vocabulum  de 
Grseco  in  Latinum  versum  dicitur  hortus,  Hebraice  vero 
Uden,  quod  sonat  delidcBy  quod  utrumque  jonctum  facit 
kortv/m  deliciaruTi^  Bomvlphus.  Nee  mirum;  habet 
*  enim  locus  ille  quicquid  vitse  congruit.  laidorus,  libro 
quarto  decimo.  Habet  ^  enim  salubritatem ;  quia  tem- 
perie  gaudens  nee  frigus  sentit  nee  sestum,  in  tantum 
quod  quicquid  ^  ibi  vivit,  mori  non.  potest.  Cui  ®  attes- 
tatur  quod  Enoch  et  Helias  adhuc  vivunt  ibidem  incor- 
rupti.    Johamies  Danutscenus.^  Habet  etiam^®  locus  ille 

'  Jtidea,  A. 

2  toti]  om.  B. 

>  C.  and.  D.  begin  the  chapter  thus : 
— Istd.  U,  4  (sic),  cap,  3.  Paradisus 
locus  est  in  oriente  longo  maris  trac- 
tu  k  nostro  habitabili  segregatus ; 
cujus  vocabulum  a  Grseco  in  Lati- 
num  yersum  dicitur  hortos,  etc. 

*sit]  est,B. 

^  est]  cm.  A. ;  added  from  £. 

'  This  citation  from  Isidore  occurs 
near  i;he  beginning  ip  C.  and  D. 

^  (B&tum;  et  guicguidy  C. 

«  Cut]  quod,  B. ;  cui  rei,  C. 

'  This  extract  from  Jokn  Damas- 
cene is  contained  in  C.  almost  yer- 
batim.  B.  omits  the  title  of  the 

1»  etiam]  So  B.C.D. ;  c#,  A.E. 



and  assay,  fat  in  euery  ecllps  of  "pe  mone  pe  erje  makep  Tkevisa. 

a  rounde  schilde.      perfore   fe  erf e,  wif    alle  his  parties,      

mote^  nedes  be  rounde.  And  so  wise  men  conclude]?  fat 
Paradys  is  in  fe  vttermest  ende^  of  fe  est,  and  fat  it 
is  a  grete  contray^  of  fe  erpe  no  lasse  fan  Tnde  ofer^ 
Egipte;^  a  place  large  and  couenable  for  al  mankynde  to 
wone  ynne,  Jif  mankynde  had  nou^t  i-synned.  Of  fe 
fridde  fat  axef  of  ParadySj  What  manere  place  ^  it  schulde 
be,  l8id[ore]  self,  libro  quarto  decimo,  capitulo  tertio,  fat 
fis  name  Parades  i-turhed  out  of  Grew  in  to  Latyn  Is  to 
menynge  ^  an  oreke^erde.  But  Paradys  in  Hebrewe  ^  is 
i-cleped  Eden,  fat  is  to  menynge^  lUiynge;  fe  whiche 
tweyne  i-putte  ^®  to  gidres  makef  an  orckejerde  of  Ukynge. 
]^.  No  wonder,  for  in  fat  place  is  al  fyng  fat  accordef 
to  lyf.  Isidorus,  libro  quarto  decimo.  pere  is  helf e,  for 
f e  aier  is  in  tempre  ^^  nof er  to  bote  nof er  ^^  to  coMe,  so  fat 
no  fyng  fat  leuef  may  deie  f erynne  2  fat  witnessif  Ennok 
and  Ely,  fat  ^it  beef  fere  on  lyue.^^    lohannes  Damascenus» 

euery  eclipse  ;  but  that  may  not  stonde,  sythe  hit  is  provede  MS.  IIaki.. 
by  experience  that  the  schado  Of  the  erthe  in  euery  eclipse     226 1. 

of  the  moone  makethe  a  rownde  schado.     Wherefore  hit  is      

schewede  that  the  erthe  with  his  partes  is  rownde.  Where- 
fore prudent  men  conclude  that  Paradise  terrestrialle  is  in 
the  extreme  partes  of  the  este,  and  that  a  grete  porcion  of 
the  erthe  is  f  er,  not  lesse  then  Ynde  or  Egipte,  as  a  place 
deputate  to  alle  mankynde  if  Adam  hade  not  synnede.  Of 
the  thrydde,  that  is  the  discripsion  of  hit,  what  maner  a 
place  hit  is,  hit  is  to  be  attended  that  after  Isidor,  libro 
14®,  capitulo  iij**,  that  this  worde  Paradkus  turnede  from 
Grewe  in  to  Latyn,  is  callede  a  yorde  or  a  gardyn.  In 
Ebrewe  hit  is  callede  Eden,  that  sowndethe  del%te$^^  whiche 
coniuncte  makethe  a  gardyne  off  delitesM  ^.  And  noo 
meruayle,  for  that  place  hathe  euery  thynge  that  is  con- 
gruente  to  lyfe.  Isidorus^  libro  14®.  Hyt  hath  salubrite 
and  wholsomnesse,  for  hit  ioyethe  in  temperaunce,  felenge 
neither  coldenesse  ne  heete,  in  so  moche  that  a  thynge 
lyffenge  there  may  not  dye.  A  testimony  f  erof  Enoc  and 
Helias  lyve  ^itte  there  incorrupte.  Magister  lohannes  Da- 
mascenus,   libro    quarto    decimo^      That    place    hathe    also 

*  mustey  Cx. 
2  endes,  Cx. 

*  contrey^  Cx.  ;  contrary^  MB? 

*  or,  Cx. 

^  Cx.  adds  and, 

^  place]  Added  from  a.  and  Cx. 

^  is  cts  moch  to  say  as,  Cx. 

^  Hebreufe]  Added  from  a.  and  Cx 

*  to  say,  Cx.  (and  80  generally). 

'^  Cx.  here,  contrary  to  his  cus- 
tom, retains  y^uf. 

"  is  attemperai,  Cx. 

*2  nSf  Cx.  (and  so  often). 

^'  a  lyue,  Cx. 

"  The  reading  of  Harl.  MS.  may 
be  delices* 



amcenitatem,  nam  universaB  pulcritudiiiis  erat  promptu- 
arium,  ubi  cuncti  generis  arbores  comam  non  perdunt, 
flores  non  marcescunt.  ^  Habet  et  jocunditatem,  cui  ^ 
aitestatur  fructuum  dulcedo,  sicat  in  Genes,  secundo 
dicitur:^  Omne  lignum  pulchrum  visu®  et  ad  vescen- 
dum   suave.      Habet    et*    secmitatem    cui    attestatur 

loci  altitude.*  Ramilphus.  ^Ubi  secundum  Petrum, 
capitulo  xiij*',  aquae  diluvii  non  pervenerunt ;  quod  autem 
aliqui  dicunt  Paradisum  attingere  lunarem  circulum, 
hoc  dicit  Alexander,  non  esse  secundum  rei  veritatem, 
sed  secundum  hyperbolicam  locutionem,  ut  sic  ejus  in- 
comparabilis  altitudo  et  eminentia  respectu  nostri  habi- 
tabilis  excellens  ostenderetur.  Sed  ^  hen  quia,  sicut  dicit 
Isidorus,  libro  xiv.^  capitulo  tertio,  loci  iUius  aditus  per 
peccatum  primi  hominis  interclusus  est.  Septus  est 
enim  ^  undique  rumphea  flammea,  id  est/^  muro  igneo ; 
ita   ut    ejus  cum   coelo  pene   jungatur  incendium   ad 

»  cut]  rei,  add.  C.X).,  and  so  be- 

*  la  A.,  dicitur  follows  pulchrum, 
which  gives  a  different  construc- 
tion. The  versions  agree  with  the 
text  as  printed. 

*  visu]  om.  B. 

*  ef]  om.  A. 
^  C.  and  D.  add  here,  2ied<u  Nam 

pcrtingit  aerem  quietum  usque   ad 
lunarem  circulum. 
®  The  following  sentence  is  much 

altered  in  C.  and  D,  B.  omits  the 
title  Rantdphus. 

'  This  and  the  following  sentence 
are  placed  almost  at  the  head  of  the 
chapter  in  C.  and  D.,  and  very  much 

«  So  B.E.  This  is  the  true  refe- 
rence. See  lib.  xiv.  c.  3,  A.  and 
the  versions  give  «>• 

'  enirn]  om.  A. 

'•  id  esq  So  E.  (and  also  C)  ;  ct, 


pat  place  haj>  faire  weder  and  merpe,  for  it  was  ]>e,  celer  Trevisa. 

and  place  of  all  fairenesse:  no  mauere  of^  tree  leseji  |)ere      

his  leues ;  no  floures  fere  welke|> ;  ^  jere  is  merj>e  and 
swetnesse  ;  of  fruyt  and  trees  fat  growef  j>ere,  Genesis, 
secundo  capitulo,  it  is  i-write:  Euerich  tree  ferynne  is 
swete  to  ete  and  faire  to  si^t.  perynne  is  sikemesse  and 
suerte,  for  fe  place  is  hi^e.  ^.  Petrus,  capitalo  tertio 
decimo,  seij>  J>at  fe  water  of  J>e  greet  flood  com^  nouit  in 
Paradys.  pei  som  men  seie  fat  Paradys  is  hi^e  as  fe 
mone,  fat  is  not  soof  in  wordes  and  in  dede ;  but  fat 
specbe  is  i-saued  by  an  excusacioun  of  spekynge,  fat  is 
i-cleped  yperbolica:  so  f at  f ei  fat  so  spekef  wolde  mene, 
fat  Paradys  in  hey^t  passef  all  ofer  londes.  Treuisa. 
So  we  preisef  a  worldely^  man  lordan  or  lohan,  and 
self  fat  he  was  f e  beste  man  fat  euere  was ;  and  ^it  he 
was  neuere  so  good  as  Crist.  So  in  wordes  fat  sotil  men 
wole^  deuyne,  his  menynge^  trewe  and  good.  But  alias, 
as  Isidre  7  seif ,  libro  nono,  capitulo  primo :  Oure  wey  to 
Paradys  is  faste  i-stopped  by  cause  of  pe  synne  of  oure 
forme  ^  fader ;  it  ®  is  i-closed  al  aboute  wif  a  firen  ^^  wal,  so 
fat  fe  brennynge  ferof   arechef   to  heuene,   as    som  men 

amenite.    For  hit  is  the  pantre  or  place  of  alle  pulcritude,  MS.  Ha&l. 
where  the  trees  of  euery  kynde  loose  not   theire  beaute,      2261. 

floures  fade  not,  hauenge  in  hit  pleasaunte  frute.    As  hit  is      

schewede  in  the  secunde  chapitre  of  Genesis,  where  hit  is 
seide.  Paradise  hathe  in  hit  every  tre  feyre  to  sithte  and 
swete  to  ey te.  Also  hit  hathe  securite,  to  the  whiche  sey- 
enge  the  altitude  of  the  place  berrethe  testimonye.  !i^. 
Where,  after  Petrus,  capitulo  xiij<>,  the  waters  of  Noe  floode  f.  25  a. 
atteynede  not  to  hyt.  That  somme  men  seydc  Paradise  to 
atteyn  to  the  cercle  of  the  moone,  Alexander  seythe  that 
not  to  be  trawthe,  but  after  a  locucion  iperbolicalle,  that 
the  altitude  and  eminence  scholde  be  schewede  excellente, 
and  incomparable  in  the  respecte  of  oure  places  habitable. 
But  alias,  for  as  Isidorus  seythe,  lib.  ix^,  cap.  iij^,  the  entro 
in  to  that  place  was  schut  by  the  synne  of  Adam,  whiche 
is  compassede  abowto  with  a  walle  off  fyre ;  in  so  moche  that 
the  heete  of  hit  is  ioynede  allemoste  with  heuyn,  to  remove 

1  a.  and  Cx.  omit  of. 

2  welwo^f  0.  ;  fade,  Cx.,  who  has 
ne  for  no.  x 

*  comeih,  Cx, 
<  er\»ey  MS. ;  ertlJy,  Cx. 
^  toely  Cx. 

"  the  menyng  is,  Cx. 
'  Ysidorus,  Cx, 
^jorn,  Cx. 
'  a.  omits  it 
»•  brennyng,  Cx. 



arcendum  homines;  supra  vero  rumpheam  iUam  positi 
sunt  cherubin,  id  est,  angeli  boni,  ad  arcendum  an- 
gelos  malos.^ 

Cap.  XI 

De  Asia  et  ejus  provmeiis. 

laidonis,  libro  quarto  deoi/mo.  Eefert®  Isidorus 
quod  Asia  ex  nomine  cujusdam  mulieris  Asiae^  illam 
quondam  inbabitantis  denominata  sit.  Continet  *  plures 
De  India,  provincias  de  quibus  bic  per  ordinem»  India  ab  oriente 
ortu  solis,  ab  austro  oceano,  ab  occidente  Indo  flumine, 
a  septentrione  Monte  Caucaso  terminatur.  In  anno 
bis  babet  fruges,  gignit  homines  tincti  coloris,  ayem 
habet«  psittacum,  et  elephantes/  piper,  ebenum,  ebur  ;^ 
et  lapides  pretiosos,  beryUos,  chrysoprasos,  carbunculos, 
adamantes,^  et  montes  aureos,®  quos  tamen  adire  propter 
dracones  et  griphones  et  immensorum  bominum  monstra 
quasi  impossibUe  est.    Est  autem  India   inter   omnes 

'  C«  and  D.  add,  rumphea  autem 
arcet  homines, 

*  C.  and  D.  begin  thus  : — ^ABia 
•  .  .  denominata  plures  continet, 

*  AsiaJi  om.  B, 

*  Continet']  quae  continet,  B, 

*  kabef]  om.  C.  D. 

*  Elepbantes,  gestantes  ebur  et 
lapides,  etc.,  0. ;  elepbantes,  piper 
et  calamiun  aromaticum,  ebur,  D. ; 
elephantos,  E. 

?  ebur]  om,  B. 

^  adamantos,  A. 

'  C.  and  D.  stop  here  till  the  ex- 
tract from  Pliny  begins. 


wolde  wene.    Paradys  is  i-closed  wi]>  fat  wal  to  holde  out  Tbkvisa. 

mankjnde ;    aungelles    stonde])   on    ^at    wal    to    kepe    wel      

Paradys,  p9>t  none  euel  goostes  mowQ  come  Jjerynne. 

De  Asia  et  ejus  provinciis*    Isidorus,  libra  quarto  decimo. 

Capitulum  undecimum^^ 

IsiDORirs  seip  J>at  Asia  haj>  fe  name,  and  is  i-cleped  after 
a  womman  ]>at  woned  ]>erynne,  ]?at  was  i-cleped  Asia,  In 
Asia  bee))  many  prouinces  and  londes,  fe  whiche  I  schal 
descriue  and  rekene  al  arewe,*  and  bygynne  wi]?  Ynde. 
Inde  ha])  in  ])e  est  side  ]>e  sonne  risynge,  in  J>e  south  fe 
see  occean,  in  \e  west  fe  ryuer  of  Inde,  in  fe  north  fe  huUe 
Jat  is  i-cleped  Caucasus  ;  and  so  Tnde  is  i-ended.  In  Tnde 
beej)  men  of  colour  and  hewe  i-died.  In  Tnde  is  a  brede 
])at  is  i-cleped  phitacus,  elephantis,  peper,  and  a  tree  ])at  is 
i-cleped  hebanus,  euery,  and  precious  stones,^  beriles,  criso- 
prassus,  charbunculus,^  adamantis,  and  goldene  hulles,  to  ]>e 
whiche  it  is  ful  harde  for  to  come  for  c&agouns  and  grypes, 
and  for  dyuers  manere  of^  men  grisliche  and  wonderliche 
i-schape.    Among  aJle  \q  londes  of  J>is  worlde  Ynde  is  ]?e  ^ 

men,  that  thei  comme  not  to  hit,  where  cherubyn  ahd  other  MS.  Harl. 
goode  angelles  be  putte  toremoye  ylle  angelles  iBrom  thens.     2261, 

OfAsiay  and  of  the  Prouinces  of  hit.   Isidorus^  libro  quarto 

decimo^     Capitulum  undeoimum* 

IsiDonns  rehersethe  that  Asia   toke  that    name  of  the 
name  of  a  womaa,  somme  tyme  inhabitenge  in  hit,  whiche 
conteynethe  mony  prouinces,  of  whom  hit  schalle  be  ex- 
pressede  by  ordre.     Inde  is  tenninate  from  the  este  with  the  Of  Ynde 
rysenge  of  the  sonne,  of  the  sowthe  with  the  occean,  of  the  ^^o^Cjl^e] 
parte  weste  with,  the  floode  of  Tnde,  and  of  the  northe  with  o/hfitl/* 
the  hille  callede  Caucasus.     That  lend  berrethe  twyes  corne 
in  oon  yere,  bryngenge  furthe   men  of  a   spottede  colour, 
hauenge  in   hit  nyihtengales,   elephauntes,  pepir,  precious 
stones,    berilles,     crisoprassus,  carbuncles,    adamantes,   and 
hilles^  of  ffolde.     Neuerthelesse  hyt  is  as  impossible  to  so 
to  theyme  for  dmgones  and  grifynixes  and    other  diue^e 
wonders  of  m^n.    Tnde  is  moste  amonge  alle  o]?er  regiones 

*  al  along,  Cx. 

^  stones]  Added  fh>m  a.  and  Cx. 
'  charbonicks,  a, ;  carbunelis,  Cx., 
-who  has  crisopassis  (sic)  just  before. 

*  o.  and  Cx.  om.  of. 
'  a.  and  Cx.  om.  J>«. 



regiones  orbis  major,  opulentior,  potentior,  populosior, 
et  in  stupendis  mirabUior.  Ibi  enim  ficus  est  tarn 
expansa,  ut  sub  unitis  fici  latitudine  multaB  hominum 
tuxmse  possint*  discumbere.^  Hoc  autem  facit  tibertas 
soli,  temperies  coeli,  et  abundantia  aqtwe.  PliniuSf  libro 
8eodOf  capituh  nono  decimo?  ladia  multos  liabet  reges 
et  populos,  quorum  alii  terram  excolunt,  alii  merces 
evehunt,  alii  mUitiam^  componunt.  Alii  sapientiSB  et 
disciplinse  intendunt.  Ibi  sunt^  arbores  tam  procerae, 
ut  cacumen^  earum  a  jactu  sagittae  vix  pertingatur; 
iuternodium  quoque  arundinis  in  alveo  navigabili  temos 
fert  homines.  Sunt  et  ibi  homines  quinque  cubitoruni, 
De  mon-    qui  nec  expirant '  nee  languescunt.     Sunt  ^   ibi  satyri 


hominibus  q\^  homlnes  monstruosi ;  sunt  ibi  et®  homines  cubitalis 


mensurse/^  pigmsei  nuncupati,  qui  in  quarto  anno  ^etatis 
generant  efc  in  quinto  *^  canescunt.  Hi  collecto  agmine 
sedentes  super  arietes  pugnant  contra  grues,  quorum  ^^ 
nidos  et  ova   confringunt,   ne  hostes  contra  se  nimis 

'  So  E. ;  possuntf  A* 

*  Jbi  .  ♦  discumhere]  placed  in  C. 
and  D.,  with  alterations,  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  extract  from  Plin^,  end- 
ing thus  :  nt  turmas  hominum  sub 
se  recipiat. 

^  C.  and  D.  contain  first  the  extract 
from.  Plinyy  as  ^r  as  intendunt}  then 
the  extraci:  from  Cicero,  then  the  re 
mainder  of  the  Pliny  here  given,  a 
little  altered  and  abbreviated  The 
authors  of  the  extracts  are  not 
properly  distinguished. 

*  mHitiam]  A,  adds  earum» 
^  stinf]  cm.  B. 

*  cacumen"]  acumen,  CD. 

'  expiranQ  aspirant,  B. 

^  sunt]  sunt  et,  B. ;  sed  ibi,  D* 

^sunt  ibi  ef]  So  C.  and  D.  (the 
latter  omtting  ibi)  ;  quia  sunt  ibi, 

'» mensur(B]  statura»,  G.  D.,  which 

have  also  other  small  variations. 
"  quoruni]  om.  CD. 

"  quinto]  sexto,  D. 


grettest  and  most  richest,*  strengest  and  most  ful  of  peple,  Trbvisa. 
yn  wonder  and  meruayles  most  wonderful.  In  Inde  a  crop  of  — 
a  figge  tree  is  so  huge  2  and  so  wide  i-sprad,  j>at  meny  com- 
panyes  of  men  may  sitte  at  pe  ^  mete  wel  i-now  j>ere  vnder. 
pat  makep*  goodnes  of  J>e  lond,  temprure*  of  wedir  and 
plente  of  watir,  Plinius^  Itbro  sexto,  capUulo  decimo  nono^ 
In  Ynde  beef  many  kynges  and  peples  ;  som  of  hem  tilie]>  ^ 
londe,  Bom  yse]>  chafiare  and  marchaundise,  som  kny^thode 
and  chyuah-ie,  and  som  beef  grete  clerkes.  In  Ynde  beej> 
trees,  fat  hauef  coppis  7  as  hi^e  as  me  schal  schete  wif  an  arwe. 
Also  of  a  gobet  bytwene  tweie  knottes  of  a  rede  in  Ynde 
me  makef  a  boot,  fat  ouer  dope  watres  ^  beref  f re  men  at 
ones.  In  Ynde  beef  men  of  fyue  cubites  ^  long,  fat  euelef 
nou^t,'®  nofer  "  ^ildef  vp  fe  breef .  Also  fere  beef  Satyri  and 
of  er  dyuers  men  grisliche  and  wonderHche  i-schape.  perynne 
bef  men  of  a  cubite  longe,  and  beef  i-deped  Pigmei ;  f  ese 
Pigmei  geten  children  and  gendref  **  in  f  e  fourf  e  iere,  and 
horef  *3  in  f e  fifte  ^ere  ;  ^^  fei  gaderef  a  greet  boost  and  ridef 
vppon  wetheres  and  rammes  to  fitte  wif  cranes,  and  de- 
stroyef  hernestes  and  her  eyren;'^  for  fe  cranes  fat  beef  hir 
enemyes  schulde  not  encrese  and  wexe  to  many,    pere  beef 

moste  plentuous,  moste  in  peple,  hauenge  in  hit  moste  mer-  MS.  Habl. 
uayles  and  wondres.  There  is  a  ^gge  tre  soe  expande,  that  226I. 
mony  multitudes  of  peple  may  sytte  vnder  the  latitude  of 
oon  figge  tre.  The  plente  of  the  sonne,  the  temperaunce 
of  heuyn,  and  habundaunce  of  water  do  cause  that.  Tullius 
de  Tusculanis  quaestionibus.  Ynde  hathe  mony  kynges  and 
peple.  Somme  peple  tylle  the  erthe,  somme  vse  marchandise» 
somme  cheuallery,  somme  intende  to  sapience  and  discipline* 
There  be  trees  of  so  semely  stature  that  vnnethe  the  altitude 
of  theym  may  be  atteynede  by  the  schote  of  an  arowe,  the  space 
betwene  ij,  knottes  of  a  reede  makethe  a  bootte  for  iij.  men. 
There  be  men  also  of  y.  cubites,  whiche  dye  not,  neither 
waile.  Also  there  be  men  of  the  measure  of  a  cubite  caUede 
pigmeis,  whiche  gendre  in  the  iiij*^*  yere  of  theire  age,  and 
wexe  hoore  in  the  v**:  these  men  gedrede  in  a  multitude, 
syttenge  on  wedres,  fithte  ageyne  cranes,  whose  nestes  and 
egges  thei  broke  leste  their  enmyes  be  multipliede  ouer  hugely 

*  rf/chcy  Cx. 

2  grete,  Cx. 

3  Cx.  omits  \>e, 

*  causeth  the,  Cx. 
^  So  also  a. ;  temperuref  Cx. 
«  tj/Heth  the,  Cx.  ^ 
'  toppis,  Cx.,  which  may  be  right. 
B  a  depe  water,  Cx.  (after  at  ones'). 

*  cuhyte,  Cx. 

"  wexe  not  seke,  Cx. 

"  ner,  Cx. 

**  engenderen,  Cx. 

w  wese  hore,  Cx, 

"  0.  and  Cx.  om.  ^ere, 

**  egges,  Cx. 

VOIi.   I.  F 



multiplicentur.  Sunt  ^  ibi  gymnosophistas  philosophi,  qui 
per  diem^  quasi  immobiles  irreverberatis  oculis  solem 
contemplantur.  Alii  quoque  capita  canina  habeutes 
dicti  Cynocephali ;  *  latratus  edunt  potius  quam  voces ; 
ferarum  pellibus  vestiti^  dentibus  et  ungoibus  armati 
venatu  et  aucupio  vivunt.  AUi  sine  ore  frondium 
lanugine  tecti  solo  odore  narium  vivunt*  Alii  in 
juventute  canescunt   et   in  senectute    nigrescunt.     In 

quibusdam^   Indise    montibus  sunt    homines    adversas 

plantas     habentes    et     digitos    octonos     in    manibus,® 

^^'^^^^  Tulliua,    de    Tusculanis    quoBstionibus.       Est    qusB- 

marito.       ^^^^    ggj^g    ^    India,    ubi    cuilibet    viro    licitum    est 

pluresf  habere  nxores;  sed  mortuo  marito  conveninnf^ 
omnes  conjuges,  et  quae  ex  illis  comperta®  est  a  vi- 
vente  marito  plus  dilecta  Msse^  ilia  cum  marito 
mortuo  sepelietur  viva,'^  et  hoc  habet"  pro  solatio  et 
Dearbo-    praeconio.    Petrus,  capitulo  cxcvj^P    Arbores  solis  et 

ribus  Solis 

etLimae.  Irai89  sunt  in  India^  de  quarum  pomis  vescentes  sacer* 
dotes  per  quingentos  annos  vivebant.  Dicebantur 
autem  arbores  solis,  quia  quamcito  radius  Solaris  sum- 

1  Sun£\  Bnnt  et,  B. 

^  dieni\  totum  diem,  CB.,  wliich 
add  et  after  immobUes, 

^  Et  alii  cum  caninis  capitibus 
dicti  CynocephalijCjy» 

*  AUi  sine  ore  ♦ . .  vitmnt']  WhoUy 
omitted  Id  C. ;  D.  only  omits  na- 

^  quibusdani^  B.  adds  v&ro, 

^In  quSyasdam^^^manibua'^  Wholly 
omitted  in  CD. 

'  So  A.B.  (but  the  latter  omitting 
conjuges),  and  D.  (hut  onutting 
omnes)  ;  convenient,  E.C. 

'  camparata,  A.  ;  probata,  CD. 

**  a  vivente  plus  dilecta  extitisse, 

^^  cum  marito  viva  sepelietur,  B. 

"  ktibet^  om.  A. 

'2  The  extract  from  Petrus  is 
omitted  in  CD. 


besy  philosofres  })at  byholde)»  on  )>e  sonne  al  ]?e  day  long.  Tbevisa. 

Also  somme  haf  hedes  as  it  were  houndes,  and]?e  voys  fat      

])ey  make])  is  liker  to  an  >  houndes  berkynge  pan  to  a  ^  manis 
voys  ;  pej  beep  i-cloped  in  wylde  bestes  skynnes  and 
i-armed  wij)  hir  owne  teej>  and  nayles,  and  lyuej>  by  huntynge 
and  baukynge.  Opere  pere  beep  pat  bauep  no  mouthy  and 
lyuep  by  odour  and  smelles,  and  bep  i-cloped  in  mosse 
and  hery  tuftes  pat  growep  out  of  treen.^  Oper  boretb  in 
^onpe,  oper  3  wexep  blak  in  elde.  In  som  hulles  of  Ynde 
beep  men  pat  bauep  ^  soles  of  Mr  fe^  ouertorned  and  ey^te 
fyngres  in  oon  honde.  TulL  de  Tusc.  90.*  In  oo  con- 
tray  of  Ynde  euericb  man  hap  many  wyfes  ;  but  whan 
pe  bousbond  is  deed,  pe  wyfes  schulle  goo  to  gidres,  and 
loke  whicbe  of  bem  was  best  i-loued  of  pe  bousbonde ;  and 
sche  scbal  be  beried  wip  hym  and  putte  ^  on  erpe  ^  quyk  ^ 
alyue ;  and  in  pat  contray  pat  is  acounted  pe  fairest  hap 
and  [fortune,  and  alsop,worscbippe  pat  eny  wyf  myjte  haue. 
Peirus,  196.^^  In  Ynde  beep  trees  pat  beep  i-cleped  pe 
trees  of  pe  sonne  and  of  pe  mone ;  preostes  fat  ete.of  pe 
apples  of  pilke  trees  lyued  *^  fyue  bondred  ^ere.  pey  were 
i-cleped  pe  trees  of  pe  sonne,  for  euericb  of  bem  quaked 

on  theyme.  Also  there  be  men  bauenge  hedes  lyke  dogges,  MS.  Habl* 
wbiche  be  callede  Gynocephali,^^  herkenge  more  like  to  dogges  2261. 
then  to  the  voices  of  men,  clothede  with  skynnes  of  wylde  ~r^ 
bestes  y-armede  with  teithe  and  talaundes,  lyj^nge  by  haw- 
kenge  and  huntenge.  Also  somme  men  lyve  there  oonly 
by  odoun  Also  somme  of  that  cuntre  wexe  hoore  in  yowthe 
and  blakke  in  their  age.  Also  in  somme  partes  of  Ynde 
be  men  bauenge  holowe  fyngers  in  their  hondes»  Petrus^ 
capitulo  196.^  There  is  a  peple  in  Ynde  to  whom  hit  is 
lawefalle  to  haue  mony  wyfes;  but,  the  man  dedde,  alle  his 
wifes  comme  to  gedre,  that  wife  that  was  luffedde  beste 
of  hym  schalle  be  buryede  with  hym,  bauenge  that  for  a 
grete  solace.  PetruSy  196.  The  trees  of  the  sonne  and  of 
the  moone  be  in  Ynde,  by  the  apples  of  whom  prestos 
lyffede  by  v*^.  yeres.  Thei  were  namede  the  trees  of  the 
sonne  and  of  the  moone,  for  as  soone  as  the  sonne  sonde 

'  a.  om.  an  and  a;  Cz.   has  to 
berkynge  of  houndes, 
2  trees,  Cx.,  and  so  elsewhere. 

•  and,  Cx. 

•  Cx.  adds  the* 

^  The  reference  should  be  to  Cic. 
Tusc.  Qu<B8t,  lib.  y.  c.  27. 

•  i-put,  a. 

*  in  the  erthe,  Cx. 

*  Cx.  adds  and. 

^  Added  fix>m  Cx.^  nrho  places 
acounted  after  fortune, 

1«  19%  6,  MS.  and  Cx. 

"  /yuen,  Cx» 

^  Cenophali,  Harl.  MS. 

P  2 



mitatem  alicujus  earum  tangebat,  statim  tota  tremebat 
et  responsa  dabat  circtiinstantibus.  Similiter  et  de 
arboribus  lunas  fiebai  Per  has  arbores  interdictum 
fiut  Alexandre  Magno,  ne  aliquando  intraret  Babylonem. 
Iddorua,  libra  quinto  dedmo,  Ophir'  est  insula  India), 
ubi  est  anri  copia^  ad'quam  de  mari  Magno*  transitnr 
per  mare  Rubrum.* 

Oar  XII. 
Isidorus  lih^o  quartodecimo,  capitulo  octavo} 

OSTENDIT  Isidorus  qnod^  Parthia  regie  propter  in- 
victam  Parthorum  virtutem,  qui  nomen  suum  Assyriis 
et  Medis  diffuderunt,  solebat  continere  totam  tenam 
Assyrias,  Mediae,  Persidis,^  Carmanise ;  quae  extenditur 
in  longitudine  a  mari  Caspio  usque  ad  mare  Rubrum, 
et  in  latitudine  ab  Indo  flumine  usque  ad  flumen^ 
Tigris,    quod    est  principium    Mesopotamise.      Tragus, 

»  QpAtV]  Offir,A.B.D.;  0%r,E.; 
Ofir,  C. — C.  and  D,  omit  the  est 

*  MediUrraneOy  CD. 

•  navigioj  add.  CD. 

^  The  text  and  versions  are  hoth 
erroneous.  The  true  reference  is 
to  Isid.  lib.  xiy.  c.  3.  §  8.  (Op.  vol. 
iv.  p.  145.  Ed.  Arer.) 

^  The  first  three  words  omitted 
in  B.C.D. 

*  Persidia]  Persidaj,  A.C.E.  This 
barbarous  form  occnrs  elsewhere  in 
the  MSS.  of  the  text  and  versions, 
but  is  corrected  in  the  text, 

'  So  B.C.D.E.;  Jluvium,  A. 


and  schoke  as  sone  as  pe  sonne  beem  touched  his  cop,^  and  TjIevisa. 

answered  men  fat  stood  aboute.    pe  same  doynge  was  of  pe      

trees  of  []J>e]*^  mone.  By  fese  trees  J>e  grete  kyng  Alex- 
ander*^ was  forbode,  Jjat  he  schulde  neuere  come  in  Babylon. 
Isidarus  libra  quinto  decimo.  Offir  is  an  ylond  of  Ynde ; 
J>erynne  is  greet  plente  of  golde,  and  Je  passage  J>erto  out  of 
)je  grete  see^  is  by  ]?e  Rede  see. 

De  Parthia.    IsidoruSy  lihro  quarto  deeimo,    Capitulum 


IsiDORUS  schewef  put  Parthia^  fat  kyngdom,  for  my^t 
and  strengfe  of  men  of  fat  lond,  fat  her  name  spredde  into 
f  e  londes  Assyria  ^  and  Media,  and  ^  was  i«»woned  ^  to  con- 
tcyne  al  f e  lond  of  foure  contrees,  of  Assyria^  of  Media, 
of  Persida,®  and  of  Carmania  ;  f  e  which  lond  Parthia  strecchef 
in  lengf e  from  f e  see  fat  is  i-cleped  Caspius  anon  to  f e  ^® 
Rede  see  ;  and  in  brede  from  the  ryuer  of  Ynde  to  f  e  ryuer 
fat  is  i-cleped  Tigris,  pat  is  f e  byginnynge  of  f e  lond  fat 
is    i-cleped    Mesopotamia.     Tragus,   libra   decimo,  capitulo 

furthehis  beames  and    towchede   the  altitude    of   eny  ofMS.HARL, 
theyme,  alle  the  tre  movede  and  ^afe  answeres  to  men  stond«      2261. 

enge  abowte.    Hit  was  doen  in  lyke  wyse  to  the  trees  of      

the  moone.      Hit  was  interdicte  by  those  trees  to  kynge  , 
Alexander,  that  he  scholde  not  entre  in  to  Babylon.    IsidoruSy 
libra  quinto   decimo.     Offir  is   an  yle  off  Ynde,  where  is 
plente  of  golde,  to  whom  hit  is  goen  from  the  grete   see 
by  the  Redde  see. 

Of  Parthia.    IsidoruSy  librp  14**.     Capitulum  duodecimumi 

IsiDORUS  schewethe  that  the  region  callede  Parthia  for 
the  vertu  invincible  of  men  of  that  region,  whiche  diflEusede 
theire  name  to  men  of  Assyria  and  of  Media,  was  wonte  to 
conteyne  alle  the  londe  of  Assyria,  of  Media,  of  Persida,  and  of 
Carmania,  whiche  is  extendede  in  longitude  from  the  see 
Caspius  vn  to  the  Redde  see,  and  in  latitude  from  the  floode 
of  Inde  vn  to  the  floode  of  Tigris,  whiche  is  the  begynnenge 
of  Mesopotamye.     Tragus,  libra  quinto.    Men  of  Parthia  be 

1  toppe^  Cx.  (and  possibly  this  may 
be  the  MS.  reading.) 

2  >£]  Added  from  a.  and  Cx. 
'  AJysaundre,  Cx. 

*  J>e  grete  see]  Grece,  Cx.  (con- 
fusing c  and  t) 

*  The  MS.  looks   like  Parchia, 

are  identical  (or  nearly  so)  in 

•  ofAssiriay  Cx. 

'  and^  Added  from  Cx. 

^  woontey  Cx. 

^  Cx.  omits  of  before  Media  and 

and  so  Cx.  prints  it ;  but  c  and  t  i       ***  Caspius  vnto  the,  Cx. 



Parthi.  Ubro  xl^^}  Parthi  Scythico  *  sermone  eomles  dicuntur  ; 
nam  in  primis  Scytharum  exules  fiiemnt,  et  regno  a 
Medis  ad  Peraas  translate  quasi  praeda  victorum  ex- 
titerunt.  Unde  et  inter  orientales  popidos  usque  ad 
Hacedonicum  regnum  obscuri  mansere.  Deinde  trium- 
phato  per  Maeedones  oriente  Macedonibus  servierunt, 
sad  tandem  cum  Eomanis  imperium  orbis^  diviserunt. 
Hi  mores  Scytharum,  de  quibus  pulsi  fderant,  con- 
traxerunt ;  unde  et  illis  sunt  arma  plumea,^  ingenia 
tumida,  seditiosa^  fraudulenta.  Quippe  viris  violentiam^ 
mulieribus  mansuetudiaem  deputant  Semper  aut  in 
domesticos  aut  in  extemos  motus  eorum  sunt  in* 
quieti  Natura  sunt  taciti,  ad  faciendum  magis  quam 
ad  loquendum  prompti.  Proinde  secunda*  sicut  ad- 
versa  silentio  tegunt,  principibus  metu  non  pudore 
parent;  in  libidinem  projecti  varia  uxorum  libidine 
delectantur.     Singuli  plures  uxores  habent;  nullum* 

*  44,  A. )  45,  D.  The  versions 
again  differ  from  these.  The  text 
is  correct    See  JttBt.xIi.  1,  sqq, 

^Scythico]  Scitice  {ie,  Scythicae, 
for  Scythise),  A, 

^  orbis  mperiiottf  B. 

*piumea]  plnmbata,  CD.  (Justin, 
xlL  2,  has  hri&B  plumatcB  sunt.) 

*  secunda]  prospera,  CD. 

•C  and  D.  insert  before  this 
word,  GiraM,,  d,  17. 



quinquagesimo  primo,^  Parthi,^  fe  men  of  Parthia,  in  J»e  Trbvisa. 
langageof]?©  contrej  Scythia,  beej  i-cleped  oatlawes;^  for 
in  the  byginnynge  of  men  of  Scythia  Parthi,  fat  bee})  men 
of  Parthia,  were  outlawes  ;  and  whan  be  kyngdom  was  i-take 
from  J)e  men  of  Media  to  fe  men  of  Persida,  fan  were  fe 
Parthi  as  it  were  pray  to  fe  victores,  and  were  as  it  were 
vnknowe  amonge  men  of  the  est  londes,  and  anon  4  vnto  fat  ^ 
'  tyme  fat  men  of  Macedonia  bycom  ^  kynges  and  lordes  of 
londes.  pan  afterward  fey  serued  f e  Macedonyes,  when  f e 
Macedoynes  were  vie  tours  in  fe  est  londes.  But  at  fe  7  laste 
fey  were  partyners'wif  the  Romayns,  and  deled  Iprdschipe 
wif  hem.  pese  Parthi  vsef  ^  f  e  maneres  of  men  of  Scythia,  fat 
put  ®  ham  ou^te  som  tyme ;  f  erfore  her  armes  and  wepene 
beef  verray^o  swellynge  wittes,  gileful  aspies.  Men  fey 
acountef  violent  and  wommen  mylde,  and  euere  fei  beef 
vnesi  to  hir  [owne]  ^^  neiheboures  of  er  to  ^^  strong  men.  p&j 
beef  comounliche  stille  and  litel  of  speche,  more  redy  for 
to  doo  fan  for  to  speke.  perfore  fey  holdef  pryue  good 
happes  and  boonchief,  as  wel  as  yuel  i3  happes  and  meschief. 
pey  beef  buxom^-*  to  here  lordes  for  drede  and  not  for  schame. 
pei  bef  al  i-cast  ^^  to  leccherie  wif  hire  owne  wifes  j  eueriche 

callede  owtelawe  after  the  speche  of  men  off  Scythia.     For  MS.  Habl. 
thei  were  firste  owtelawes  in  the  realme  translate  from  men      ^^*^- 
of  Media  to  men  of  Pers[i]a,  beenge  to  theyme  as  a  pray  of 
victores.     Wherefore  thei  dwellede  obscurely  amonge  men  of 
the  este  vn  to  the  realme  of  Macedony  inhabitate.  After  that, 
the  victory  hade  by  Macedones,  thei  did   seruyce  to  theyme  ;    ^ 
but   at  the  laste  they  diuidede   the  empire   of  the  worlde 
with  the  Eomanes.     Thei  exercisede  the  maneres  and  consue- 
tudes of  men  of  Scythia,  from  whom  thei  were  expellede,  the 
wittes  of  whom  be  timorous,  ftille  of  fraude,  deputenge  violence 
to  men  and  mansuetude  to  women,  whiche  be  other  in  malice 
amonge  theyme  selfe,  other  with  ofer  men.     Stylle  in  nature, 
moore  prompte  to  do  ylle  than  to  speke,  couerenge  thynges  ^*  26  a. 
aduersaunte  with  silence,    proiecte  in  the  lustes  of .  lechery, 
[fei]  haue  grete  delectacion  in  women.    Euery  man  bathe 

^  qutntOy  Ox. 

®  Perchiif  Cx. 

'  of  Scida,  Cz.,  who  omits  all 
following  tiU  were  outlawes  (by  cle- 
rical or  typogr.  error).  The  MSS. 
of  both  versions  usually  write  Scicia, 

*  and  anon\  om.  Cx. 
« Wf]  the,  Cx. 

•  bycam,  Cx. 

'  Cx.  omits  >& 
^  vseden,  Cx. 

^puf]  Added  from  a.  and  Cx. 

^^fethery,  Cx.,  probably  rightly  ; 
the  text,  with  which  r.  agrees,  is 
corrupt ;  perhaps  \>ei  ben  has  been 

11  oume'i  Added  from  a.  and  Cx. 

12  So  a.  $  )>e,  MS. ;  to  straunge,  Cx. 
"  So  «.  and  Cx. ;  of  yuel,  MS. 

"  buxom"]  obedient,  Cx. 
1^  disposed,  Cx. 



delictum  adulterio  gravius  puniunt.  Quamobrem  feemi- 
nis  suis  consortia,  aspectus,  et  convivia  vironim*  in- 
terdicunt.  In  cibis^  sunt  parci,  nulla  came  nisi  venatica 
vescuntur.  Ovraldus  distinctio  xvij.  Gens  ilia  post- 
quam  a  Seleuco  Bege  defecit  sub  Arsace  mansit,  a  quo 
et  Arsacidas  dicti  sunt,  qui  illos  primum  legibus  in- 
formavit,'  miUtes  *  legit,  castra  munivit,  urbes  finnavit 
Tandem  Arsaces  praefatus  regnum  Hyrcanorum  suo 
adjecit  imperio.  Inter  quos,  succedentibus  aliquot  post 
hoc*  regibus,  Mithridates  filius  Mitbridatis  post  inter- 
fectionem  Crassi  Somani  consulis  regnum  per  quadra- 
ginta  tres  ^  annos  tenuit ;  in  quibus  multas  claras 
victorias  habuit/  sicut  infra  suo  loco  dicetur.  Trogus, 
libra  xlf?  Parthorum  gens  inter  Scythas  et  Medos 
media  est ;  inter  quos  servi  plurimum  ®  abundant,  quia 
nunquam  manumittuntur ;   liberi  eorum  omni  tempore 

^  viroruMp  om.  B. ;  consortia  viro^ 
rum,  conmvia  el  aspectusy  CD. 

«ctfto,  CD. 

'  instruxit^  B. 

*  milite8\  militem,  C«£. 

•  So  A.  (and the  versions);  Ixiij., 
B.  ;  xlvj,,  C.B.E. 

^  habuit]  After  this  word  E.  adds 

®14,  CD,,  -wrongly.  See  Just, 
xli.  2. 

^  plurmuai]  om,  C. 



of  hemha]>  many  wifes;  nofrespas  among  hem  is  i-pun[i]sclied  Tbbvisa, 
so  grevousliche  as  spouse  breche  *  by  here  lawe.  [J)erfore]  ^  •^~ 
l?ey  forbedef  hu-e  wifes  ^  si^t  festes  and  companye  of  ofer 
men  ;  "pei  Ieue]>  scarsliche  and  by  litel  mete,  and  etep  no 
ilesche  but  venysoun.  Giraldus,  dist  17.  .  pilke  men,  after 
pey  lefte  ]je  kyng  Seleucus,^  woned  vnder  Jje  kyng  Arsaces  j 
and  jjerfore  J>ey  were  i-cleped  Arsacide.  J)at  kyng  Arsaces 
tau^t  hem  first  lawes;  he  gadered  kny^tes  and  bulde 
castelles,  citees,  and  strong  walled  townes ;  and  at  ]>e  ^  laste 
Arsaces  fe  kyng  ioyned  fe  kyngdom  of  Hyrcania  to  his 
emperie,  and  so  men  of  Hyrcania  longed  to  bis  empere. 
Among  J>e  whiche  aftirward  among  ofer  kynges  come  Mi- 
thridates.  Mithridates^  sone  after  |)e  slau^ter  of  Crassus, 
consul  of  Kome,7  regned  and  helde  ]>e  kyngdom  I>re  and 
fourty  ?ere,  in  j>e  whiche  tyme  he  dede  many  viage,  and  ® 
many  faire  victories  hadde,  as  hit  is  declared  ynnere  yn  fis  • 
place.^  Trogus,  libra  quadragesimo  primo,^^  Parthi,  J?e  men 
of  Parthia,  beej?  in  J>e  myddel  bytwene  J?e  Scitis,^^  men  of 
Scythia,  and  Medes,  men  of  Media»  That  londe  of  Parthi 
ha)?  ^^  many  bonde  men  amonge  hem,  for  fey  bee)?  neuero 
i-made    fre ;  here  fre  men  alwey  ridej?  on  hors,^3  and  hir 

mony  wifes.  They  punnysche  noo  synne  more  than  advoutery,  jxs.  Habl. 
therefore  thei  enterdite  to  theire  wifes  felawschip  and  festes  2261. 
of  men.  Whiche  be  of  litelle  meyte,  eitenge  noo  fiesche  but  -*— 
that  is  geten  with  huntenge.  Giraldus,  d.  17.  After  that  peple 
failede  vnder  kynge  Seleucus  thai  dwellede  vnder  kynge 
Arsace,  of  whom  thei  be  callede  Ai'sacidesj  informenge  theym 
firste  with  lawes  he  gedredde  a  companyee  of  knythtes,  ma- 
kenge  castelles  and  citees.  At  the  laste  the  foreseide  Arsaces 
adiecte  to  his  empyre  the  realme  of  Hircanes.  Amonge  whom, 
somme  kynges  succedenge  after  that,  Mithridates  the  sonne  of 
Mithridatis  holdede  that  realme  by  xliij.  yere  after  the  dethe 
of  Crassus,  consul  of  Eome ;  in  whom  he  hade  mony  clerc 
victories,  as  hit  schalle  be  schewede  in  his  propre  place. 
Tragus^  libro  41.  The  peple  of  Parthia  is  betwene  the  men 
of  Scythia  and  Medes,  amonge  whom  seruauntes  be  habundante, 
for  thei  haue  not  their  manumission;  the  &e  men  of  theym 

*  aduoultrye,  Cx. 

^  Added  from  a.  and  Cx. 
'  opeUy  add.  Cx. 

*  Sofeucus,  MS. 

*  |>«]  om.  Cx. 

<  Mithridates]  Added  from  a.  and 
Cx.  The  MSS.  of  both  versions 
write  Metridates  or  Mitridates. 

*  MS.  adds  he.    The  scribe  has 
misunderstood  the  sense. 

"  viages  and  had,  Cx. 

•  within  forth  in  his  place,  Cx, ; 
|>is  (in  text)  seems  a  clerical  error 
for  his» 

^^  14,  Cx.    See  note  on  text 
"  betwene  Scitas,  Cx. 

"  tfiat  londe.    And  Parchii  Itaue. 
"  riden  alway  on  horsbak,  Cx. 



equis  vectantur ;  servi  pedibus^  incedunt,  Et  in  equis 
quidem  ^  bella  peragunt ;  conviviaque  *  publica  et*  officia 
privafca  adeunt.  Liberos  suos  equitare,  sagittate^ 
summa  cura  docent.  Ut  quisque  eoruin  locuples^  est, 
ita  pltires  in  bello  eqnites ''  regi  suo  reprsesentant.  Co- 
minus  prseliari  aut  nrbes  obsidere  nesciunt;  pugnant 
enim^  procurrentibus  equis  aut  terga  dantibus.  Ssepe 
enim  in  ipso  fervore  cei*taniinis  fugam  simulant,  et  cito 
post  pugnam  repetunt,  ut  ineautius  insequentes  vul- 
nerent.  Signtim  illis  in  prselium®  non  tuba  sed  tym- 
panum.^^  Nee  diu  pugnare  possunt ;  intolerabiles  quippe 
forent,  si  tanta  illis  esset  vis  et  perseverantia  quantus 
est  impetus.  Sepultura  illis  est  bestiarum  laniatus,  et  *^ 
osaa  sola  sepeUuBt 

*  B.  omitB  pedihus, 
^quideni]  quidam^B. 
'  B,  omits  que. 

*  eQ  om.  E. 

&  et  sagiitare,  B.C. 

*  locupks']  locaplex,  A.C.I>,E. 

^  B.  omits  eqnites, 

8  B.  omits  enim. 

*  pr<eUum'\  So  B.C.I).B.  5  pralio. 


1«  A.C.D.  add  est, 
"  et2  vinde  et,  E. 



bonde  men  goof  on  foot.*    And  in  bataile  fey  fi^tef  on  Tebvisa. 

bora,    pej  goof  to  priue   oflBis  and  to  comyn  feestes,  bnt      

fey  techif  besiliche  here  children  to  ride  and  to  scliete,^ 
and  euerich  of  hem  by  his  richesse  and  power  fyndef  to 
Mr  power  ^  horsmen'*  in  bataile  for  to  fijte.  pei  konnef 
nou^t  fi^te  in  no^  comyn  manere,  nofer  fei  konnef  nou^t 
bysege  castelles  nofer  strong  walled  townes ;  fey  fi^tef  on 
hors  rennynge^  in  ful  cours  and  turnynge  a^e,  and  ofte  in 
hardest  and  strongest  fi^t  fey  feynef  for  to  flee  and  sodeyn- 
^  liche  turnef  and  risef  7  ajen,  fat  fey  mowe  f e  slyloker  8 
here  enemyes  wynne  and  slee.  In  bataile  fei  vsef  taboures 
and  no  trompe,  and  fey  mowe  not  dure  ^  longe  for  to  fi^te. 
No  men  scholde  hem  awelde  and  wifstonde,^*^  and^i  fey 
were  as  stronge  and  stalworf  e  to  dm'e,  as  they  beef  angry  ^^, 
to  rese ;  ^^  hire  bm^ienge  is  wonderful ;  for  bestes .  [al]  to 
halef  and  teref  and  etef  f e  ^*  flesch  ;  and  [fey]  burief  onliche 
fe  bones. 

ryde  alleweies  on  horses^  the  seruauntes  goe  on  foote,  vsenge  MS.  Habl. 
horses  in  batayles,  goehge  to  commune  festes  and  priuate  2261. 
offices^  techenge  the  childre  liberalle  with  grete  attendaunce  to 
ryde  and  to  schote,  amonge  whom  euery  man  schalle  presente 
to  the  kynge  certeyne  men  of  armes  in  batelles  after  the 
extent  of  his  rychesse.  Whiche  can  not  fi^hte  and  put  seges 
to  cites,  for  thei  fi^hte  theire  horses  I'ennenge,  other  elles 
fleenge  and  schewenge  theire  backes,  feynenge  oftetymes 
theym  to  flee,  and  after  that  repetenge  fl^hte,  that  thei  may 
hurte  men  folowenge  theym  indiscretely.  A  tympan  is  a 
melody  to  theyme  in  batelles,  and  not  a  claryon,  whiche  may 
not  fi^hte  longe.  For  thei  scholde  be  intollerable  and  in- 
vincible, if  they  myihte  haue  the  vertu  of  perseueraunce  after 
theire  impetuosite.  The  deuourenge  of  bestes  is  a  sepulture  to 
theyme,  and  after  that  they  do  take  theire  boones  to  sepulture 
or  beryenge. 

*  afoote,  Cx. 
^  schote,  Cx. 
^  king,  a*  $  ki^ide,  Cx. 
^horsmen    men,  MS.,    by  mere 
clerical  error  ;  (not  a,  or  Cx.) 
^  more,  a, ;  in  comyn,  Cx. 


empijg,  a. 

''fyght,  Cx. 
^  alylyer,  Cx.,  who  places  theyr 
enemyes  after  slee, 
'  endure,  Qx^,  and  so  usually. 

^^  «oi)>  stonde  (and  so  frequently}, 

"  yf.  Cx. 

^^  and  hasty,  added  in'  r.  and  Cx. 

'""fyghte,  Cx. 

^^for  beestes  teren,  eten,  and  al  to 
hdlen  thmr  flessch,  and  they  hurye 
only  but  the  bones,  Cx.,  from  whom 
the  words  in  brackets,  wanting  also 
in  a.,  are  supplied. 



Cap.  XIIL 

De  Assyria  et  ejus  provinciis.    Isidorus,  libro  quarto 


Assyria.  NoTANDUM  est  quod^  Assyria  ab  Assur  filio  Sem  dicta 
est,  <jui  earn  post  diluvium  primum  inhabitavit.  Haec 
ab  ortu  habet  Indiam,  ab  austro  Mediam,  ab  occidente 
Tigrim  fluvium,  a  septentrione  montem  Caucasum  ubi 

Media.  sunt  portaB  Caspies.  Tragus,  libra  xlif.  Media*  con-- 
dita  est  a  Medo  filio  -<Egei,  regis  Athenarum,  qui 
aemulans  virtutes  Jasonis  vitrici  sui  Mediam  ^  urbem  in 
honorem  Medeae  matris  suae  constituit  caput  regni 
Medorum.  Hasc  Media  ab  aquilone  taugit  Parthiain, 
ab  ortu  Indiam,  ab  occasu  Chaldseam,  ab  austro  Per- 

Persia.  sida.*  Isidorus,  libro  xiiif.  Persis  a  Perseo  nominatur 
qui*  earn  conquisivit  et  nobilem  ex  ignobili  fecit.^  Quad 
habet  ab  ortu  Indos,  ab  occasu  sinum  maris  Bubri^  ab 
aquilone  Mediam ;  ab  austro  Carmaniam  tangit.     In  qua 

^  Notandum  est  quod]  om.  CD.  ; 
est  only  omitted  in  K. 

"  Media]  Medea,  A.B.  In  C.  and 
D.  the  foUowing  sentences  are  com- 
pressed as  follows  :  **  Media  et  Per- 
**  sida  a  legibns  Medo  et  Perseo 
*'  cognominat»  sunt,  qui  iUas  pro- 
**  vincias  bellando  aggressi  sunt.  E 
'^quibus  Media  ad  occasum  Par- 
"  thiam  tangit,  a  septentrione  Ar- 
*'  jneniam,  a  borea  Caspios,  a  meridic 

"  Persidam  videlicet.  Persida  autcm 
"  (D.  omits  auteni)  ab  ortu  tangit 
**  Indos,  &c.**  as  in  text. 

'  Mediam]  So  E. ;  Medam^  A. 
Justin  (xUi.  4.  Ed.  Grasv.)  has  Me^ 

*  Persida^  Persidam,  MSS.,  and 
Persida  for  Persis  below.  See  note 
on  c.  12. 

^  quiUf  A. 

*  fecit  after  nohUem  in  B. 


De  Assyriis,     IsidomSy  libra  quarto  decimo,     Capitulum     Tkevisa. 

teriium  decimum.  ' 

Take  hede  ])at  Assyria  ha]>  pe  name  of  Asur  Sem  his 
sone,  for  he  was  J>e  firste  J>at  woned  J?erynne  after  Noes 
flood,  pis  londe  Assyria  haj>  in  fe  est  side  Inde,  in  fe 
south  Media,  in  pe  west  J>e  ryuer  Tigris,  and  in  pe  north 
pG  hille  j?at  is  i-cleped  Caucasus.  ])ere  bef  pe  ^ates  of 
Caspy ;  Jjere  pe  hilles  bee}>  longe  and  narwe.  Trogus,  libro 
quadragesimo  secundo*  Egeus  was  kyng  of  Athenis  ;  Medus 
was  Egeus  ^  sone,  and  folowed  pe  dedes  of  lason  fat  was 
his  owne  stepfader,  and  belde^  pe  cheef  citee  of  Media, 
and  cleped  pe  citee  Media  also,  in  worschippe  of  his  moder 
fat  was  i-cleped  Media.  J)at  londe  Media  ha]?  in  pe  north 
side  Parthia,3  in  pe  est  Inde,^  in  pe  west  Caldea,  in  pe 
south  Persida.  Isidorus,  libro  quarto  decimo,  Persida  is  , 
i-nempned  and  ha]j  pe  name  of  Perseus  pat  conquered  fat 
londe,  and  made  it  a  worpy  lond  pat  was  raper^  vnworpy. 
Persida  hap  in  pe  est  syde^  Inde,  and^  in  pe  west  po 
Rede  see,  in  pe  norp  Media,   and^  in  pe  south  Carmania. 

Of  Assyria,  Isidorus,  libro  quarto  decimo,    Capitulum  tertium  MS.  Haul. 

decimum.  2261. 

Hit  is  to  be  aduertisede  that  Assyria  toke  his  name  of  Assur 
the  Sonne  of  Sem,  whiche  inhabite  firste  hit  after  Noe  floode. 
Assyria  hathe  on  the  este  parte  of  hit  Ynde,  of  the  sowthc  Assyria. 
Media,  of  the  weste  pai*te  the  floode  of  Tigris,  of  the  northe 
the  grete  hille  callede  Caucasus,  where  be  partes  of  Caspius 
hilles.     Trogus,  libro  42,    Media  was  made  of  Medo  son  of  Media. 
Egeus  kynge  of  Atheynes,  which,  folowenge  the  vertu  of  laso 
his  victrix,  made  that  cite  callede  Media  in  to  the  honor  of 
Medee  his  moder,  whiche  cite  he  made  the  hede  and  princi-  t  2C  b. 
palle  place  of  that  realme.     That  cuntre  of  Media  towchethe 
Parthia  of  the  northe  pai'te,  and  of  the  este  Ynde,  of  the  weste 
Caldea,   and  of  the  sowthe  parte  Persida.     Isidorus,  libro 
quarto  decimo,    Persia  was  namede  of  a  man  callede  Persius,  Persia, 
that  conquerede  hit,  whiche  hathe  of  the  este  parte  to  hit  men 
of  Tnde,  of  the  weste  side  parte  of  the  Redde  see,  of  the  northe 
parte  Media,  towchenge  Carmany  of  the  sowthe  parte :  in 

*  hiSf  add.  in  a,  (not  Cx.) 
2  buylt,  Cx. 

'  the  see,  Cx. 

*  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  ende,  MS. 


rather]  to  fore,  Cx. 
®  stfde]  om.  Cx. 
'  and]  om.  Cx, 
^  anct]  om.  a. 




Perside  exorta  est  primum^  ars  magica  sub  Nemproth 
gigante,  qui  post  confusionem  linguarum  terrain  illam 
adiens  docuit  Persas  ignem  colere  et  solem,^  qui  lingua 
eorum  El  dicitur.  Hujus  ^  terrse  metropolis  aliquando  * 
fuit  Elam  sic  dicta  ab  Elam  filio  Sem,  quse  postmodum^ 
dicta  est  Elymais,^  et  nunc  vocatur  Persepolis  f  de  qua 
fit  mentio  in  libro  Macbabseorum.®  Et  ab  isto  Elam 
Persse®  vocabantur  Mamitse,  sicut  patet  in  Actibus 
Apostolorum.^^  Mesopotamia  jacet  inter  Tigrim  ab  ortu 
et  Euphraten  ab  occasu.  Incipit  autem  a  septentrione 
inter  Montem  Taurum  et  Caucasum  quam  a  meridie 
Babylonia,  sequitur  Babylonia.^^  laidorus,  Uhro  xv.  Babylonia, 
quamvis  '*  postmodum  diceretur  pars  Chaldseae,  primitus 
tamen  tarn  insignis  fuit'^  ut  Chaldsea»  Assyria,  Meso- 
potamia, in  ejus  nomen  transirent.  Cujus  caput  fiiit 
urbs  Babylon,  quam  Nemproth  gigas  fundavit.  Sed 
Semiramis  regina'*  earn  postmodum*^  ampliavit.  Petrus, 
c.  ccxayvif}^  Babylon  est  proprium  *^  nomen  civitatis ; 
Babylonia  est^^  nomen  regionis,    quamvis^®  unum  pro 

'  primOy  B. 

2  qui  post ....  dicitur]  qui  docuit 
Persas  colere  ignem  et  soJem,  C. 
and  D.,  which  wholly  omit  from 
Hujus  ....  Apostolorum. 

*  hujus]  So  A,B.  (and  Trevisa)  ; 
cujnsy  E.  (and  Harl.  version). 

*  aliquando]  quondam,  E. 
^postea,  B.,  and  so  below. 

*  Eli/mais']  Elamaida,  A.B.E. 
''P.  vocatur,  A.B.,  which  latter 

omits  in  before  libro, 
^  A.  adds  cap»  vf.    See  1  Mace. 

yi.  1. 
'  E.  adds  quondam  after  Persa, 
'*  sicut, .  ,Apostohrtm]  om.  A.B.; 

added  from  E. 

"  Babylonia]  A. CD.  add  deinde 
Ckaldeay  deinde  Arabia. 

*^  quamvis]  licet,  CD. 

^^*  CD.  add  regio, 

"  regina]  A.  and  C  add  Assyria^ 

'^  earn  postmodum]  om.  E. 

^*  A.  does  not  notice  that  a  new 
citation  begins.  0.  has  Petrus,  cap. 

*'  So  A. ;  BaMlon  proprie,  B.C. 
D.E,  See  Harl.  version.  Both  read- 
ings are  good. 

''  est]  6m,  E.B.,  which  last  also 
omits  nomen, 
^®  quamvis]  licet,  D. 



In   |»at  Persida   bygan   first  "wicchecraft  in  Nemproot^  ]?e  Trevisa. 

geauntes  tyme,  fat  after  f e  spredinge  of  ]?e  tyme  ^  of  many      

langage^  and  tonges  went  into  Persida,  and  tau^t  men  of 
]>at  londe  to  worschippe  j>e  fire  and  ]>e  sonne,  |>at  is  i-cleped 
in  her  langage  EL  pe  cheef  citee  of  ]>at  londe  was  i-cleped 
'  Elam,  after  Elam  Sem  his  ^  sone ;  J>at  citee  was  afterwarde 
i-cleped  Elamaide,  and  is  now  i-cleped  Persipol.*  Of  fat 
citee  spekef  Holy  Writt  in  libro  Machabaeorum,  and  of  fat 
citee  fey  hadde  fe  name,  fat^  were  sometyme  i-cleped 
Elamyte  in  Actibns  Apostolorum.  Mesopotamia  lyth  bytwene 
Tigris  in  fe  est  side  and  Euphrates  in  f e  west  side,  and 
bygynnef  out  of  f e  north  bytwene  the  tweye  hulles  Taurus 
and  Caucasus,  and  haf  Babylon  7  in  fe  south  side.  Isid, 
libro  quinto  decimo.  pel  Babylonia  were  afterward  i-cleped 
a  parte  of  Caldea;  hit  was  first  so  solempne  fat  it  con- 
teyned^  Assyria,  Caldea,  and  Mesopotamia^  fre  londes.  pe 
cheef  citee  of  Babylonia  was  Babylon,  f e  citee  fat  f e  geant 
Nemprot  ^  bulde  ;  ^®  and  Semiramis  f  e  queue  aftirward  made 
fat  citee  more.  PetruSy  capitulo  37.  pe  citee  is  i-cleped  Baby- 
lon, and  f e  londe  Babylonia ;  fey  fat  oon  be  wel  ofte  i-take  for 

whiche  Persia  wycche  crafte  began  firste  under  Nemproth  the  MS.  Hael. 
gigante,  whiche  goenge  to  that  londe  after  the  confusion  of     2261. 
tonges  tau^hte  men  of  Persia  to  worschippe  fire  and  the  Sonne,  a  •, 

which  is  callede  El  in  the  langage  of  theyme.     The  chiefe  ^  incipit. 
place  of  whom  was  callede  Elam  somme  tyme,,  of  Elam  the 
Sonne  of  Sem  whiche  was  callede  afterwarde  Elamadia,  now 
callede  Persepolis,^^  of  whom  mencion  is  made  in  the  booke  of 
Machabees.    And  of  this  Elam  men  of  Persia  were  callede 
Elamites,   as   hit  is    schewede    in    the  Actes  of  Apostles. 
Mesopotamy  lyethe  betwene  Tigris  of  the  este  and  Euphrates  Mesopota- 
of  the  weste,  begynnenge  from  the  northe  betwene  the  hilles  ™i*- 
Taurus  and  Caucasus,   whom  Babylon  folowethe  from  the 
meridien.     Isidorus^  libro  quinto  deeimo,     Thaujhe  Babylon  Babylon, 
was  callede  afterwarde  a  parte  of  Calde,  fyrste  hit  was  so 
nowble  that  Caldea,  Assyria,  and  Mesopotamia  wente  into  the 
names  of  hit,  the  hede  of  whom  was  that  cite  callede  Babylon 
whom  Nemproth  the  gigante  made,  but  the  qwene   Semi- 
ramis made  hyt  more  large.    Petrus^  capitulo  37**.    Babylon 
is  the  propre  name  of  ti^e  cite,  and  Babylonia  ^^  the  name 
of  the  region,  thau^he  the  oon  be  put  ofte  for  that  other. 

*  Nemprot^  a. ;  Nemhrotk,  Cx. 

2  Cx.  om,  of\>e  tyme. 

3  So  MS.  and  cc  ;  langages,  Cx., 
probably  rightly. 

*  Sem  his]  Semmes,  Cx. 

*  Persipdis, «.,  Cx» 
<  tkey,  Cx. 

'The  MSS.  of  both  yersions 
usually  have  BabUon  and  Babilonia» 

*  contei/nethf  Cx. 

^jyemport,a.;  Neimproik,1he geanL 

><»  huyldedy  Cx. 

"  PersipdiSy  HarL  MS. 

»  BcMwnia,  HarL  MS. 



altero  saepe  ponatur ;  sed  Babel  ^  nomen  est  turns. 
Orosius,^  libro  if.  Babylon  more  castrormn  fiiit  maeni- 
bus  paribus  per  quadrum  disposita;  quorum  latitudo 
fuit  quinquaginta^  cubitorum,  altitudo  quater  tantum. 
LoBgitudo  muri  ab  angulo  ad  angulum  sexdecim  ^  mil- 
liaria  tenuit,  ambitus  murorum  quadringentorum  octo- 
ginta*  stadiorum  fuit,  boc  est  sexaginta  quatuor  mil- 
liaria.  Materia  muri  fuit  ex  cocto  latere  et  bitumine 
interstrato/  ita  quod  neque  igne  *neque  aqua  dissolvi 
posset.  PortsB  urbis  centum,  fossa  extrinsecus  late 
patens ;  fluvius '  Euphrates  per  inedium  urbis  fluxit ;  * 
quam  tamen  cepit  et  destruxit  Cyrus  rex  Persarum, 
sicut  infra  dicitur.*^  Ra/nulphus.  De  hujus  *^  urbis 
reliquiis,  secundum   Hieronymum,  sedificatae   sunt  dua? 

urbes  in  Perside ; "  et  ^^  locus  Babylonis  nunc  desertus 
est  *'  et  feris  plenus. 
Chaldsea.  Ohaldsea,  quasi  Cassidsea,  a  Oaseth  filio  Naclior  fratris 
Abrah88  sic  dicta,^^  regio  est  magna  juxta  Euphraten, 
in  cujus  campo  Sennar  sedificabatur '*  turns  Babel. 
Josepkvs,  libro  primo}^    Cujus  altitudo  ducentos  sep- 

*  Babel  autem,  CD. ;  Babel  est 
nomen,  B. 

'  Bo  C.D.E.  ;  Oracius,  A.  ;  M. 
OrosiuSy  B.  This  extract  is  much 
compressed  and  in  part  transposed 
in  C.D.  In  A.  and  B.  there  is 
some  trifling  variation  and  transpo- 
sition, hut  little  compression. 

« 15,  CD. 

*  xlij,^  A. 

'  B.  omits  oetoginta;  and  (with  A.) 
has  quinquaginta  et  unius  for  sexa-^ 
ginta  ^uafuor  just  alterwards,  where 
C.  and  D.  have  1 5 .  The  text  is  right. 
See  Oros.  lih.  ii.  c.  6. 

*  inlersiructo,  C. 
^  amnis,  B. 

^ fossa , ,  .fluxit^  Omitted  in  d 
which  also  omits  cepit  et 

^  The  last  part  of  the  sentence 
stands  thus  in  A.  and  B. :  *•  Venin- 
^*  tamen  hanc  urbem  demum  dc- 
"  struxit  Cyrus  rex  Persarum." 
Similarly  CD.,  omitting  vervnia' 

•"  httjus^  cujus,  A.B.CD. 

"  The  MSS.  here  have  the  correct 
form  (not  Persida), 

'2  ef]  ita  quod,  E. 

>'  So  A.CD. ;  est  zfter  plenus  in 

^*  SIC  dicta"]  dicta  est  (after  Cassi- 
daa),  E. 

"  adificatur^  C 

^^  secundo,  B. ;  no  numher  attached 
in  CD.  See  Joseph.  Ant,  lih.  i.  c.  4. 


pat  ojer;  bote  pe  tour  is  i-cleped  and  hatt^  *  Babel.     Orosius^^  Tbevisa. 

libro  secundo.    Babylon  was  i-buld  as  a  castel,  and  i-walled  wip      

foure  walles  square  al  aboutes  ;  ^  eueriche  wal  was  fifty  cubites 
in  brede,  and  foure  tyme  ^  so  moche  in  heipe  ;  pe  lengpe  of 
euery  ^  wal  from  oon  comer  to  anoper  was  sixtene  myle.  pe 
walles  were  all  aboute  foure  hondred  and  foure  score  forlong, 
pat  is  foure  and  fourty  ^  myle,  pe  walles  were  i-made  of  brend 
tile  and  of  glewe  in  stede  of  morter,  so  pat  [noper]  7  water 
noper  fire  my^te  ham  to  schifte  noper  to  dele.^  In  pe  ^  citee 
were  an  hondred  ^ates  and  a  diche  wip  oute,  pat  was  fer  i-seie ; 
pe  ryuer  Euphrates  ran  by  pe  myddel  of  pe  citee  porwoute. 
Neuerpeles  Cyrus,  kyng  of  Persida,  tooke  pat  citee  aftirward 
and  destroyed  hit^  as  it  is  inner  more  ^®  i-write.  lerom  seip  pat 
of  pe  releef  of  pis  citee  were  i-buld  two  grete  citees  in  Persida, 
and  pe  place  of  Babylon  is  now  wildemesse  and  ful  of  ^^  wylde 
bestes.  Caldea,  as  Cassidea,  hap  pe  name  of  Casseth,  Nachor 
his  sone.  Nachor  was  Abraham  his  broper.  Caldea  is  a  grete 
kyngdom  bysides  Euphrates ;  in  Sennaar,'^  ^  hile  ^^  of  pat  kyng- 
dom,  pe  toure  Babel  was  i-buld.    Josephus,  libro  primo.   pe  ^^ 

but  Babel  is  the  name  of  the  towre.     OrositiSy  libro  secundo.  MS.  Hjlbl. 

Babylon  was  disposede  as  with  egalle  walles  after  the  manor      2261. 

of  castelles  by  a  quadrante,  the  latitude   of  whom  was   of     

1^  cubites,  the  altitude  in  iiij.  tymes  so  moche,  the  lenghte 

of  the  walle  from   cornelle  to    corner    holdede  xvj.  myles. 

The  compasse  of  the  walles  was  of  iiijc.  and  Ixxx***  forlonges, 

whiche  dothe  make  Ij*^  myles.     The  mater  of  whiche  walle 

was  made  of  sodde  tyle  stones  mixte  with  pycche,  in  so  moche 

that  thei  my^hte  not  be  dissoluede  with  fire  or  water.     Thro 

the  myddes  of  whiche  cite  the  fioode  Euphrates  did  flowe. 

Whom  Cyrus  kynge  of  Perse  toke  and  destroyede,   as  hit 

schalle  be  expressede  in  his  place.    ^.     Off  the  levenges  of 

whiche  cite,  after  the  seyenge  of  Seynte  lerom,  ij.  cites  were 

made  in  Persida,  so  that  the  place  of  Babylon  is  nowe  deserte, 

and  fuUe  of  wilde  bestes.     Caldea  is  seyde  as   Cassidea,   of  Caldea. 

Casethe  the  sonne  of  Nachor  broper  of  Abraham,  whiche 

is  a  grete  region  nye  to  Euphrates.     In  the  filde  of  Sennar  Turns 

the  towre  of  Babelle  was  edifiede.     Josephus^  libro  primo»  Babella». 

I*  A  4  a* 

'  called  and  mamed,  Cx. 
'  Orocius,  a, ;   Oracius,  MS.  and 

*  aboutCt  Cx. 

*  fym«]  added  from  Cx. 
^  So  also  a.  ;    both  forms  occur 

in  both  MSS. 
^  fifty,  a, 
^  nojper,  a. ;  netlier,  Cx.;  om.  MS.  | 

*  myght^  hem  schjfte  ne   departe, 

thiSf  Cx. 

*»  inner  more']  afterward,  Cx. 

^^ftdof]  om.  a. 

*2  Semaar,  MS.,  o.,  and  Cx. 

"So  a. ;  hildf  MS.,  apparently  ; 
/elde,  Cx. 

»*  \>atf  a,  and  Cx. 

VOL.  I.  G 


septuaginta  duo  ^  passus  tenet,  latitude  veto  tanta  erat 
ut  prope  earn  aspicientibus  longitude  videretur  minor. 
Ranidphua,  Secundum  quosdam  bsec  turris  habuit  in 
altitudine  tria  milliaria,^  sed  secundum  Ivonem  Camot- 
ensem  in  chronica  sua  habuit  in  altitudine  quinque 
milUaria  et  pene  ducentos  passus,  in  latitudine  *  quatuor 

De  Arabia.  Arabia  ad  austrum  Chaldaese  posita,  ab  ortu  habet 
Persida/  ab  occasu  sinum  maris  Kubri.  Terra  quidem 
thurifera,  myrrham  habens,  cinnamomum,  et  avem  phoe- 
nicem ;  cujus  terrse  portio  versus  Eurum  dicitur  Saba, 
qu8B^  a  Sab^  filio  Chus  sic^  nuncupata  est,  quam^  a 
tribus  lateribus  mare  Rubrum   cingit.     JosephuSy  libro 

Mons  Sina.  seov/ado.  In  hac  Arabia  in  partibus  Madian  est  Mons 
Syna,  cujus  pars  est  mons  Ojeb ;-  mons  quidem  pabu- 
losus  ®  et  excelsus,  sed  propter  seopulos  prseruptos  pene 
inaccessibilis.  Illuc  primus  omnium  Moyses  greges 
duxit.  Dicitur  etiam  mons  terroris  et  foederis;  quia 
populo  Israel,^^  circa  radices  ejus  commoranti,  Deus  in- 

*  So  B.  (and  fhe  versions);  270, 
A. ;  duo  millia  centum  IxxiJ»  (so 
written),  E.;  2272  passus  coniinet, 

*  miiia,  A. 

^  A.  adds  vero. 

*  The  "whole  of  the  previous  sen- 
tence is  omitted  in  CD. 

*  ad  austrum  kabet  Persidem,  CD., 
omittmg  the  rest  of  the  sentence. 

•  quia,  A, 

^  sic}  om.  C.D, 

^  hanc  auiem  Sabam,  CD. 

"  babHosus,  B.;  scopulosusy  CD. 

*«  Israel]  om.  CD. 


toure  Babel  was  i-buld  two  hondred  fre  score  and  twelf  paas  Trbvisa. 

hi^e,  fe  lengfe  somdel J?e  ^  lasse  to  hem  |)at  byhelde  it  nyh,      

for  f e  brede  was  so  moche.  !1^,  Som  men  seif  fat  f is  *  torn*  was 
pre  myle  bije,  but  luo  Camotensis  seij>  in  his  cronicle  ])at  J>is 
toure  was  fyue  mjle  and  almost  two  hundred  paas  hi^e  and 
foure  myle  brode.  ^.  Arabia  is  i-sette  by  south  Caldea,  and 
ha]>  in  ]>e  est  side  Perslda,  and  in  pe  west  side  ]^e  Bede  see. 
In  Arabia  is  store,  mir,  and  canel ;  and  a  brid,^  y&t  hatte  ^ 
fenix.  pe  nor]>  est  porcioun  of  Arabia  hatte  ^  Saba,  [and 
is  i-deped^  Saba]^  after  Sabacus^  his  sone.  J)is  Saba  is 
i-clipped*  in  "pre  sides  wip  pe  Eede  see.  Josephus,  libro 
secundoy^  In  pis  Arabia,  in  pe  contray  [of]^^  Madyan,  is 
pe  hil  ^2  Syna.  pe  mount  of  ^^  Oreb  is  a  partie  of  pe  mounte 
of  Synay,  and  is  hi^e,  and  hap  grete  plente  of  gras  and  of 
lese ;  but  hit  is  harde  to  come  perto  for  hi^e  rokkes  and 
skarres.  Moyses  was  pe  firste  man  pat  ladde  pyder  bestes. 
Hit  is  i-cleped  also  pe  mount  of  couenaunt  and  of  drede  : 
for  God  all  my^ty  pere  vppon  made  ponderynge  and  li^tnynge, 
and  ^af  pe  lawe  to'pe  folk  of  Israel,  pat  were  at  pe  hulle 

The  altitude  of  whom  was  cclxxij.  passes,  the  latitude  of  MS,  Habl. 
whom  was  so  huge  that  hit  apperede  to  men  beholdenge     ^^^* 
hit  that  hit  was  more  brode  than  longe.    !l^.'   After  somme 
men  that  towre  hade  iij,  miles  in  altitude.     But  after  luo 
Carnotense,   in  his  cronicle,  hit  hade  v.  miles  in  altitude 
and  allemoste  ij<^.  passes,  and  iiij.  myles  in  latitude.    Araby, 
y-sette  at  the  sowthe  parte  off  Caldea,  of  the  este  parte  hathe 
Persida,  of  the  weste  parte  the^'^  Bedde  see,    A  plentuous 
londe  of  encense,  hauenge  myrre,  cinamome,  and  a  brydde 
callede  fenix.     JosephuSy  libro  secundo.     The  mownte  of  Fenix. 
Synay  is  in  that  Arabye  in  the  partes  of  Madiam,  a  parte  Montes 
of  whom  is  callede  Oreb,  a  plentuous  hille  and  highe,  but  Syna  et 
now  hit  is  allemoste  inaccessible  for  schrubbes  and  broken  ^'®^' 
stones.      Moises    brou^hte  his  schepe  to  pat    place  firste 
of  men :  hit  is  callede  also  the  mownte  of  fere  and  of  luffe ; 
for  oure  Lorde  apperede  to  Moyses  in  hit  with  thundre  and 
li^htenge,  the  peple  of  Israel  taryenge  at  the  foote  of  hit 
where  oure  Lorde  ^afe  lawe.      Wherefore  men    hade  not 

'  \>e]  om.  Cx. 

*  the,  Cx. 

'  bprdCf  Cx.,  -who  writes  phenyx, 

*  that  is  caUedf  Cx. 

*  is  namedf  Cx. 

*  called,  Cx, 

'^  [ . . .  ]  added  firom  a,  and  Cx. 

B  Saba  Chus  sone,  Cx. 

»  bycUppedy  Cx. 

"  prima,  Cx. 

"  Added  from  a.  and  Ox. 

*2  ike  mount  of,  Cx. 

w  o/]  om.  Cx. 

"  ihel  of  the,  Harl.  MS, 

o  2 


tonuit,  coruscavit/  legem  dedit.  Unde  non  nisi  mundi 
et  purificati^  accedere  audebant. 

Mons  ixi  finibus   etiam  Arabiae,  versus   oircium,   est   mons 


Libani  qui  distinguit  abinvicem^  Arabiam,  Judseam,* 
Phoemcem;*  mons  quidem  summae  altitudinis,  ita  ut 
juges  nives  ex  aliqua  sui  parte  continens  ®  navigantes  in 
marl  magno  ad  varios  portus  dirigat.  Est  etiam  mons' 
salubritatis  et  fecunditatis ;  nam  cypressi,  cedri,  arbores, 
et  herbae  ibidem  crescentes  thus  et  gummi^  distillant, 
redolentiam  exhalant,  quibus  morbidi  sanantur,  venena* 

Syria  nnde     Syria,   a   quodam    Siro  inhabitatore  nepote  Abrahje 


sic  vocata,  jacet  inter  fluviura  ^^  Euphraten  ab  oriente 
et  mare  magnum  ab  occasu  ;  habetque  a  septentrione 
Armeniara  et  Cappadoeiam,  ab  austro  sinum  Arabicum, 
et  coiitinet  in  se  multas  provincias,  scilicet  Comma- 
genam,  Palaestinam,  Plicenicem,^'  Canaan,  Idumaeam,  Ju- 
dseam.^*  Hujus  provinciae  caput  quondam  faerat  Dam- 
ascus  quam  dedificavit  Eleezer  *^  semis  Abrahae,  cujus 

'  coruscanSt  A. 
^  ibidem,  add.  CD, 
3  abinvicem]  cm.  C.B. 

*  Judaam]  om,  B. 

*  el  Pkoeniciam,  CD. 

"  continens]  in  se  tenens,  CD. 

^  gummi]  gammani)  C  (not  D.) 
^  vcnena]  et  yenenosa«  CD. 
^^Jlnmen,  CD. 
"  Phcemciam^  CD. 

"The  chapter   in  A.CD.  ends 

^  C  and  D.  add  sumnup,  \       "  Eleazer  B. 



foot  5  so  J>at  no  man  durste  nejhe,'  but  lie  were  purified  Trevisa. 
and  i-made  all  2  clene.  Trevisa.  Fenix  is  a  wonder  brid,  — 
for  of 3  al  J)at  kynde  is  but  oon  alyue,  ]^,  In  ]?e  contray 
of  Arabia  toward  Circius  is  fe  ,  hil  fat  is  i-cleped  Mons 
Libani.  pat  hilie  departe]>  ]?re  londes  atwynne,'^  Arabia, 
lude,  and  Fenix.^  pat  hul  is  ful  hite,  so  fat  snowe^  lyetb 
»11  wey  in  som  side  of  fat  hille.  [And  it]  7  ia  certeyn 
merk  and  token  to  schipmen  fat  seilef  in  fe  grete  see 
and  ledef  hem  to  dyuers  moufes  and  hauenes.  Hit  is  an 
hille  of  helf  e  and  of  ^  plente  ;  for  cipres,  eedres  treen,  and 
herbes  growef  f eron,  fat  droppef  gom  and  smellef  swetely ;  ^ 
by  fe  wliiche  treen,  gom,  and  swetnesse  seke  men  beef 
i-heled  and  venyme  destroyed.  Syria  haf  fe  name  of  Cii'us 
Abrahams  neuew,  and  lieth  bytwene  f e  ryuer  lAphrates  ^® 
in  f  e  est  side  and  the  grete  see  in  the  west  side,  and  haf 
in  f e  norf  side  Armenia  and  Cappadocia,  and  in  f e  soufe 
side  f e  see  fat  is  i-cleped  Arabicus,  and  conteynef  many 
prouinces  fat  beef  Commagena,  Palestina,  Fenys,  Canaan, 
Idumea,  ludea  fat  is  f e  luerie.  Damascus  was  somtyme  f e 
chief  citee  of  fat  pi*ouince.^*   Eleezer  ^*  Abraham's  seruaunt 

audacite  to   attempte  to  goe  to  hit,  but  men    devoute  and  MS.  Habl. 
clene  in  tlieire  conscience.     The   mownte  of  Libanus  is   in      ^^*^' 
the  costes  of  Arabye  abowte  the  sowthe  weste,  which  divid*  ^       T. 
iethe  a  sundre  Araby,  lewery,  and  Fenicea,     Whiche  is  an  y^^^ 
hille  of  excellente  altitude,  in  so  moche  that  hit,  counteynenge 
grete  habundaunce  of  snawe,  directethe  men  saylenge  in  the 
see  to  diuerse  portes,     Hy t  is  also  an  hille  of  wliollesomnesse 
and  of  fecundite.     For  trees  of  cipres,  cedre  trees,  and  of  er 
yerbes  gi'oenge  there,  distille  encense  and  gumme  ^iflfenge 
mellifluous  redolence,  fro  whom  seke  men  be  healede,  and 
venomes  be  expel lede.     Syria,  callode  by  that  name  by  Sirus  Syria, 
the  inhabitator  of  hit,  lyethe  betwene  the  floode  Euphrates*^  of 
the  este  parte,  and  the  grete  see  on  the  weste  parte,  hauenge 
in  the  northe  parte  Armenye  and  Cappadocia,'^  on  the  sowthe 
parte  the  see  of  Arabye,  conteynenge  in  hit  mony  prouinces, 
Commagena,  Palestina,   Fenices,    Canaan,  Idumea,  and   the 
lewery.    The  principal  place  of  that  province  was  Damascus, 
whom  Eleezer  the  seruaunte  of  Abraham  edifiede.     Rasyn, 

*  approcke  to  it,  Cx, 

*  all]  om.  Cx. 

'  qfi  added  from  a,  and  Cx. 

*  a  sonder,  Cx. 

*  So  also  a.  •    FentjSy  Cx.,  vhic^^ 
is  better  ;  and  so  MS.  below. 

*  ilS.  repeats  >ai  (clerical  error). 

'  Added  from  Cx 

*  of]  om.  Cx. 

^  swete,  a.,  Ox. 

^^  Ell/rates,  MSS.,  as  usual. 

^'  So  Cx.  ;  proiiihces,  MS.'  and  d. 

^^  Eleaser,  Cx. 

"  Capodocia,  Harl.  MS. 


rex  Easyn  semper  prsebuit  opem  decern  tribubus  *  Israel 
contra  reges  Juda.  Et  interpretatur  Damascus  funderia 
sanguinem,  quia  ibi  Cayn  occidit  Abel  et  abscondit 
eum  in  sabulo  fluminis. 

Cap.  XIV. 

De  regione  Judwce? 

SvjyMK  regio  est  Syrise,  sed  pars  ^  Palsestinae,  a  Juda, 
filio  Jacob,  sic  dicta;  quse  tamen  prius  dicebatur  Ca- 
nanea,*  a  Cham,  filio  Noe,  sive  a  decern  Cananseorum 
gentibus  per  Judaeos  expulsis  sen  contritis.^  Petrus, 
Jud^a  diyersis  modis  accipitur.  Quandoque  pro  tota 
terra  promissioiUB,  et  tunc  dicitur  a  Jud^is,  non  a^uda; 
sub  hoe  sensu  mtelligitur«  quod  «Pompdus  magnus 
^^  fecit  Jud^am  tributariam/'  Quandoque  sumitur  pro 
regno  Juda ;  ut  ubi/  "  Audiens  autem  quod  Archelaus 

*  tribibus,  B. 

^  The  Latin  title  is  found  in  the 
English  yersions  and  Cxr,  hnt  there 
is  no  heading  to  the  chapter  in  B* 
C.D.K;  A,hst&I)e  Judaea» 

^  A.  adds  est 

*  Canaan,  A» 

^  seu  eoniritts]  om,  CD, 

®  inteUigatury  A. 

''  uht\  So  E.,  distinctly  ;  but  the 
other  MBS.  seem  to  have  ibii  ut 
ibi,  Audivit  Joseph  quod  Archdaus, 



bulde  and  made  fat  citee  Damascus.     Kasyn  kyng  of  Dam-  Tkbvisa. 

ascus^  helpe^   awey  ]7e  tenfe  lynage^  of  Israel   a^enst  the      

kynges  •*  of  luda.     Damascus  is  to  menynge^  sckedynge  bloody 
for  ])ere  Caym  slowh  Abel  and  hyd  hym  in  J?e  sonde. 

De  regions  ludcece,     Capitulum  quartum  decimum. 

IVBEA  is  a  kyngdom  of  Syria  a  party  of  Palestyna,  and 
ha]>  ^Q  name  of  ludas  lacobus^  sone,  and  was  somtyme 
i-cleped  Cananea  of  Cam  Noe  bis  sone,  [ojfere  ^  of  fe  ten 
manere  of  8  peple  fat  fe  lewes  putte  oute  of  fat  londe. 
Petrus.  ludea  is  i-take  in  many  manere;  ofer  whiles^  for  all 
f e  lond  of  byheste,  and  fan  be  ^®  baf  f e  name  of  f e  lewes  and 
not  "  of  ludas;  and  so  it  is  i-take  in  fis  speche :  "  pe  grete 
"  Pompeius  made  ludea  tributaries  ;"  and  of er  while  it  is 
i-take  for  fe  kyngdom  ^^  of  luda;  and  so  it  is  i-write  of 
loseph,  fat   "  whan  fey  ^^  herde  fat  Archelaus  regnede  in 

the  kynge  of  whom,  ^afe  helpe  alle  weies  to  the  x.  tribus  MS.  IIabl. 
of  Israel  ageyne  the  kynges  of  luda.    And  Damascus  is     2261. 
callede   by    interpretaeion,  schedenge    bloode^      For    Caym 
did  slee  Abell  f  er^  and  hidde  hym  in  the  soode  of  th^ 

Of  the  Region  of  the  lewery,     Capitulum  quartum 


luDEA,  whiche  is  callede  the  lewery,  is  a  region  of  Syria,  Judea. 
but  a  parte  of  Palestine,  callede  ludea  of  luda  the  sonne 
of  lacobe,  whiche  was  callede  afore  Cananea  of  Cham  the 
Sonne  of  Noe,  other  elles  of  x.  peple  of  Chananees  expulsede 
and  contrite  by  the  lewes.  Petrus.  ludea  is  taken  in  f,  27  b. 
diuerse  maneres ;  hit  is  taken  other  while  for  the  londe  of 
promission,  and  then  hit  commethe  of  this  worde,  ludeus, 
and  not  o^  this  worde>  luda ;  and  so  hit  is  vnderstonde  in 
that  sense  that  Pompeius  Magnus  made  the  lewery  tribu- 
tary to  hym.  Other  while  hit  is  taken  for  the  realme  of 
luda,  as  loseph  herenge  that  "  Archelaus  reignede  in  the 

'  Damaske,  Cx.,  but  Damascus 

2  halpy  a,  (not  Cx.) 

3  fen  linages,  Cx. 

*  So  a.  and  Ox. ;  kpig,  MS. 

^  as  moche  to  saye  as,  Cx.  (who 
makes  sinular  alterations  eyery- 

•  Jacobs,  a,  Cx. 

'  o\>erf  a, ;  ^ther,  Cx. 

®  a.  om.  o/i 

®  while,  Cx.,  who  omits  aU. 

^*  it,  Cx.,  and  similarly  often. 

1»  Om.  Cx.  (typ.  error?) 

^^royamme,  Cx. 

»  f  e^^]  he,  Cx. 



''  regnaret  in  Judsea,"'  &c.    Quandoque  suraitur  pro  sola 

sorte  Judae,  ut  ibi,^  "  Judaea  et  Jerusalem,  nolite  timere/* 

Giraldus,  distinctiohe  tertia.    In  liac  Judsea  est  terra 

Ambitus    promissionis,  cujus  longitude  ad  lilteram  intellecta  *  est 

a  Dan  usque  ^  Bersabe,*  et  secundum  Hieronymum  in 
epistola  ad  Dardaniim  ^  vix  contiuet  centum  sexaginta ' 
milliaria  terrse  illius.  Latitude  vero  est  a  Joppen  usque 
Bethleem,  et  vix  continet  quadraginta  sex  milliaria 
terrae  illius.^  Sed  secundum  librum  Numerorum  Judaea 
habet  hunc  ambitum ;  ad  meridiem  mare  Salinarum 
quod  Mortuum  dicitur,  et  inde  per  Syna  et^  Cades- 
barne  usque  torxentem  jEgypti  qui  fluit  in  mare  mag- 
num^** versus  occidentem;  inde  ad  aquilonem  habet 
montem  Taurum ;  ad  orientem  montem  Libani  et  prin- 
eipia  Tiberiadis  et  Jordanis,  qui "  ad  radices  mentis 
Libani  oriuntur,  Inde  Jordanis  fluens  in  mare  Mor- 
tuum facit  limitem  inter  Judseam  et  Arabiam.  Hsec 
autem  terra  Judaea  fuit  patribus  nestris  promissa,  sed 
non  omnino  *^  po&sessa,  teste  Apostolo  ad  Hebraeos,  qui 

*  Juda,  A. 

2  So  the  MSS.,  but  ubi  would  be  a 
better  reading.    See  above. 
'  mteliecta]  om.  B. 

*  CD.  add  ad;  and  so  below. 

*  E,  has  Paan  and  BersabeCy  but 
trivial  variations  of  this  kind  will 
not  always  be  noticed. 

*  secundum,. Vardanufnlora,  CD. 
'  CD.  omit  centum. 

®  terra  iUius\  om.  CD* 
»  Syna  et\  om.  CB. 

^*  The  text  proceeds  thus  in  CD.: 
Habet  autem  terra  promtssionis  ad 
orientem  montem  Libani  et  flumina 
Tiberiadis  et  Jordanis^  qua,  &c, 

"  gut]  So  A,B.E.  ;  quiB,  CD., 
which  seems  better. 

*-  omnino']  om.  15. 



**  ludea  he  dredde^  for  to  goo  J>ider ;"  and  somtyme  it  is  Tbevisa. 

i-take  ouliche  for   J?e  lot  of  ^   j>e  lynage   of  ludas,  and  so      

speke])  Holy  Writt  and  seip :  '^  ludea  and  lerusalem  drede 
"  ^ow^  nou^fc."  Gi>.4  Dist  tertia.  In  pis  ludea  ]>e  lond  of 
byheste  ]>e  lengj^e  Jyerof  is  fi*om^  Dan  to  Bersabe,  and  lerom 
sei]>,  in  epistola  ad  Dat^danum,  pat  it  is  scai'seliche  an  hondred 
and  sixty  myle  in  lengjie,  and  ]>e  brede  is  from  loppen  to 
Bethlem  scarsJiche  sixe  and  fourty  myle  of  p&t  lond.  Bote, 
secundum  librum  Numerorum,  ludea  is  byclipped  in  ]>is 
manere  aboute^  and  ha]»  in  )>e  sou]>e  side  ^  ]>e  Dede  se.  And 
pan  he  strecchep  forp  by  Syna  and  Cades-barne  noon 7  to* 
pe  streem  of  Egipte  pat  ^emep®  westward  in  to  pe  grete  see, 
and  in  pe  norp  side  pe  huile  pat  hatte  mens  Taurus^^^  and 
in  pe  est  pe  hille  ^*  mens  Libany  [and  the  byginnynge  of 
the  see  Tiberiadis,  and  of  pe  streem  lordan  pat  springep  at 
pe  foot  of  mont  Libany],^*  bope  Tiberiadis  and  lordan.  pan 
lordan  renhep  in  to  pe  Dede  see  and  departep  ludea  and 
Arabia.  ^3  pe  i4  londe  Iud,ea  was  byhote  ^  to  oure  forme  ^^ 
fadres,  but   nou^t  al  i-had,  as  Poul  seip,    ad  Hebraeos,  **AI 

"  lewery."     Gir.  DisL  iertia.     The  londe  of  promission  is  MS.  IIakl. 
in  the  lewery,  the  longitude  of  whom  is  vnderstonde  after      2261. 

the  letter,  From  Dan  to  Bersabe ;  and  after  Seynte  lerom^      

in  his  epistole  to  Dardanus,  hit  conteynethe  ynnethe  clx. 
myles  of  that  cuntre.  The  latitude  of  hit  is  from  loppen 
vn  to  BetMeem  conteynenge  ynnethe  xlvj.  myles  of  that 
region  and  cuntre.  And  after  the  boke  of  Nowmbres  the 
lewery  hathe  this  circuite  ;  at  the  meridien  the  Dedde  see, 
and  after  that  by  Sina  and  Cades  Bamee  vn  to  the  ryuer 
of  Egipte,  whiche  flowethe  in  to  the  grete  see.  The  londe 
of  promission  hathe  the  grete  see  to  the  weste  parte  of 
hit,  and  an  hille  caUede  Taurus  at  the  northe,  and  on  the 
este  parte  the  mownte  callede  Libanus,  and  the  begyn- 
nenges  of  that  water  callede  Tiberiades,  and  of  the  water 
off  Jordan,  whiche  haue  their  originalle  principle  at  the 
foote  of  liie  mownte  callede  Libanus.  Then  that  fioo4,e 
of  lordan  floenge  in  to  the  Dedde  see  makethe  admision  Jurdanns 
betwene  the  lewery  and  Araby.  This  londe  of  luda  was  fluvius. 
promisede    to    oure    faderes,    but    not  utterly  possessedde, 

*  drad,  Cx. 

2  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  /or,  MS. 
'  1/e,  Cx. 

*  Greffor,y  MS. 

^/rotn]  fro,  Cx.,  and  so  below. 

*  side]  om.  Cx. 
'  anoHy  a, 

*  Cades  heme  vnto,  Cx. 

*  eome^f  a. ;  rennethj  Cx. 

'®  is  named  mount,  Cx. 
"  \>e  hiUe']  om.  a. 

*2  Added   from  a.  j  and  so  Cx., 

"  Arable,  Cx. 

1*  W,  a,  Cx. 

**  hyhoole,  Cx. 



dicit,  quod  "  hii  omnes  mortui  sunt,  non  acceptis  pro- 
"  nxissionibus/^  Ex  quibus  liquet  aliam  esse  terram 
promissionis,  in  qua  est  coelestis  Jerusalem ;  et  aUam 
in  qua  terrestris  Jerusalem,  per  quam  ccelestis  est  figu- 
rata.*  HssQ  itaque  terra  JudsBa  opulenta  est,  frugifera, 
vinifera,^  aromatica;  cedris,  C3rpressis,  balsamis,  olivis, 
malogranatis,  palmis,  ficubus,*  melle  et  lacte  abun- 
daus^  qusd  in  medio  sui  velut  in  umbilico  terrae^ 
urbem  habet  Jerusalem.  Isidorus,  Hhro  qmnto,  ca/pitulo 
Jerusalem,  primo,^  Hano  urbem  asserunt  Juda&i  Sem,  filium  Noe, 
id  est,  Melchisedech,  post  diluvium  fundasse,  et  Salem 
nuncupa^se,^  quam  postmodum  tenuerunt  Jebusaei ;  es: 
quibus  sortita  est  vocabulum  Jebus,  sioque  ex  duobus 
vocabulis  copulatis,  Jebus  et  Salem,  composita  est  Je- 
rusalem, qu83  postmodum  a  Salomone  dicta  Jerosolima.^ 
Hsac  etiam®  a  poetis  corrapte  vocata  est  Solima,    Et 

1  quiB  Jiffura  eat  codestis^  CD., 
which  have  other  trifling  Tariatioim. 

^  vinifera]  om.  0.  (not  D.) 

^fictU>u8]  om.  CD. 

*  terraf]  om.  CD. 

^  D.  (not  C)  omits  the  heading 
of  the  extract. 

^  nuncupasse]  yocasse,  CD.,  which 
also  arrange  some  words  differently, 
and  contract  the  whole  period. 

'  In  this  place  the  orthography  of 
the  MSS.  (which  fluctuate,  how- 
ever, as  usual  between  lerosoUma 

and  Jerosolyma%  is  preserved  in 
order  to  exhibit  Higden's  views  re- 
specting the  derivation  of  the  diffe- 
rent forms  of  the  word  Jeruscden^, 
Eor  the  matter  itself,  see  Smith's 
Diet  Gr,  and  Rom»  Geogr,  vol.  ii. 
p.  17.  The  ordinary  Latin  ortho- 
graphy (Bierosolyma,  Hientscdem) 
arises  from  an  error  which  is  as  old 
as  the  time  of  St  Jerome,  if  not  of 

^  autem  a  poetis  corrupta,  B.,  which 
is  perhaps  better. 



**  pej  beef  ^  deed  and  fenge  ^  nou^t  J>e  byhestes/'  And  so  it  Trbvisa. 

moot^  be,  fat  fere   be  tweye^  londes  of  byheste,  erfelicbe      

and  goostlyche.  In  f  e  ^  oon  is  heuenly  Jerusalem  5  and  in 
f  e  ^  of  er,  erf  ely  lerusalem  ;  [by  the  wbicbe  ertlily  Iheru- 
salem]^  fe  heuenliche^  is  bytokened.  pis  lond  ludea  is 
riche  and  fruitful,  and  haf  plente  of  wyne  and  of  spicerie, 
of  cedres,  of®  cipres,  of  baume,  of  olyues,  of  pomgarnet,  of 
palmesy  of  figes,  of  mylk,  aad  ^  of  hony  ;  and  haf  in  f  e 
myddel,  as  it  were  in  f e  nauel  of  f e  erf  e,  f  e  cite  lerusalem, 
Isidortts^  libro  quinto^  eapitulo  prima»  pe  lewes  self  fat 
Sem,  Noes  sone,  fat  is  i-cleped  Melcliesedek,^^^  also  made 
and  bulde  "  f  e  citee  lerusalem  after  Noes  flood,  and  cleped  ^2 
hit  Salem,  but  aftirwarde  a  peple  fat  were  i-cleped  lebusei 
woned^^  ferynne  and  cleped^*  fe  citeo  lebus,  Of^*  filke 
tweye  names  lebus  and  Salem  is  i-made  00  ^^  name  Jeru- 
salem. Afterward  Salamon  cleped  fe*®  citee  lerosolyma,*^ 
and  poetis  fat  spekef  ^^  schortliche  clepef  fe  citee  Solyma 

thapostle  testiflenge,  that  ^'thei  diedde  alle,  the  promissiones  MS.K&jil. 

"  not  accepte ;"  by  the  seyenge  of  whom  hit  may  be  con-     2261. 

cludede  an   other  londe  to   be  the  londe  of  promission  in      ^~" 

whom  hevenly  lerusalem  is,  and  an  other  in  whom  terres- 

trialle  lerusalem  is,  by  whom  heuenly  lerusalem  is  flgurede» 

Also  that  londe  of  luda  is  plentuous  of  comes,  of  wynes, 

of  thynges  aromaticalle,  of  cedre  trees,  cipre  trees,  bawmes, 

oliues,  pomegranardes,  pahne  tres,  %ge  trees,  habundaunt  in 

hony   and  mylke,  whiche  hathe  the  cite  off  lerusalem  in  Jerusalem. 

the  myddelle  parte  of  hit.    IsidoruSy  libro  guinto,  eapitulo 

primo.      The  lewes   afferme   and  say,    Sem  the  sonne  of 

Noe,  other  wyse  called  Melchisedech,  to  haue  made  that 

cite  after    the   floode  of  Noe,  whom  the  lebuseis  kepede 

after  that  tyme,  by  whom  hit  hade  this  name,  lebus ;  and 

so  these  ij.  wordes,  lebus  and   Salem,  copulate  to  gedre, 

this  worde,  lerusalem,  resultethe  by  composicion ;  whiche 

was  callede  afterwarde  of  Salomon,  lerosolima ;  callede  also 

1  5«»,  Cx. 

2  receyueden,  Cx. 
'  muste,  Cx* 

*  two,  Cx., 

^  ihatf  Cx.  twice,  and  bo  often. 

*  Added  firom  Cx.,  who  modeniises 
a  little. 

'  >e]  «.  and  Cx.  add  lerusalem, 
8  of\  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  and^  MS. 
'  a,  omits  and,  (not  QsS) 

1®  Mekkisedech,  Cx.  (quid  ?),  but 
Melchisedech  below* 

"  huyldedy  Cx. 

1'  clepedy  tDoned,  ckped]  Beplaced 
in  Cx.  by  called,  dwelfyd,  named,  and 
80  ol^n«   . 

^Soofy  a.  and  Cx.  (which  is 
perhaps  better). 

**  one,  C*x. 

»»  f>aty  a. 

"  Iherosdlyma,  Cx.,  who  also  al- 

ways  prints  Jherusalem. 

^^  <h  adds  Hrof, 



postea  ab  Imperaiore  Aelio  Hadriano  vocata  est  iElia,' 
quam  majori  murorum  anibitu  ampliavit  et  dilatavit ; 
ut  sic  locum  Dominici  septdcri,  quod  olim  extra  urbem 
fuerat,  includeret.  Ranulphus.  Verumtamen  Hierony- 
mus,  in  epistola  ad  Evangelum®  presbyterum,  videtur 
velle  quod  urbs  Salem  vel  Salim  quam  incolebat  Mel- 
cbisedech,  isit  alia  quam  Jerusalem,  ubi  dicit  Salem  esse 
oppidum  juxta  Scythopolim,  quod  usque  hodie  dicifcui* 
Salem ;  et  ostenditur  ibi  ^  palatium  Melchisedech.  De 
qua  dicitur  in  fine  Genesis  quod  transivit  Jacob  in 
Salem,  civitatem  Sichem,  quae  est  in  terra  Canaan. 
WUldmus  de  Regihus.  Fons  intra  urbem  nullus/ 
sed  cisternis,  ad  hoc  prepai-atis,  latices  coUiguntur. 
Nam  urbis  ipsius  situs  ab  austro^  montem  Syon  habens, 
molli  clivo  versus  boream®  descendenis/  sic  disponitur 
ut  pluvia  stillans  nequaquam  lacum^  faciat,  sed  instar 
rivulorum  in  cisternis  excipiatur,^  vel  saltern,  per  portas 

'  After  this,  0.  and  D.  omit  all  be- 
fore Habet  quoque  in  se  reyiOy  wliich 
occurs  near  the  end  of  the  chapter. 
The  MSS.  have  Helioy  Helta  (or 
Hdyai)y  and  Adriano»  Compare  the 
English  MSS. 

^  So  B.E.,  rightly ;  bat  the  name 
is  blundered  in  E.  and  the  versions. 

^  ubi  ostenditur^  B. 

*  B.  adds  est, 

*  aquilone,  A.B.  (and  both  the 
versions).  These  variations  are 
instructive,  and  show  that  we  have 
a  later  and  better  text  in  M.,  which 

seems  to  be  made  irom  the  author's 
final  corrections.  On  the  even  now 
disputed  point  of  the  position  of 
Sion,  see  Williams  in  Smith's  Diet, 
Gr,  and  Rom.  Gcogr,  vol.  ii.  p.  1009, 
who  maintains  in  common  with 
most  modern  writers  that  "  Sion 
"  proper  is  the  S.W.  hill  of  Jeru- 
"  salem.** 

•  austrum,  A.B.  (and  the  ver- 

^  ascendens,  B. 

» latum, 'B,  (and  so  Harl,  version). 

"  excipitur,  Br 



in  her  schprt  speche.   And  after. Jmt  Aelius^  Adrian  ]>e  Em-  Trevisa. 

peroure  cleped  J^at  cit'ee  Aelia,^  and  walled  hit,  and  made  it      

more  aboute;  so  fat  pure  Lordes  sepulcre,  }>at  was  spmtym 
wi]>  oute  fe  citee,  is  now^  wip  ynne.  ^.  Neuerfeles^  it 
seme]>  fat  Hieronjmus,  in  epistola  ad  Evangelinm'*  presby. 
terum,  wil  seie,  fat  Salem  of er  Salim,  fat  Melchisedek  made 
and  woned  ynne,  was  anof er  citee  fan  Iernsalem«  pere  he 
seif  fat  Salem  is  a  toun  beside  Scythopolim,^  fat  ^it  hat^ 
Salem ;  and  ferynne  is  i-seie  f e  paleys  of  Melchesedek 
and  ferof  spekif  Holy  Writt,  Genesis  5  and  seif  fat  lacob 
wente  into  Salem  fe  citee  of  Sichem,  fat  is  in  fe  londe  of 
Chanaan.  Willelmus  de  Begibus,  libra  primo.  No  welle 
is  wif  ynne  Jerusalem,  but  watres  be  i-gadred,  and  i-kepfc 
in  cisternes ;  for  f e  citee  is  so  i-sette  fat  he  haf  in  f e 
north  side  fe  mounts  Syon,  and  is  disposed  fat  fe  water, 
fat  fallef  dounward  and  souf ward  wif  f e  pendaunt  ^  toward 
Jerusalem,  takef  no  defoul,*  but  is  elene  i-now,  and  rennef 
into  fe  citee,  and  no  fen  makef,  and^^  rennef  into  cis- 
ternes, as  ^^  it  were  lakes  and  welle  stremes,    And  somme 

corruptely  of  poetes  Solima  ;  and  afterwai'de  callede  Aelya^  MS.  Haul. 

by  Aelius^  Adi^ian  themperoure,  whom  he  amplifiede  with     2261. 

more   circuite    of    walles,   in   so  moche   that  he  includede 

the  place  and  sepulcre  of  oure  Lorde,  whiche  was   somme 

tyme    withowte    the  walles    of   that   cyte,     I^,     But  truly  f.  28  a. 

Seynte    lerom    in    his    epistole    to    Eugenius    expressethe, 

seyenge    that  the  cyte  callede    Salem  or   Salim,  in  whom 

Melchisedech  dwellede,  to  be  an  other  cite  from  Jerusalem, 

nye  to  Scythopolis,^^  whiche  is  callede  Salem  yn  to  this  tyme 

presente,  where  hit  is  schewede  the  palice  of  Melchisedech, 

of  whom  hit  is  seyde  in   the  ende  of  Genesis  that  Jacob 

wente  in  to  Salem,  a  cite  of  Sichen,  whiche  is  in  the  londe 

of  Chanaan.      Willelmus  de  RegibuSy  libra  prima.     There 

is  noo  welle  within  the  cite,  where  waters  be  collecte,  but 

in  cestrens  and  veselles  ordeynede  ferfore.      For  the  site 

of  that  cyte,  hauenge  the  mownte  of  Syon  of  the  northe 

descendenge  towarde  the  sowthe  with  a  softe  dependence,  is 

so  disposede  that  fe  reyne  reynenge  makethe  not  clay,  but 

as  lytelle  ryuers,  whiche  is  receyvede  in  cestrens,  or  elles 

^  HeltuSf  and  Heliay  MSS.  and  Cx. 
2  nowe  closed^  Cx.;  now  i-closed,  a. 
»  Netheks,  Cx, 

*  Evangeliatumf  Cx.     See  note  on 

*  Sitopolym,  MS, ;  Stcopolim^  Cx.  a. 
«  hat]  is  called,  Cx.  (as  usual). 

7  a.  and  Cx.  add  of» 
*  dependannt,  Cx. 
9./yMe,  Cx. 

*«  and  maketh  no  fylthe,  hat,  &c., 

'"  an  }pey,  a.  ;  as  thomjh,  Cx. 
•-  Sitopolis,  Harl.  AlJS. 


effluens,  torrentem  Cedron  adaugeat.^  Igitur  in  ipso 
verfcice  mentis  Syon*  fuit  arx  seu  turns  pro  decore  et 
defensione.  In  declivo  montis  fuit  templum  quasi  me- 
dium inter  arcem  et  inferiorem  urbem.  Ideo*  ssepe 
Scriptura  vocat  Jerusalem  fiKam  Syon,  quia  sicut  filia 
protegitur  a  matre  et  ei  subditur,  sic  civitas  inferior 
subdita  fiiit  templo  et  ard.  Oonstantinus  magnus 
erexit  aliquando  in  ea  ecclesiam  Sancti  Sepulcri,  quae 
nunquam  ab  hostibus  fidei*  tulit  injuriam ;  quod  creditut 
contigisse  pro  igne  ooelesti,  qui  quolibet  anno  in  vigilia 
FaschsB^  lampades  ibidem  illuminat ;  quod  quidem  mira^ 
culum,  quando  inceperit,  incertum  habetur.  Hanc  urbem 
cinxit  aliquando  rex  Salamon  muro  tripKci  non  solum 
ad  munimentum,  sed  etiam  ad  distinctionem  inhabi- 
tantium;  ita  ut  infra  primum  muriim  circa  montem 

'  adaugetf  B. 
2  St/on]  om.  B, 
■  Unde,  B. 

*Jid€i']  om.  B. 

*  B.  adds  ibidem  videtur  et 



l>erof  rennej)  into  pe  brook  J^at  is  i-cleped  torrens  Cedron,  Tebvisa. 
and  make])  pe  brook  torrentem  Cedron  wexe  and  bewel  ^  — 
J>e  more.  In  fe  top  ^  of  mont  Syon  was  a  real  3  toure  ^  for 
feiren[e]s^  and  defens.  In  J>e  side  of  mont  Syon  was  pe 
temple  as  it  were  in  ]>©  myddel  bytwene  the  toure  and  pe 
citee  ;  fe  citee  was  lower  ])an  fe  toure,  and  perfore  ofte 
Holy  Writt  clepe]?^  lerusalem  pe  doubter  of  Syon.  For  as 
a  7  doutter  is  meynteyned  and  defended  by  ]>e  moder  and 
sogetts  to  the  moder ;  so  ye  citee  was  lower  and  sogett  to 
pe  temple  and  to  pQ  tour.  Also^  fe  grete  Constantinus 
arered  J>ere  somtyme  pe  chirche  of  pe  Holy  Sepulcre.  Mys- 
byleued  men  mysdede  neuere  y&t  chirche ;  and  pskt  is,  as 
me  trowe]>,i^  for  euery  ^ere  an  ^^  Ester  eue  comej)  fire  from  ^2 
heuene,  and  tende]»  and  li^te]»  ]>e  lampes  j^erynne  ;  but  whan 
])at  miracle  bygan  first,  hit  is  vucertayne  and  vnknowe.^^ 
Salamon  pe  kyng  wallede  fis  citee  somtyme  wip  pre  walles 
al  aboute ;  neuerpeles  nou^t  onliche  for  strengpe,  but  for 
distinccioun  ^^  of  dyuers  manere  men  pat  woned  pere  ;  pe  '^ 
preostes  and  clerkes  pat  serued  in  pe  temple,  also  ^^  pe  kyng 

the  water  descendenge  by  the  ^ates  of  the  cite  increasethe  MS.  Harl. 
the  ryuer  of  Cedron.      Therefore  per  was  a  towre  in  the      2261.  ^ 
altitude  of  the  mownte  of  Syon  for  worshippe  and  defence. 
In    the  dependence  of  whiche  hille  was   a  temple,   as  in 
the  mydde  part  betwene  the  towre  and  the  cite  under  hit, 
wherefore    Scripture    callethe    ofte    tymes    lerusalem    the 
dothter  of  Syon ; .  for  like  as  a  doubter  is  protecte  of  the 
moder,  and  subiecte  to  her,  soe  the  cite  inferior  is  subiecte 
to  the  temple  and  to  the  towre  of  Syon.     The  nowble  and  De  ecslesti 
grete  Constantyne  made  in  hit  a  chirche  off  Seynte  Sepulcre,  Iff"®  J?"^' 
whiche  hathe  not  suflGrede  iniury  vn  to  this  tyme  of  enmyes  ®?^^??  ^ 
of  the  feithe,  whiche  men  suppose  to  be  causede  for  heuenly  p^Si», 
fyre,  whiche  dothe  iUumyne   the   lampes  there  of  on  the 
vigile  of  Pasche  or  Ester,  whiche  miracle  is  incerteyne  as 
to  the  begynnenge  off  hit.    Kynge  Salomon  compassede  that 
cyte  with  a  threfolde  walle  not  oonly  for  defence,  but  for  the 
distinccion  of  men  inhabitenge  hit,  soe  that  the  temple  of 

>  be  wel  (diyisimX  MS.  and  Cx. 
and  a. 

^  ti^pe  or  sommet  of  the,  Cx. 

» ryal,  Cx. 

*  a.  adds  y^made, 

^fayretiesy  Cx. 

^  For  this  once  Cx.  has  left  clepeth 
in  bis  own  text 

'  a.  omits  a.  (not  Cx.) 

'  subgette,  Cx.,  and  so  below. 

^  Also"]  Given  as  the  last  word  in 
the  preyions  sentence  In  a.  and  Cx. 

*®  as  men  suppose,  Cx. 

1*  an]  on,  Cx.,  who  has  ««en. 

^^fro,  Cx. 

**  vnknowen,  Cx. 

^*  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  destrucctotmf  MS. 

"  >c]  So  Cx  ;  ]>at,  MS.  ;  a.  has 
some  omissions  here. 

1'  and  alsOf  Cx. 


Syon  essek  templum  Domini,  mansiones  quoque  hebdo« 
madariorum^  sacerdotum  ac  miDistrorum,  domus  etiam 
regia*  cum  mansionibus  domesticorum.  In  secundo  am- 
bitn  habitabant  potentes  viri  et  prophetse,  nnde  legitur 
in  ]ibro  Begum  quod  Olda  prophetissa  habitabat  in  Jeru- 
salem in  secunda,  id  est,  in  secunda  disfcinctione.  In 
,  tertio  ambitu®  habitabant  opifices  et  plebes.  Ranulphus. 
Mods         Juxta*  Jerusalem,  ad  orientem  templi,  erat  mons  Oliveti, 


propter  abundantiam  olivarum  sic  vocatus  ;  qui  ab  Au- 
gustine super  Jobannem  vocatus  est  mons  ehrismatis  et 
unctionis,  mons  luminis  et  pinguedinis,  mons  refectionis 
*  et  medicaminis,  eo  quod  fructus  olivse  sit  unctuosus, 

luminosus,  deliciosus.  Signanter  autem  dicebatur  mons 
luminis,  quia^  oriente  sole  recepit^  lumen  a  sole  per 
diem,  a  luminaribus  templi  per  noctem.  In  quo  qui- 
dem  monte  Salamon  aliquando,  muKerum  amore  infa- 
tuatus,  erexit  delubra  et  excelsa,  sicut  patet  ij,  Eegum 
X**.    De  quo  etiam  monte  Christus  coelos^  a^cendit,  et  in 

'  There  is  little  doubt  tliat  this  is 
the  'true  reading,  bnt  the  MSS. 
curtail  the  word  strangely,  thus  : 

*  et  ministrorum  ac  domus  rc(fia,  B. 

'  distmciioney  B. 
*  Et  juxta,  A. 
^  eo  quod,  B, 
®  recipit,  B. 
'  ccehs'\  om.  B. 



and  his  mayne  wone])  *  wij>  ynne  fe  firste  wal  by  "pe  mount  ^  Tbevisa, 

Syon.     WiJ?  ynne  pe  secounde   wal  woned  prophetes   and      

my^ty  men  and  8talworJ>e ;  so  speke])  Holy  Writt,  fat  Elda  ^ 
prophetissa  woned  in  lerusalem  in  f  e  secounde  distinccioun.^ 
Wi]>  ynne  f  e  J?ridde  woned  J>e  comoun  peple  and  craftes  men  ^ 
in  fe  waL^  l^Y  Faste  by  lerusalem^  in  J)e  nor])  side  of  })e 
temple,  is  f  e  mount  of  Olyuete  for  plentee  of  olyues.  Seynt 
Austyn  super  lohannem  clepe]>  it  Jye  huUe  of  crisma  ^  and  of 
vnccioun,  ]?e  hille  of  li^t  and  of  fatnes,  fe  Mile  of  medicyne 
and  of  fedynge  ;  for  ye  fruit  ^  of  olyue  is  ful  of  li^t,  likynge, 
and  vnctuous ;  and  it  was  speciaUcbe  pe  hille  and  ]>e  mont 
of  li^t,  for  it  was  beschyne  wij>  ^^  li Jt  of  pe  sonne  al  day 
and  wi]>  li^t  of  the  temple  al  ny^t.  In  ]7at  hille  Salamoli, 
whan  he  wax  ^^  mad  and  al  by  schrewed  for  loue  of  wonmien, 
he  bulde  temples  in^^  hi^e  places  for  mametrie ;  so  seip  Holy 
Writ,  secundo  Eegum,  decimo  capitulo.^^  Out  of  fat  mount 
Crist  steihe  ^^   vp  into  heuene ;   and  in  fat  mount  he  schal 

oure  Lorde  was  within  the  fyrste  waUe  abowte  the  mownte  MS.  Habl. 
of  Syon,  the  mansiones  also  of  the  ebdomadaries,  prestes,      226^* 
and  minstres,  the  kynges  palice,  with  mansiones  for  his  men. 
Nowble  men  and  prophetes  inhabite  within  the  secunde  walle, 
as  hit  is  redde  in  the  boke  of  Kynges  that  Olda  prophetissa 
dwellede  in  lerusalem  in  the  secunde  distinccion.      Men  of 
crafte  and  commune  peple  dwellede  in  the  thrydde  distinc- 
cion and  circuite  of  the  walles.    ]^.    The  Mownte  of  Oli-  Mons 
uete  is  nye  io  lerusalem,  'at  the  este  parte  of  that  temple,  Oleveti, 
callede  Oliuete  for  habundaunce  of  oliues,  whiche  is  callede 
by    Seynte  Austyn  on  lohan,*^  the  hille  of  creme  and  of 
noy[n]tpnge,  the  hiUe  of  li^hte  and  of  fattenes,  the  hille  of 
re&eschenge  and  of  medicyne,  in  that  the  frute  of  oliues 
is  Tnctaous,  Imninose,  and^deUcious.     Whiche  was  caUede 
significatiuely  the  mownte  of  li^hte,  for  the  sonne  schynenge 
hit  receyvede  li^hte  of  hit,  and  of  the  temple  by  ny^hte.  f.  28  b.  . 
In  whiche  mownte   Salomon  thro  f  e  luffe  or  women  made 
hie  places  and  chirches  in  hit,  as   hit  is   expressede  Be- 
gum x^    From  whiche  mownte  Criste  ascendede  to  heuyn, 

'  dweUedeUf    Cx.   (the  preterite 
seems  right,)  and  simflarly  below. 
2  mount  ofy  a.  and  Cx. 
»  Olda,  Cx. 

^  Soa.  and  Cx.;  destntcci0un,  HS. 
*  men  ofcrctfte,  Cx. 
^  a.  and  Cx.  omit  in  ^  wdL 
'  R.  added  from  a.  and  Cx. 
^  crisme,  Cx. 
^fruyyt^  a, 

VOL.  I. 

**  ««>]  by,  a. 

"  tDcus]  voexe,  Cx. 

»2m]  and,Cx. 

"  So  MS.  and  a. ;  but  Cx.  absurdly 
has  Romanos  2%  1^  capitulo, 

^*8teiy,  a.$  aacended^  Cbc.,  who 
omits  vp. 

**  /oA».,  Harl.  MS.  (which  else- 
where writes  loknes  for  Johannes, 


fine  ibidem  judicabit  orbem.  In  httjus  montis  pede 
oritur  torrens  Cedton  qui  fluit  in  valleiji  Josaphat,  inter 
cttjus  ripam  et  montem  Mt  Kortus  ille  quem  Christus 
totleus  intravit  ad  orandum^  in  quo  etiam*  horto^  captus  * 
fuit.  Juxta  quern  fiierat  aliquando  villula  Gethse- 
mane,*  et  in  ipso  monte*  ei*at  viculus  sacerdotum  qui 
dicebatur  Bethphage,  et  in  latere  montis  erat  urbs  La- 
zari,  Marth^B,  et  Mariae,  nomine  Betbania.  ffugutlo. 
Ad  septentrionalem  plagam  montis  Syon  est  mons 
Calvariae,  ubi  crucifixus  est  Christus,  qui,  lingua  Syra, 
dictus  est  Golgotha/  quod  interpretatum  sonat  Calvaria, 
quse  est  pars  frontis  patens  supra  supercilia,  pro  eo 
quod  ibi  decalvabantur  ossa  latronum,  damnatorum,  et 

decapitatorum.     Csetera  de  mrrabilibus  templi  require 
in  libro  Eegum. 

De  man        IddoTUs,  Uhro  qumtodecmw,  cwpiHlo  pnmo?  Habet 
quoque  in  se  regio  Judsea  mare  solitudinis,  quod  dicitur^ 

^  eti(tm\  et,  A. 

2  Iwrto]  bm.  B. 

3  Geiksemany,   E.  j    Geiksetnani, 

^  monte]  om.  B. 

^  Gotgatha,  MSS.,  and  so  also  in 
the  MSS.  of  both  the  versions. 

*  secundOf  B.  Both  references  are 
^Ise»  and  possibly  Isidore  is  not  the 
authority  fbr  this  statement  at  all. 

'  quod  dic%tur\  sive,  0* 


deme  fe  worlde   at  pe  laste.i    At  pe  foot^  of  fe^  mount  Teevisa. 

springej»  J^e  brook  torrens  Cedron,   and  eometh-*  in  to  pe      

valey  of  Ios6phat«  Bytwene  pe  brynke  of  tortens  Cedron 
and  pe  mount  was  pe  orche^erde  p&t  Criste  went  ynne  ful 
ofte^  for  to  bidde®  and  praye ;  in  fat  orche^erde^  Crist 
was  i-take,  by  pe  whiche  was  a  J>rope^  j?at  hilt^  Geth- 
semany.  In  ]^at  mount  was  pe  litel  strete  of  preostes,  |?at 
beeti<>  Be[th]phage.'^  In  pe  side  of  pe  hille  was  pe  yn  ^^  of 
Lazarus,  1^  of  Martha,  and  of  Marie  Mawdeleyn ;  fat  toun 
bi^t  ^4  Bethania,  Hugo,  In  pe  norf  side  of  mount  Syon  is 
pe  mount  Caluerie  ;  **  (far  i^  Crist  deide  on  fe  rode  ;)  and  is 
i-cleped  Grolgotha  in  fe  longage  *7  of  Syria*  Golgotha  is  to 
menynge  a  baar  scolle.  For  whan  f  eues  and  mysdoeres  were 
fere  byheded,i8  f e  hedes  were  i-left  f ere^  and  so  at  f e  laste 
f  e  sculles  wexen  al  bare.  Of  re  wondres  of  f  e  temple  loke 
in  libro  Begum.  Isidorus,  libra  quintodedmo^  Cdpitulo  primo. 
Also  in  f e  reem  *^  of  luda  is  f e  see  of  wildernesse  fat  is 

where  he  schalle  iugge  also  euery  man  in  the  day  of  iugge-  MS.  Haul. 
mente»    In  the  foote  of  whiche  hille  the  ryuer  of  Cedron      2261. 

is  spronge,  whiche  flowethe  in  to  the  vale  of  losaphath,      

betwene  the  brynke  of  whom  and  the  mownte  was  that 
gardyn  in  to  whom  Criste  entrede  ofte  tjmes  to  pre^,  in 
whom  he  was  taken,  nye  to  whom  was  a  litelle  towne 
callede  Gethesemani,  in  whiche  mownte  was  also  the  strete 
of  >  prestes,  whiche  was  callede  Bethfage,  and  in  the  side 
of  the  mownte  was  the  cite  of  Martha,  of  Lazarus,  and  of 
Mary,  Bethania  by  name.  Hugo»  The  mownte  off  Caluarye  Mons 
is  at  the  northe  plage  of  the  mownte  of  Syon,  where  Criste  Calvaria. 
was  cruciflede,  whiche  is  callede,  after  the  langage  of  men 
of  Sire,  Golgotha,  soundenge  by  interpretacion,  Caluaria,  in 
hat  the  boones  of  men  condempnede  and  hedede  were 
made  bare  there.  As  for  other  metuayles  of  the  temple 
haue  respecte  to  the  bokes  of  Kynges.  Isidorus^  libro  quinto- 
decimoy  capitulo  prima.    The  region  of  luda  hathe  in  hit 

^  at  kute,  Gx. 

*  aUefootCi  Cat. 

*  ihaiy  Cx. 

^  renneth,  Cbt. 

*  wel  oftti  "• 
^  bidda^  a. 

'  orcherdf  a* 
^  a  thorpe,  Cx. 

*  heet,  «.  and  Cx» 
»» h^ghf,  Cx. 

'  Sethfage,  a.  and  Cx. 
^  fymn,  a.  and  Cx. 

*  Zazar,  Cx. 

*  Myt'}  was  ndmed,  Cx. 

*  mont  of  Caluary,  a.  and  Cx. 
«  So  «. ;  \>at,  MS.  J  there,  Cx. 

langage,  a,  and  Cx« 
^  hyheueded,  a, 
^  rayamme,  Cx* 




Mortuum,  distans  a^  Jerosolimis  stadiis  ducentis,  quae 
reddunt^  viginti  quinque  milliaria ;  dividitque  Judseam, 
Palsestinam,  et  Arabiam.  Isidorvs,  Mymologiarum 
libro  (dif?  Extenditur  autem  lacus  ille  a  ftaibus  Judsese 
non  longe  a  Jerico  usque  ad  Zoros  Arabise  stadiis  sep- 
tingentis  octoginta,  qusB  faciunt  milliaria  nonaginta  qua- 
tuor.  Latitude*  ejus^  stadiorum  centum  quinquaginta, 
usque  ad  vicinia  Sodomorum.  Dicitur  autem  lacus 
ille  Lacus  Salinarum,  quia  sales  ibi  fiunt.  Dicitur^ 
et  lacus  aspbalti,  quod  est  bitumen  tenax,  eo  quod  locus 
ille  sit  bituminosus,  qua  ^  de  causa  ventis  non  movetur, 
resistente  semper  bitumine^  quo  omnis  aqua  stagnatur. 
Neque  ullam  navem  aut  aliam  ^  materiam  sustinet  nisi 
bituminatam.^  PetruSy  capitulo  quinquagesimo}^  Cujus 
loci  bitumen  seu"  gluten  nihil  potest  dissolvere/^  nisi 
duutaxat  sanguis  menstruus.  I&idorus,  libro  tertio-^ 
ded/mo.  Dicitur  etiam  mare  Mortuum,  quia  nihil 
vivum  gignit  aut  recipit.  Nam  neque  pisces,  neque 
aves  mersiles  admittit.    Sed  et*^  qusecunque  viva  im- 

^  quod  distat  a»  C.  D. 
^faciuntf  C. 

*  xvj^,t'E,,  wrongly.    See  lib.  xiii. 
c,  19. 

*  C.  and  D.  add  vero  ;  D.  omits  the 
preceding  words. 

^  ejus]  om,  B. 

*  dicitur]  om.  C,  P. 
'  qua]  hac,  C,  D. 

®  aliam]    om.    C.,  which  places 
sustinet  at  the  end. 

^  hituminata,  B. 

**  20,  B.  Both  references  seem  to 
be  false.  Petrus  Comestor  (^Hist  Lib, 
Gen.  c.  53)  has  much  in  common 
with  this  chapter,  but  not  the  clause 
for  which  his  authority  is  cited.  Jo- 
sephus  (Bell.  Jud,  lib.  iv.  c.  8.  §  4) 
is  the  authority  for  the  statement. 

"  sive^  B. 

^  dissolvere  potuit,  C,  t). 

*«  et]  om.  B. 



pe  Dede  see,  and  from  lerusalem  two  hondred  forlonges ;  Tjievisa. 
Jut  makip  fyue  and  twenty  myle,  and  departe|)  ludeam,  — - 
Palestinam^  and  Arabiam*'  Iddorus^  JSfk*  libro  tertiodecimo, 
pat  lake  ^  i^trecclie]?  from  pe  endes  3  of  ludea  no^t  fer  from 
lerico  anon  to  ]>e  Zores  ^  of  Arabia  seuene  hondred  forlonges 
and  foure  score,  ]>at^  makij>  fonre  score  mjle  and  foartene. 
pat  lake  is^  in  brede  seuene  score  forlong  and  ten,'  and 
streccbej?  nyb^  to  J>e  contrees^  of  Sodoma.  pat  lake  is 
i-cleped  lacus  Salinarum,  for  salt  is  i-made  J>ere.  Also 
fere  is  moche  glew  in  ]?at  contray ;  and  ]?erfore  it  meue])  *^ 
nou^t  for  wyndes,  for  ]?e  glew  wi]?stondeJ>  alwey :  for  water 
pat  hap  glew  stonde])  stille,  and  ]>at  lake  susteynep  no  schip 
ne  non  ojere  matere,  but  it  be  glewed.  Petrus,  capitulo 
quinquagesimo,  Nopyng  may  vndo  j>e  glewe  of  pat  place,  but 
onliche  pe  blood  pat  is  i-cleped  sanguis  menstruus*  IsidoruSy 
libro  tertio  decimo.  It  isi^  i-cleped  also  pe  Dede  see,  for 
pat  see  bryngep  forth  no  ping  pat  is  quyk  and  on  ^^  lyue  ;13 
so  pat  he  fongep  noper  water  foules,  noper  fisshes  ;  so  pat 
what  quik  pingi^  pat  it  be  i^  pat  duppep  perynne,   anon  it 

the  Dedde  see,  beenge  from  lerusalem  ii«.  forlonges,  whiche  MS.  Habl. 
do  make  xxv*^.  myles,  diuidenge  the  lewery,  Palestine,  and     2261. 
Araby.     Isidorus,  JSth.,  libro  13^     That  place  is  extendede      — 
from  the  costes  of  the  lewery,   not  ferre  from  lerico,   to 
Zores  of  Arabye  vij<^.  forlonges  and  Ixxx**,  whiche  do  make 
xc.  myles  and  iiij.     The  latitude  of  hit  is  of  cl**.  forlonges 
vn  to  nye  places  of  Sodome.      That  place  is   callede  the 
place  of  saltenesse,  in  that  salte  is  made  per.     Also  that  place 
is  callede  the  place  of  pycche,  for  it  is  ful  per  of ;  whiche 
water    susteynethe    not  eny  schippe,   but  if  hit  be  welle 
pycchede,  or  enny  other  mater.    Petrus,  capitulo  quinqua- 
gesimo*     The  pycche  or  glu   of  whiche  place  noo  thynge 
may  dissolue,   but  the   bloode    of  a  woman  suflfi'enge  the 
monethely  iufirmite :  whiche  place  noryschethe  not  fysches 
or  fooles ;  but  whikke  thynges  caste  in  to  that  water  lepe 

1  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  Abraham^  MS. 

^  So  Cx. ;  lakes,  MS.  and  a. 

'  ende,  Cx. 

*  lerico  vnto  yores,  Cx. 

^  JHif]  the  whiche,  Cx, 

«  So  Cx. ;  lakes  is,  a.  The  MS. 
omits  is,  but  has  lakes, 

'  an  honderd  andfyf&iy  furlonges, 

»  ney^y  a. 

^  centrales,  a. 

'*  moeueth  not  with,  Cx. 

'^  a.  and  Cx.  place  also  after  is. 

'*  olpie,  a,;  a  fyue,  Cx. 

^^  a.  adds  also  l>at  se  may  fonge 
noting  \>at  is  quyk  and  <m  lyzie,  Cx. 
agrees  with  MS.,  except  in  haying 
it  r^eyueth  for  hefongeit, 

^*  a.  omits  \>ing. 

^^  \>at  it  be'j  om.  Cx.,  who  has 




mers&ris  statim  prosiliuat,  mortua  vero  absorbeutur; 
adeo  ut^  lucer?ia  aocensa  superoatet,  ©xtmota  darner* 
gatur.  Joeephm,  liJbro  pnmoJ^  Hoc  patuit  in  diebus 
Vespasiani  principiis  de  duobiij^  hominibTis  qui,  naanibus 
post  terga  ligatis,  ibidem  projecti  statim  rejiciebantur.® 
IsidoTuSy  libro  qumtodecimo^  capitvh  tertio,  Eegio 
etiam^  ilia  dicta  est  Pentapolis,  a  quinque  urbibus^  impi-. 
orum  ibidem^  submersis  ct  iucineratis.  Terra  qmdem 
olim  magisi  quam  Jerusalem  uberrima^  (nam  inter  ejus 
lapides  sapphiri  et  gemm®  pretiosissimae  inveniebantur, 
et  aurmn  inter  ejus  glebas,  sicut  testatur  Job  xxiiij®.)  ® 
sed  nunc  species  et  umbra  ignis  in  ipsis  faviUis  et 
arboribus  videtur.^  Nam  poma  virentia  sub  tanta 
specie  maturitatis  nascuntur,  ut  desiderium  edendi 
gignant;  quae,  si  carpas  manu,  fatiscunt  in  cinerem, 
fumumque  exhalant  quasi  adhuc  ardeant,  Manulphus, 
Est  autem^^  et  alia  Pentapolis,  regio  in  Africa." 

*  in  tantum  ettam  uty  0«,  D.,  which 
also  haye  supematat;  C.  (not  B.) 
has  demergitur, 

^  B.  misplaces  the  extract  from 
Josephufi  in  the  following  chapter. 

^  patiebantur,  B. 

■*  Tumot  E.,  wrongly.  See  lib.  xiv. 
c.  3,  §  24, 

^  auiem,  A. 

®  civitatibuSy  0. 

^  ibidem']  om.  B. 

^  nam ...  Job]  om.  0.,  D.  B.  has 
after  Job,  capituh  suo  14.  The 
passage  intended  is  Job  xxviii.  6. 

'  videntur,  C.  D. 

^"  tameuy  B, 

"  Est  alia  tamen  Pentapolis  regio 
in  Africa,  A. 



lepe]?  vp  a^en ;  and  alle  dede  J>inges  it  swelewithi   so  fer  Trevisa. 

for}),  ]?at  a  lanterne  wif  ly^t  fletef  and  swymmeth  aboue,^      

And  ^if  J?e  li^t  is^  i-queynt,  it  duppe}>  doun  and  drjnchep. 
losepnus,  libra  prima,  pat  was  assaied  and  i-knowe  in  pat 
grete  princes  tyme  Vespasianus^  be  tweie  men  pat  were 
i-bounde  hir  hondes  by  hjrnde  hem  and  i-cast  yn  pere,  but 
anon  pey  were  i-cast  vp  a^e.  Isidarus,  libra  nana,  capiiula 
tertio,  pat  kyngdom  hatte*  Pentapolis^  also,  for  fyne 
wicked  citees  pat  pere  were  a-dreynt-  and  i-brent  to  assbes. 
pat  was^  som  tyme  more  riche  and  more  plentevous  pan 
lerusalem ;  for  saphire  ®  and  oper  wel  precious  stones  and 
golde  also  were  i-founde  among  pe  cley  of  pat  londe,  as 
lob  witnessip,  vicesimo  quarto  capitulo.  But  now  pere 
semep  somer  schadue  ^  and  liknesse  of  fuyre  bope  in  ves- 
sellesi®  and  in  trees.  For  apples  i^  pat  pere  growep  semep 
so  faire  and  so  ripe,  pat  who  pat  hem  seep  hym  wilnep^^ 
for  to  ete  $  but  pilke  apples  pat  ^^  fallep  to  asshes  ^^  anon  as 
pey  ben  ^^  i-handeled,  and  smokep  ^^  as  pei  afire  were.  !]^. 
But  pere  is  anoper  Pentapolis  in  Affrica. 

furthe  anoon,  dedde  thynges  be  deuourede  per  anoou  ;  in  so  MS.  ILuiL. 
moche  that  a  lawnterne  y-ly^htede  putte  in  to  hit  swymmethe     2261. 

above,   and  a  lawnterne   extincte  is  drownede    in   to  hit.      ' 

lasephuSf  libra  prima,  Whicbe  thynge  was  experte,  in  the 
dayes  of  Vespasian  prince,  of  ij.  men,  the  whiche  were  caste 
in  to  that  water,  theire  hondes  y^bounde  behynde  theym, 
whom  the  water  wolde  not  receyve.  Isidarus,  libra  nana, 
capitulo  tertio.  That  region  was  callede  Pentapolis,  of  the 
V.  cites  of  wickede  men  drownede  there.  That  londe  was 
somme  tyme  more  then  lerusalem  in  plentuousenesse ;  for  f.  29  a. 
saphires  and  other  precious  stones  were  founde  amonge  the 
stones  of  hit,  and  golde,  as  lob  testifiethe,  capitulo  xxiiij^. 
For  now  the  similitude  of  fire  apperethe  in  the  trees. 
For  apples  be  spronge  per  vnder  suche  a  similitude  of 
ripenes,  that  thei  move  the  appetite  of  man  to  eyte  of 
theyme ;  whiche  apples  y-taken  be  redaote  vn  to  esches,  as 
if  thei  brente,  to  this  tyme.  ^,  Also  per  is  m  other  region 
callede  Pentapolis  in  Affrike. 

*  he  swolwe];>,  a. 

^  ahoue]  om.  -Cx. 
^  is"]  be,  Cx. 

*  Vaspasiamts,  MS.,  a,  acnd  Ox. 
^  hatte']  is  called,  Cx. 

^  So  a.  and  Cx.;  Pentapoius,'M.S*t 
and  so  below. 

'  was']  vera,  Cx.,  yrho  has  no 
stop  after  asshes. 

^  yapMres,  a. ;  saphirs,  Cx. 

*  schadowe,  a. 

^'  herbiSf  Cx. 

*^  aj^olis,  a, 

"  wylleth,  Cx. 

"  \»at]  to,  a.  Probably  the  word 
should  be  simply  cancelled. 

^^  tkfflke  appek  faUen  anon  to 
asshest  Cx. 

"  5eeJ>,  a. 

1^  So  a. ;  smoked,  MS. ;  smoken^  C%. 


De  regicme  Ga/naan. 
Capitulwn  quintuindecimum} 

Canaan  regie  est  Syrias^  a  filiis  Canaan  filii  Cham 
post  diluvium  primitus  possessa^  septem  in  se  continens 
nationes,  quasi  ex  primo  Cham  fiUo  Noe  haereditarie 
maledictas.  Palaestina  provincia  est  SyrisB,  dicta  quon* 
dam  FhUistea^  cujus  metropolis  dicta  est  Philistiim,  nunc 
vero  ^  Ascalon,  ex  qua  urbe  tota  ilia  provincia  Falaestina 
seu  Philistea  vocata  est>  et  incolss  ejus  Palaestini  seu 
Philistei,  quia  Hehreus  sermo  p  litteram  non  habet  sed 
pro  eo  utitur  pk;  inde  Philistei^  quasi  Palaestini;  qui 
tamen  dicti  sunt  allopkyli,  id  est  alienigeruBy  eo  quod 
semper  fuerint  a  filiis  Israel  alieni.  Hgec  regio  habet 
ab  austro  ^gyptum,  ab  occasu^  Tyrios,  ab  aquilone  Ju- 

*  The  descriptions  of  the  provinces 
are  thus  arranged  in  C.  and  D. : 
Galilee,  Palestine»  Phenicia,  Ca- 
naan,  Cedar,  Egypt. 

*  AssyruB,  C» 

'  auteniy  B. 

^  ad  oceasum,  A. 



De  Canaa  terra.     Capitulum  guintumdeeimum.  Taevisa. 

Caxaak  is  a  reem^  of  Syria  ^  and  hatte  Canaan,  for 
Canaanes  3  children  were  'pe  firste  ]?at  woned  )>erynne  after 
Noes  flood  5  and  conteyned  seuen  ^  naciouns  acorsed  as  it 
were  by  heritage  of  Cam,^  Noes  sone.  Treuisa^  Cham 
was  Noes  sone,  and  hadde  his  fader  ^  cors ;  for  he  lowh  '^  . 
his  fader  to  scorne,  for  he  say  ^  his  priue  harneys  ^  al  bare 
and  vnheled,  while  he  lay  on  slepe.  ]^.  Palestina^^  is  a 
prouince  of  Syria,  and  J'at  hi^te  somtyme  Philistea ;  ]>e 
cheef  ^*  citee  ^erof  hi^te  Philistim,^^  and  now  hatte  Ascalon.**^ 
And  after  fat  14  citee  is  |>e  prouince  i-cleped  Palestina  oJ?er 
Philistea.  And  men  of  J>at  contrey  hatte  Palestini  and 
Philistei  also  ;  for  in  ]>e  speche  of  Hebrewes  ^^  is  no  />, 
but  instede  of  p  ]rey  use))  ph ;  ))erfore  Philistei  and  Pales- 
tini beef  all  oon,  and  beef  also  i-cleped  allophyliy  fat  is  to 
menynge  aliens  and  straunge  men,  for  fey  were  alwey  aliens 
and  straunge  to  the  folk  of  Israel,  pat  prouince  haf  in 
f e  south  side  Egipt,  in  f e  west  Tyrus,  in  f e  north  ludea, 

Capitulum  quintumdecimum.  Habl.MS. 


Canaan  is  a  region  of  Syria, ^^  possessede  firste  of  the  childre      .* 

of  Canaan,  sonnes  of  Chayin,  after  Noe  floode,  conteynenge  Canaan, 
in  hit  yij.  naciones  as  cursede  by  enheritaunce  of  Cam  the 
Sonne  of  Noe,    Palestina   is   a  prouince  off  Syria,   callede  Palestma. 
somme  tyme  Philistea,  the  chiefe  cyte  of  whom  was  called  Philistea, 
Philistijm  and  now  Ascalon,  of  whiche  cite  alle  that  prouince 
was  callede  Palestina  or  PhUistea,  and  the  inhabitatores  of 
hit  were  callede  Philisteis,  for  men  of  Ebrewe  vse  not  this 
letter,  yj  but  ph  in  the  place  of  hit.     Of  whom  the  Philisteies 
were  callede  alopkiii,^''  that  is  to  say  aliauntesy  in  so  moche 
that  they  were  straunge  alleweyes  to  the  childer  of  Israel. 
That  region  hathe  Egipte  on  the  sowthe  parte  of  hit  and 
men  of  Tire  at  the  weste,  the  lewery  at  the  northe,  and 

^  rcyamme,  Cx. 

^  Sifia,  MS.,  which  has  also  other 
slightly  nnclassical  forms  of  proper 
names  in  this  chapter. 

'  So  a.;  CtmneSy  MS. 

4  tj,y  Cx.,  who  has  aUe  before 

^  i»e  Chanif  a. 

^Jhders,  Cx.  (not  a.) 

'  lowy,  a, 

*  sawe,  Cx. 

»  membrySf  Cx. 

i<^  o]>er  Fhylistea,  added  in  a. 

11  chif  a. 

«So  a,;  PAi7w<i,MS. 

'^  So  a.  and  Cx.;  Ascelon,  MS. 

"  J>c,  o.  and  Cx. 

"  Hebrew^  Cx. 

^^  Stria,  Harl.  MS.,  and  so 

"  The  translator's  orthography, 

who  evidently  thinks  a\\6(pvAot  is 

Hebrew,  has  been  allowed  to  stand. 

Just  before  he  has  wrongly  written 

/for  J». 



dseam,  ab  ortu  Idumseam,  sic  dictam  ab  Edom  qui  et 
Esau,  quae  quidem  Idum^a  terra  est  fortis,  montuosa, 
et  oalida,  extendans  se  ad  mare  Rubrum.*  J$id(mi8^ 
libro  nono?  lu  hao  Idumsea  est  fona  Jobyn  quater  in 
anno  colorem  mutans,  ternis  scilicet  jnensibus  tenens 
colorem  pulvereum,  aliis  tribus  sanguineum,  aliis  tribus 
viridem,  reliquis  ^  tribus  limpidum  et  aqueum  colorem.* 
Palaestina  etiam  solebat  in  se  comprebendere  *  Samariam 
regionem  cujus  metropolis  Samaria,  sed  nunc  Sebaste.^ 

Samaria.  Samaria  siquidem,  a  Somer '  monte  dicta,  jacet  media 
inter  Judseam  et  Galilaeam ;  de  qua  ejectis  aliquando  et 
captivatis  incolis  introduoti  sunt  Assyrii  qui  solam  legem 
Moysis  ^  admittunt,  in  ceteris  vero  a  Judseis  discrepant. 
Et  dicti  sunt  Samaritee,  quod  sonat  custodea,  quia  populo 
terras  captivato  ad  custodiam  deputabantur,®  Sichem  vel 
Sichima  modica  est  terra  in  Samaria,  a  Sichem,  filio 
Emor,  qui  earn  incoluit,  sic  vocata.    Et  est  Sichem  urbs, 

*  Fcdcsstina  provincia  ...i?«6rMjn] 
C.  and  D.  contract  the  text  into  one 
short  sentence.  A.  omits  se  after 

2  14,  A.,  B.,  C  D,  The  place  in- 
tended occnrs  at  lib,  xiii.  c.  13,  §  8. 
Isidore,  however,  has,</b6  for  Jobyn. 
The  account  of  the  Samaritans, 
indeed,  a  little  below,  is  taken  from 
lib.  ix.  c.  1.  §  54.,  and  that  of 
Galilee  from  lib.  xiv.  c,  3.  §  23» 

^  et  reUquis,  B. 

*  colorem  limpidunif  C.  and  B.,  in 

which  other  trifling  vs^riations  also 

*  PalesUna  vero  continet  in  se,  C. 

^  sed  nunc  Sebaste^  om.  in  C, 
whichadds  quondam  vocahaiur  before 
Samaria.  D.  has  et  nunc  ab  Au' 
gttsti  nomine  vocatur  Sebasten  (sic). 

^  Samar,  A.;  Samer,  B. 

8  Moifsi,  MSS. 

®  Et  dicti,,,  deputabantur^  om,  C, 
D.,  in  which  the  whole  description 
of  Sichem  is  also  omitted.  For  de- 
putabantuT  (so  A.  smd  B.)  K  has 



in  I  pQ  est  Idumea.    Idumea  ha]?  J^e  name  of  Edom ;  Edom^  Trevisa. 

and  Esau  is   all    oon,  lacobus   broker,      pat  Idumea  is  a      

strong  londe,  bully  and  hoot,  and  strecchej)  to  fe  Rede 
see.  IsidoruSy  libra  nono.  In  fis  Idumea  is  lobus  ^  welle. 
J)at  welle  ehaunge[jj]  ^  hewe  and  colors  foure  sijes  ^  a  tore  by 
pe  monthes  ;  J>e  firste  ]>re  monies  pale  as  asshes ;  pQ  se- 
counde  J>re  monfes  reed  as  blood  5  J>e  Jiridde  ]>re  monJ>es 
grene  as  gras ;  and  pe  four]?e  pre  monies  cleer  as  water,*^ 
Falestina  was  i-woned  to  conteyne  ]?e  lend  Sanaaria.  pe 
cbeef  ^  citee  of  pat  lond  was  somtyme  i-cleped  Samaria, 
but  now  be  is  i-cleped  and  hatte  Sebaste.  Samaria  hap  pe 
name  of  pe  hille  pat  hatte  Somer,  and  Samaria  liep  bytwene 
ludea  and  Galilea.  Men  pat  woned  in  Samaria  were  i-dryuo 
oute,  and  Assyrii  were  i-brou^t  ynue.  Assyrii  boldep 
Moyses  lawe,  and  in^  oper  discordep  from  the  lewes,  and 
hotep  also  Samaritas^  pat  is  to  menynge  kepers.  For  whan 
men  of  pe  londe  were  i-take,  pey  were  ordejoied  wardeynes 
of  hem.^  Sychem,  pat  hatte  Sichema^^  also,  is  a  litel  lond 
yn   Samaria,  and  hap  pe  name  of  Sichem,  Emor  his  sone, 

Idumea  on  the  este  parte.     That  londe  is  my^hty,  fuUe  ofMS,  Harl. 
hilles,  and  hoote,  extendenge  hit  to  the  Eedde  see.     Isidorus,      2261. 
libra  quartadecima.    The  welle  of  lobyn  is  in  that  Idumea, ^^  ^ 
chaungenge  his  colour  .iiij.  tymes  in  oonyere;  in  thre  mo- j^^j^jj 
nethes  holdenge    the    colour   of   duste,   in   other    thre  the 
coloure  of  bloode,  in  oper  thre  raonethes  a  grene  coloure,  and 
in  other  thre  a  clere  colour  of  water.    Also  Palestine  was 
wonte  to  comprehende  Samaria  in  hit;  the  chiefe  place  of  Samarias. 
that  region  was  callede  Samaria,  but  nowe  hit  is  callede 
Sebaste.      Samaria  toke  the  name  of  hit  of   the  mownte 
callede  Samer,  whiche  lyethe  in  the  myddes  betwene  the 
lewery  and  Galile ;  the  inhabitatores  of  whom  somme  tyme 
eiecte  and  put  in  captiuite,  men  of  Assyria  were  introducte, 
whiche  admitte  oonly  the  lawe  of  Moyses.     In  other  thynges 
they  discorde  from  the  lewes  and  be  callede  Samaritannes, 
whiche  sowndethe  kepers^  for  they  were  deputate  to  the 
kepenge  of  that  londe,  the  peple  of  hit  putte  in  captiuite. 
Sichen  or  Sichenia  is  a  lyttelle  grownde  in  Samaria,  namede  Sicheu. 
so  of  Sichem  the  sonne  of  Emor,  whiche  inhabite  hit  firste.  t  29  b. 

^  and  in,  Cx. 
^  Edom\  added  fix>m  Cx. 
Jobyns,  a. ;  Jacobs,  Cx. 
chaungethf  Cx. 
^  a.  has  some  omissions  here. 
*  a.  and  Cx.  have  some  slight 
omisQionfi  in  the  foiegoing  eenteuce. 


'  chify  a. 

^  in]  added  from  a.;  Cx.  has  but 
in  somme  thynges  they  discorde, 
^  hum,  a, 
^®  Sychima,  a. 
"  Ydumeay  Harl.  MS. 


quae  nunc  Neapolis  dicitur,  quam  Jacob  aliqtiaiido  pecu- 
nia  et  labore  gravi  comparatam  dedit  filio  suo  Joseph  su- 
per sortem,  sicut  dicit  Hieronymus  supra  Genesim  xvill, 
Et  fuit  haec  aliquaado  urbs  refugii  cum  suburbanis 
suis  in  finibus  montis  Ephraim,*  sicut  patet  Josuse  xx. 
Nam  et  ilia  terra  fuit  de  tribu  Ephraim,  et  ibi  sepulta 
sunt  ossa  Joseph,  postquam  translata  fuerant  de  jEgypto, 
ut  patet  Josuse  ultimo.  In  quo  loco  fratres  Joseph 
paverant  greges  sues;  quern  tamen  locum  postmodum 
destruxit  Abimelech,  filius  Jeroboal.  Et  interfectis 
habitatoribus  seminavit  ibi  sal,^  ne  terra  ilia*  denuo 
germinaret,  sicut  habetur  Josuae  ix.  Ibi  quoque  fuit 
fons  Jacob,  super  quern  Christus  fessus  ex  itinere  re- 

Gaiitea.  GalUaea  regie  est  inter  Judaeam  et  Palsestinam,  quae  * 
et  duplex  est,  superior  et  inferior,  ad  invicem  contigue 
ajiherentes   Syria)  et  Phceniciae.*      Utriusque   Galilaeae 

*  Effroifm  or  Effraim,  MSS. 
^  ibidem  salem,  A« 

*  iUa}  om.  A. 

*qaai]  omi  CD. 

^  Fenici,  B.;  Phenki,  D. 



]?at  first  woned  ferynne.      Also  J>ere  is  a  citee  fat  liatte  Tiievisa. 

Sychem,  and  now  is  i-cleped  Neopolis.      J)at  citee  lacob      

bou^te  som  tyme  wij>  money  and  grete  trauaille,  and  Jaf  it 
to  loseph  his  sone  ouer^  his  lotte,  so  seij>  Hieronymus,^  Genesis, 
octodecimo  capitulo.  And  fis  was  a  cite  of  refute  ^  and 
of  socour,  so  it  is  i-write  losuae  vicesimo  capitulo.  For 
fat  lond  4  was  de  tribu  and  of  fe  lynage  of  Ephraym  ;  and 
fere  were  loseph  is*  hones  i-buried,  after  fat^  fey  were 
i-brou^te  ou^t  of  Egipte ;  witnesse  of  Holy  Writt,  losuoe 
ultimo  capitulo.  In  fat  place  loseph  his*^  breferen  fedde 
and  kepte  flokkes^  of  bestes  :  but  afterward  Abymelech,^ 
lerobabeU^  sone,  destroyed  fat  place,  and  slow  fe  men  fat 
woned  f erynne,  and  sewe  salt  f erynne,  for  fe  lond  schulde 
na  more"  bere  fruit  and  come  ;  witnesse  losase  nono  capi- 
tulo. Also  12  j^ere  is  lacohus  welle,  fat^^  Criste  reste  by, 
whan  he  was  wery  of  wey  and  of  goynge.  Galilea  is  a 
londe  bytwene  ludea  and  Palestina,  and  is  double,  f e  ouer 
Galilea  and  f  e  nef  er  Galilea,  and  ioynef  to  gidres,  and  also 
to  Syria  and  to  Phenicia  ;14  in  eyf  er  Galilea  is  good  lond 

And  Sichem  was  a  cite   whiche   is   callede  now  Neapolis,  MS.  Bxru 
whom  lacob  bou^te  for  moneye  and  grete,^''»  ^iffenge  hit  to      2261. 
loseph    his    sonne,    as  Seynte  lerom  seyethe  on  Genesim 
ca®.  xviij®.,  whiche  was  somme  tyme  the  cite  of  refute  with 
the  suburbarbes  of  hit  sette  in  the  costes  of  the  mownte  of 
Efiraym,  where  the   bones  of  loseph  were  buryede  ^^  after 
that  thei  were  translate  from  Egipte,    as  hit  is  schewede 
losuae  ultimo  capitulo.      In  whiche    place    the    breder    of 
loseph  kepede  bestes :   whiche  place  Abimelech  destryede 
after  the  son  of  Zorobabel,  sawenge  there  salte,  the  inhabi- 
tatores  of  hit  y-sleyne,  that  the  londe  scholde  not  be  plen- 
tuous,  as  hit  is  schewede  losuas  nono  capitulo.    Where  the  Pons 
welle  of  Jacob  was,  on  whom  Criste  beenge  feynte  of  labor  lacob. 
did  reste.      Galile  is  a  region    betwene    the  lewery  and  Galilea, 
Palestine,   whiche  is  duplicate,   the    superior   and  inferior, 
drawenge  to  gedre  as  contiguate  to  Syria  and  to  Phenicia  ;^^ 

*  aboue,  Cx. 

^  Iherome,  Cx. 

*  refttge,  Cx. 

*  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  MS.  adds  l>at 
(derioal  error). 

*  los^ks,  Cx.;  loseph  his,  o. 
^JHtf]  om.  Cx. 

'  Josephs,  Cx. 
®  drones  and  flockes^  Cx. 
»  So  Cx.;  Abimalecke,  MS. 
>•  lerobabeh,  a.  and  Cx, 

'1  nomore,  Cx.  (not  a.) 

*2  and,  Cx. 

*^  i^ai]  where,  Cx. 

"  Fenicia,  MS.  and  Cx. 

w  The  HarL  MS.  has  omitted 
trauaille,  or  some  such  word. 

^*  The  MS.  had  translate  before 
burpede,  but  a  pen  is  drawn  through 

"  Feniceay  HarL  MS. 




gleba  est  fertilis ;  lactis  ^  utiles  et  salubres  qui  pro  sui  ^ 
magnitudine  et  piscium  multitudine  maria  nunoupantur, 
sicut  patet  de  lacu  Tiberiadi»  et  GenesaretK^  Item* 
in  occiduis  partibus  Galilseae  inferioris  versus  mare 
magnum  juxta  Ftolemaida  (quae  est  Aeon  civitas)  *  est 
fons  quidam^  quo  metalla  injecta^  mutantur  in  vitrum. 

Cedar  est  regio  '^  in  superiori  parte  Palasstinse,  quam 
incoluit  Cedar  primogenitus  Ismaelis,®  et  post  eum  Is- 
maelitse,^  qui  verius  dieuntur  Agareni  quam  Saraceni, 
quia  ^^  de  Agar  ancilla  matre  IsmaeKs  "  sunt  progeniti ; 
sed  nomen  de  Sara  sibi^^  usurparunt.^^  Methodius, 
Hii  domos  non  sedificant,  sed  per  vastam  solitudi- 
nem  vagantes  '*  tabemacula  inhabitant,  de  prsedis 
et  venationibus  victum^^  quserentes.  Hii  aliquando 
congregati  exibtuit  de  desettis  et  occupabunt^^  orbem 
terrse  per  octo  hebdomadas  annorum,  urbes  subvertent. 

^  Utriusque  gleba  fertUis*    Locus 
habentf  ^c.,  C,  D. 
«  suq  oiii.  C.  (not  r>.) 
»SoB.j  G^esdr,  A.J  O.J  B.,  E. 

*  Item]  om.  C,  D. 

*  quee  est  Aeon  civitas]  om,  C,  D. 
^  injecta]  om.  B. 

'  nomen  est  regUmiSi  0«,  D. 
"  Ismael^  A. 

*  Cedar,  flius  Ismaelis,  et  post- 
mdum  IsMaditcB,  B»$  hanc  {iameriy 

B.)  terram  postremo  (postmodum^  B.) 
incoluerunt  Ism»,  C,  D. 

"  qui,  A. 

"  matre  /«i».]  om.  C.,  B. 

^*  ibi  tisurpant,  B. 

'^  sed  ...  ttsurparunt]  qtuidi  nsur* 
pato  nomine,  C,  D.,  which  arrange 
the  clanses  differently. 

^*  vagantes]  om.  B. 

"  victum]  vitam,  C,  B. 

^'^  occupabunt]  obtinebunt^  C,  D. 



and  gi'eet  plente  of  corne  and  of  fruit,  grete  lakes   and  Trevisa. 

huge,  profitable  and  heleful,^  and  som  lake*  is  so  huge^  and      

so  ful  of  fische  pat  me  clepep  it  a^  see.  So  J?e  lake 
of  Tiberiadis  is  i-cleped  pe  see  of  Tiberiadis,  and  Genosai* 
pat  lake  is  i-cleped  ^so.  Also  in  pe  west  side  of  pe  ueper 
Galilea  toward  pe  grete  see  fast  by  pat  citee  Ptolemaida,^ 
pat  hatte  Acon^  also,  is  a  welle  pat  tornep  into  glas^  al 
metal  pat  is  cast  perynne.  Cedar  is  a  londe  yn  pe  ouerside 
of  Palestina,  and  hap  pe  name  of  pat  Cedar  pat  wonede 
perynne,^  pat  Cedar*  was  Ismael  his  eldest  sone*  pe 
ofspringe  of  Cedar  and  of  Ismael  were  afterwarde  i-cleped 
Ismaelitae,  and  also  Agareni  more  ri^tfulliche  pan  Saraceni,^ 
for  pey  come  of  Agar  pat  was  Ismael  his  moder  and  serued 
Sarra,  but  afterward  for  pryde  pey  toke  wrongfuUiche  pe 
name  of  Sarra  and  cleped  hem  Saraceni.  Methodius,  pese 
men  hauep  nooti  hous  but  walkep  in  wildetnesse  and  wonep 
in  tabernacles  and  in  teeldis,*^  and  lyuep  by  prayes  ^*  and  by 
venysoun*  pese  men  schole^^  eomtyme  gadete  to  gidres 
and  goo  out  of  wildernesse  and  occupie  the  londes  aboute 
ei^t  wekes  of  ^eres,  pat  is  ei^te  sipes  seuene  ^ere,  and  pey 

r.fcj  -•  I-  iMj 

eiper  of  hit  is  plentuous,  hauenge  projfitable  waters  and  MS.  Harl. 
wholsome,  whiche  be  callede  sees  what  for  the  magnitude  2261. 
of  theyme  and  for  the  copious  multitude  of  fisches,  as  the 
water  of  Tiberiadis  and  of  Genazareth,  Also  there  is  a 
welle  in  to  whom  metalles  caste  he  turnede  in  to  glasse  in 
the  weste  partes  of  the  inferior  Galile,  towarde  the  grete 
see  uye  to  Ftolemaida,!^  whiche  is  the  cite  of  Achon.  Cedar  Cedar, 
is  a  region  in  the  superior  parte  of  Palestine,  whom  Cedar 
the  firste  son  of  Tsmael  didde  inhabite ;  after  hym  callede 
more  truly  Agareni  then  Saraceni ;  for  the  progenye  of 
theyme  descendede  from  Agar,  seruaunte  and  moder  of 
Ismael,  vsurpenge  to  theyme  the  name  of  Sara«  Methodim^ 
Theye  edifie  noo  howses,  but,  goenge  by  a  waste  wildemes, 
inhabite  tabernacles,  gettenge  theire  meyte  thro  preyes  and 
huntenges.  These  men  somme  iyme  congregate  schalle  goe 
furthe  from  deserte,  and  schalle  occupye  alle  the  worlde  by 
viij.  wekOS  off  yeres,  subuertenge  citees  and  defilenge  holy 

^  heSjpJtdi  a.  and  Cx. 

*  oretet  Cx. 

^  So  a,  and  Ox. ;  pe^  MS, 

*  Pihohmmda^  MS.,  a.,  and  Cx. 

*  Acres,  Cx. 
'  aghs,  a, 

"*  i>at  wonede  l>erynne']  Added  from 
a.  aad  Cx. 

»  Cedar}  Added  from  »,  and  Ox. 

»  Sareeeny,  MS» 

^^  tenteSf  Cx. 

"  praye.  Ox. 

^^  schtdle,  a.;  shal,  Cx* 

1«  Ptohmmda,  HarL  MS. 



sacra  loca  polluent,  saeerdotes^  Occident,  ad  sanctorum 
sepulcra  ligabunt  jumenta  sua;  et  hoc  pro  nequitia 
Christianorum.^  Bcmulphus.  Ista  videntur  impleri  sub 
ultimis  temporibus  Heradii  Imperatoris,  quando  ^  Macho- 
metus  pseudo-propheta  Fersas  occupa-vit,  iEgyptmn  et 
Africam  subjugavit,  nefariamque  sectam  Saracenorum 
commentavit,*  sicut  inferius  post  tempera  Heraclii 
planum  erit.^ 

Phcenicia.  Methodius.  Phoenicia  est  regio  in  qua  Tyrus  et  Sidon 
comprehenduntur  ^  habens  ab  ortu  Arabiam,  ab  austro 
mare  Rubrum,  a  septentrione  montem  Libani,  ab  occasu 
mare  magnum.  Isidorus,  libro  secundo,  capitulo  quinto, 
Istis  Phoenicibus  tradidit  Phenix  filius  Agenoris  quas- 
dam  litteras  vermiculatas,  undo  et  color  ille  Phoenicius 
dictus  est,  et  postmodum  littcra  mutata  Puniceus  dice- 
batur.  HugvMo,  capitulo  Phcenix,  Et  quia  Phcenices 
fuerunt  primi  litterarum  inventores  adhuc  Ktteras  capi- 
tales  rubeo  colore  scribimus,  ut  sic  reprgBsentemus  eos 
fuiase  litterarum  repertores. 

^  B.  adds  autem, 

^  nequitits  Chrisiianorum  qnasfa- 
ctent,  added  in  0«,  D, 

^  Hoc  impletum  est  tempore  Heradii 
imperatoris  quando^  Sfc»,  C,  D, 

*  commentavit']  adinvenit»  C,  P. 

'  sicut  infra  sub  tempore  Heraclii 
continetuTy  C,  D. 

^  regio  est  in  qua  sunt  Sidon  et 
7)frtt8,  C,  D*,  which  omit  the  re- 
mainder of  the  chapter  after  mare 
magnumy  as  does  also  B, 



schuUej)  1  ouertome  citees  and  townes,  and  slee  preesfces,  and  Tbevisa. 

defouie  derkes  and  holy  places,  and  teie  her  ^  bestes  to  tombes      

of  holy  3  seyntes  ;  fat  schal  byfalle  for  wickednesse  of  euel 
lyuynge  of  Cristen  men.  ^.  pis  doynge  seme]>  fulfilde  in 
]>e  laste  tyme  of  Heraclius  J>e  emperour,  whan**  fat  false 
prophete  Machometys^  occupied  Persida^  and  made  Egipte 
and  Affrica  sogett,^  and  wroot  and  broutt  yn  ]>e  false  lawe 
and  secte  of  Sariwms,  as  it  is  inneriiore»  pleyn  i-write 
after  Heraclius  tyme.  Phenicia*  is  a  lend  in  ]?e  whiche 
is  conteyned  tweye  londes,  Tyrus  and  Sidon,  and  haf  in  fe 
est  side  Arabia,  in  ]>e  souf  fe  Bede  see,  in  fe  norf  ]>e  hil 
f e  mount  Libany,*®  and  in  f e  west  fe  grete  see.  Isidarus, 
libro  secundoy  capitulo  quinto,  Phenix,  Agenoris  sone,  by 
toke  rede  lettres  to  fe  Phenices,  fat  beef  men  of  Phenicia, 
and  ferfore  fat  colour  was  i-cleped  Phenidus ;  and  after- 
ward f e  lettre  chaunged,  and  fan  it  was  i-cleped  PuniceuSy 
fat  is,  reed.  HugOy  capitulo  Phcenix*  For  Pheniciens^^  were 
f e  ^2  firste  fynderes  of  lettres,  ^it  we  writef  capital  lettres 
wif  reed  colour,  in  token  and  mynde  fat  Phenices  were 
f e  1^  firste  fynders  of  lettres. 

places  «challe  sle  prestes  makenge    faste  theire  bestes  atMS^H^Bi.. 
the    sepulcres    of   seyntes,    and    this    schalle  falle  for  the     2261. 
wickidnesse  and  synne  of  Cristen  men.     ^.     'Fhese  thynges 
seme  to  have  bene  fuUefiUede  in  the  tyme    of   Heraclius 
themperoure,   when    Machomete  the    false    prophete    occu- 
piede  Persa,  Egipte,  and  made  Affi*ike  subiecte  to  hym,  com- 
mentenge  the  wickede  secte  of  Saracenys,  as  hit  schal  be 
expressede  after  the  tymes  of  Heraclius.   Phenicia  is  a  region  Phenicia. 
in  whom  Tyrus  and   Sidon  be   comprehendede,  hauenge  of  £  30.  a. 
the  este  parte  off  hit  Araby,  of  the  sowthe  the  Kedde  see, 
of  the  nprthe  the  mownte  of  Libanus,  of  the  weste  parte 
the   grete   see.     Isidorus,   libro    secundoy   capitulo    quinto, 
Phenix  the  sonne  of  Agenoris  toke  to  these  Feniceonnes 
Bomme  redde   letters,  wherefore   that   colour   was    callede 
pheniceus,  and  after  a  letter  chaungede  hit  was  puniceus. 
Hugo,  capitulo  PJuBnix.    And  for  cause  men  of  that  cuntre 
were  the  firste    fynders    of   letters  we  wryte  vn  to   this 
tyme  the  capitalle  letters  with  a  redde  color,  that  we  may 
represente  theyme  to  be  the  firste  fynders  of  letters. 

<  shaly  QiLy  as  usual. 

*  here,  o. 

'  a.  omits  holy. 

*  So  Cx. ;  what,  MS. 

*  M€tchometes,  a. 

*  So  Cx.  and  a. ;  Persidia,  MS. 
^  subgette,  Cx. 

^  ynnere  more,  a. 

»  Fenicia,  MS.,  but  Phenyx  and 

VOL.  I. 

Phenisia  just  below  ;  and  so  a., 
(nearly).  Harl.  MS.  has  .F  every- 

*^  Perhaps  this  is  meant  for  the 
genitive ;  and  if  so  should  be  edited 
/jihani,  as  Cx.  has  it,  who  omits  \>e 
hil;  a.  agrees  with  MS. 

*'  Phenices,  a,  and  Cx. 

*^  a.  and  Cx.  omit  l»e  (twice). 




Cap.  XVL 

De  JSgypto} 

Ab  iEgypto  Danai  fratre  dicta  est  j3Egyptiis,  quae  quon- 
dam® Aerea^  vocabatur,  ab  ortu  habens  mare  Kubrum, 
ab  austro  Nilum  flumen  et  iEthiopes,  a  septentrione 
mare  magnum  et  partem  Syrise  superiorem^  ab  occasu 
Libyam.  Est  itaque  -^yptus  regio  imbri  insueta,^  a 
solo  Nilo  flumine  irrigata  et  foecundata,  frugum  et 
mercium  copiosa.  Petrus,  capituh  nonagesimo  quarto,^ 
iEgyptus^  contra  naturam  aliarum  regionum^  quando 
abundat  iragibus,®  sterilis''  est  in  pascuis,  et  e  contra. 
Nam  diutumior^  mora  Nili  fluminis  super  terram  tem- 
pera ^  cultursD  ^®  impedit  vel  sata  extinguit,  et  tunc  pas- 
cua  nutrit.  Ibi  abundant  cocodrilli,^^  et  hippotauri,  qui 
sunt  equi  fluviales*^^  ^gyptus  ad  ortum  sui  vastam 
habet  eremum  ^^  varia  monstra  continentem^  ad  ejus  oc- 

^  Title  wanting  in  the  Latin  MSS. 
B.  ha8  Egiptus  in  margin. 

^  ^gyptus  ab  ^gypto  Danuifrci- 
tre  sic  dicta  quondam,  CD. 

»  So  the  MSS.  See  Eus.  Chran, 
Can,  (voL  2.  p.  61.,  ed.  Anch.) 
Isid.  lib.  xiv.  c,  2.  §  27,,  where  it  is 
written  Aeria. 

*  inconsueta,  C. ;  m^nsueta,  D. 


^  in  Jrugibzis,  B. 

'  tunc  sterilis,  C.  (not  D.) 

^  Diutumior  enim,  CD. 

^  tempom]  tempore,  £. ;  opns,  B. 

**  cukura]  colendi,  CD. 

"  So  all  the  MSS. 

^ypotauri  (sic)  et  Jluvtdks  equif 

^3  Ad  orientem  sui  vasium  (sic)  kabet 
tremunif  CD. 



De  ^gppti  provinciis.     Capitulum  sextum  decimum.         Tkbvisa. 

Egipte  haj>  fe  name  of  Egipt,  Danay  his  bro})er,'  and 
hi^te  2  somtyme  Aer[e]a,3  and  ha]>  in  ])e  est  side  fe  Eede  see, 
in  "pe  south  ]>e  ryner  Nilus  and  Blomen^^^  in  fe  north  fe 
grete  see  and  fe  ouere  partie  of  Syria^  and  in  pe  west 
Libya.  Egipt  is  silde  bereyne,®  and  ha]?  water  and  moisture 
onliche  of  J>e  ryuer  Nilus,  and  is  riche  of  come  and  fruit  and 
marchaundise.^  PetruSy  capituh  nonagesimo  quarto.  Egipte 
a^enst  kynde  of  oper  londes  hap  plente  of  com ;  he  is 
bareyne^  of  lesue,^  and  whan  he  haj>  plente  of  lesue  it»  is 
bareyne  of  com.  For  whan  pe  ryuer  Nilus  is  vppe  and  ouer 
wexip  and  ouerflowej)  pe  londe  and  abidejj  longe  in  seed 
tyme,  or^^  pe  flood  wif  drawe,  it  lettef  sowynge  and  drenchej?^* 
pe  seed ;  and  bo  corne  is  destroyed,  and  lesue  and  gras 
growep  after  in  tyme.  J)ere  beej>  cokkedrilly  ^^  and  hippo- 
tauri  *'  also,  fat  bee])  water  hors.^^  Egipt  ha]>  in  pe  est  side 
a  grete  wilderaesse  and  dyuerse  manere  bestes  wonderliche 

Capitulum  sextum  decimum, 

Egipte  toke  the  name  of  hit  of  Egjrptus,  bro]>er  off  Danay,  MS.  Karl. 
which  was  callede  somme  tyme  Aeria,  hauenge  on  the  este      2261. 

parte  to  hit  the  Redde  see,  of  the  sowthe  Nilus  and  men      

of  Ynde,  of  the  northe  the  grete  see  and  the  superior  parte  -^fiyP*™^- 
of  Syria,  of  the  weste  parte  the  mownte  of  Libanus.  'this 
region  of  Egipte  is  not  vse^e  to  reyne,  hauenge  water  oonly 
of  that  floode  callede  Nilus,  plentuous  of  come  and  copious 
of  marchandise.  Petrus,  capitulo  nonagesimo  quarto.  When 
Egipte  is  plentuous  of  come,  hit  is  bareyne  in  pastures, 
ageyne  the  nature  of  other  regiones  and  in  contrary  wyse  ; 
for  the  taryenge  of  ])at  floode  callede  Nilus  on  the  londe 
lettethe  the  tymes  of  plowenge,  other  destryethe  comes  and 
then  hit  noryschethe  pastures.  Cocodrilles  be  habundaunte 
there  and  horses  of  the  floode,  callede  hippotauri.^^  Egipte 
hathe  at  the  este   parte  of  hit  waste  deserte,  conteynenge 

'  Danays  hroder,  Cx. 
'  highte,  Cx.,  inconsistently.    See 
p.  115. 
'  AereOy  a.  ;  Aeria,  Cx, 

'^  So  a.  $  Blomem,  MS. ;  Bloc  merit 

^  t$  sylde  bereyne,  a. ;  is  zdde  be- 
raynd  (so),  Cx.  j  bareyne,  MS. 
*  offruyt  and  of,  Cx. 
'  haraffUy  a. 

'  lesef  a ;  pasture,  Cx.,  Mrho  omits 
two  or  three  lines  here. 

^  he^  a.  (more  consistently.) 

^*  ar,  a. 

"  adrencke\f,  a. 

*2  cocodnUy,  a, ;  cocodryUy,  Cx. 

1'  ipotatfri,  MS.  ;  ipotauryy  a.  ; 
ypotamy,  Cx.,  which  is  nearer  the 
truth,  hut  may  be  his  own  correction. 

^*hors]  horses,  Cx,  (not  a.) 

»  ypotaurty  HarL  MS. 

I  2 



cidentem  est  regio  Canopea,  quse  quidem  insula  finis 
est  ^gypti,  et  Libyae  principium,  Ibique  est  ostium 
Nili  fluminis,  ubi  cadit  ^  in  mare  magnum.  Ranvlphus. 
Nilus  tamen  qui  et  Gyon,*  quamvis  ^  legatur  de  Para- 
diso  procedere,  asseritur  tamen  oriri*  in  oocidentali^  fine^ 
iBthiopiae,  non  procul  ab  Atlantico  monte^  qui  inde  cir- 
cuiens  ^Ethiopiam,  descendit  per  jEgyptum,  cujus  plana 
irrigat,  atque  ratione  limositatis  quam  secum  trahit  ter- 
ram  foecundat.  Et  sic,  secundum  Hieronymum  super 
Amos  prophetam,  Nilus  Dei  dispositione  totam  iEgyp- 
tum  irrigat.  Oumulis  enim  arenarum  daudentibus 
ostium  ejus  ne  cite  in  mare  magnum  descendat,  post 
irrigationem  praefatam  solutis  arenis  ^edit  in  alveum 
suum.  Et  ^  tandem  ad  ^  mare  tendens  juxta  Canopeam 
et  Libyam  a  mari  magno  absorbetur.  Vult  tamen  Isi- 
dorus,  libro  tertio  decimo,  quod  Nilus  aquilonis  ^  fiatibus 
repercussus  ^^  aquis    sic  retro  luctantibus  intumescit." 

*  ubicadW]  cadentis,  D. 
^  aut  Gion,  B. 

3  quamvis^  si,  C. ;  licet,  D, 

*  oritur  tamen,  CD, 

*  orientaliy  D. 

*  ad  occidentaJesJineSf  B. 

'  St  sic,  CD. 

«  in,  B. 

*  ab  aquUonis,  A* 

"  repercussis,  A. 

^*  intumescitj  intnmescat,  CD. 


i-schape,*  and   in  pe  west  Canopea,  fe  whiche  ilond  is  ]>e  Thevisa. 

ende    of  Egipte  and  bygynnynge  of  Libya,     pere  is  ]>e      

mouf  2  of  Nilus,  for  fere  Nilus  falle]?  into  pe  grete  see.  !^. 
pej  me  3  rede  in  bookes,  fat  Nilus,  fat  hatte  Gyon  also, 
rennef  out  of  Paradys ;  ^it  it  is  i-seide  fat  Nilus  springef 
vp  in  fe  west  4  ende  of  Ethiopia  nou^t  fer  from  fe  huUe 
fat  hatte  Mons  Atlas.^  And  fan  Nilus  goof  forf  aboute 
Ethiopia  and  doun  into  Egipt,  and  ouerflowef  f  e  pleyn 
contraies  of  Egipt,  and,  by  cause  of  slym  fat  rennef  f  erwith, 
he^  makef  fe  londe  fatte  and  good  to  here  good  7  corne  and 
fruit.  So,  self  Hieronymus  vppon  fe  prophete  Amos,  by 
Groddis  owne  ordenaunce  Nilus  ouerflowef  and  wateref  al  f  e 
lond  of  Egipte,  for  hepes  of  grauel  stoppef  his  cours,  fat  he 
may  nou^t  anon  ^  falle  into  f e  grete  see ;  but  after  fat 
he  haf  so  biflowe  and  i-watred  f  e  lond,  f  e  hepes  of  grauel 
to  schedef  and  to  fallef  j  ^  and  fan  f e  water  fallef  into  f e 
Chanel  a^e,  and  so^^  rennef  into  fe  grete  see.    Neuerfeles**  , 

Isidre  seif,  libro  tertio  decimo,  fat  Nilus  is  i-dreue  a^e*^  ^^d 
i-lette  of  his  cours  wif  f  e  norf  ern  wynde ;  and  so  f  e  water 
swellef,  and  ^*  flowef  and  wexef  greet ;  but  Beda  in  libro  de 

diuerse  wonders,   at  the  weste  parte  of  whom  is  a  region  MS.  Habl» 
callede  Canopia,  whiche  yle  is  the  ende  of  Egipte  and  the      2261. 

begynnenge  of  Libia,  where  the  durre  of  the  floode  callede      

Nilus  is,  where  hit  fallethe  in  to  the  grete  see.     ]^    Nilus 
or  Gyon  tha^^he  hit  be  affermede  to  haue  begynnenge  from 
paradise,  hit   is'  seyde  to  haue  his  originalle  in  f  e  weste 
partes  of  the   end  of  Ethiop,  not  ferre  from  the  mownte 
Atlantike,  whiche    compassenge    Ethioppe    descendethe    by 
Egipte,  the  pleyne  cuntres  of  whom  hit  dothe  watre  and 
makethe  the  londe  plentuous  thro  slycche  that  hit  drawethe 
with  hit.    And  so,  after  seynte  lerom  super  Amoff  prophetam, 
that  floode  called  Nilus  thro  the  disposicion  of  G^d,  watrethe 
alle  Egipte,  the  grete  hepes  of  gravelle  schuttenge  the  durre 
of  hit,  ^at  hit  scholde  not  descende  soone  in  to  the  grete  £  3o.  b. 
see :  after  the  seyde  waterenge,  the  hepes  of  the  gravelle 
loosede,  hit  descendenge  nye  to  Canopea  and  Libia  is  re- 
cey vede  of  the  grete  see.    Neuerf  elesse  Isoder  wille,  libro 
13%  that  Nilus  swellethe  thro  northe  wyndes  waters  mak- 
enge  grete  stryvenge*  behynde  hit ;  but  Beda,   de  Naturis 

^  wrouytf  a.;  shape,  Cx. 

^  So  a.;  and  Cx.  ;  money,  MS. 

3  Though  men,  Cx.  (as  usual) ; 
not  a. 

*  est,  a.  (not  Cx.) 

^  Atldas,  MS.,  a.,  and  ^x.  (as 

« fie]  it,  Cx.  (and  so  often.) 

'  Cx.  omits  good. 
*a«o«]  lyghtly,  Cx, 
'  departe  and  befaUe,  Cx.,  who 
prints,  however,  to  shedeth  below. 
"  so"]  om.  Cx. 
"  netheles,  Cx. 
'2  dnfuen  agayn,  Cx. 
"  and]  om.  Cx,        . 



Sed  Beda,  in  Kbro  de  naturis  rerum,  didt  quod  Zephjmis 
flans  in  mense  Maio  arenas  cumulat  qnibus  *  Noli  ostia 
praestruuntur.  Sicque  Nilus,  ex  repercussione  et  prse- 
structione^  intnmescens,  plana  terrae  irrigat,  cessante 
autem  vento  solutisque  arenis  redit  in  alveum,  per 
quern  in  mare  magnum  descendit.^ 

Cap.  XVIL 
De  Scythia} 

MEMOEAKDUld:  est  hie  quod^  ScytMa  duplex  est^ 
superior  in  Asia^  inferior  in  Europa.  Scythia  ergo^ 
superior  regio  magna  ostein  aquilone>  plurimum  inha- 
bitabilis  propter  fiigus.  Ab  ortu  Indise/  a^  septentrione 
oceanO;  a  meridie  Caucaso^  ab  occasu  usque  ad  Germa- 
nise principium  quondam  ^^  porrigebatur.  Modo  vero 
minor  effeeta  ad  sui  occasum  Hyrcani^  copulatur.  In 
qua  terra  sunt  montes  Hyperborei,  gripbes  immanes, 
aurum,  gemmae,  et  smaragdi  Tragus,  Ubro  eecfwado}^ 
Gentis  iUius  agrorum^^  nulli  fines  distincti  neque  ex- 

'  ex  quibtts,  B. 

^  So  A. ;  presHecione,  E.  B.  omits 
et  prasintctione. 

^  SedBeda  ....  descenditj  om. 

*  Title  wanting  in  the  tatin  MSS. 
B.  lias  Scythia  (Scicia)  in  margin. 

^Memorandum  ....  quod]  om. 

•  ergo}  So  A.BiD.B.  5  vero,  C. 

^  est  magna,  A.    D.  omits  est 

^  Judea,  A. ;  Judeam,  B.,  wliich 
has  also  oceanim,  and  Caucasum 
just  afterwards. 


^^  quondam]  om.  D.    ' 

"  prtmOf  B.  (at  length),  wrongly. 
See  Jii|p,  lib.  ii.  capp.  1-5. 

1*  agr&rum]  om,  C.  (not  D.) 



naturis  seij)  fat  ])is  *   northeme  wynde  blowe]>  in  May,  and  T  bevisa. 

stoppe]?  2    jje   cours   of   j>e   water    of   Nilus   wif  hepes   of     

grauel ;  and  so  fe  water  arise])  and  ouerfloweth  ]>e  londe ; 
but  whan  I?e  wynde  cesef,  J?e  grauel .  to  schedep  and  ]>e 
water  falle^  in  to  fe  chand,  and  so  turneth^  dounward 
in  to  fe  grete^*  see. 

De  Scythia.^     Capitulum  sepUmum  decimum* 

Hebe  take  hede  of  tweie  londes,  eiper  hatte  ^  Scythia ;  ye 
ouere  is  in  Asia,  ]?e  nefere  in  ^  Europa ;  pe  ouere  Scythia 
is  a  grete  londe  in  fe  north,  and  ha|>  moche  wildemes  by 
cause  of  greet  colde  and  chele,  and  strecchef®  somtyme 
estward  anon  to^  Ljde,^'^  northwarde  to*^  occean,  southward 
to  ye  hille  Caucasus,  westward  anon  to  Germania;^^  ]yjjj^ 
now  he  is  i-made  lasse,  and  v  ende]>  in  ye  west  side  to  ^^ 
Hyrcania.  In  ye  whiche  londe  beej>  ye  hilles  Iperborey, 
greet  grypes,  gold  and  smaragdes,  and  oyer  precious  stones. 
TroguSy  libro  secundo.    pilke  men  destinge]>  nou^t  no]>er  to 

rerum,  seyethe  in  this  wise,  that  the  sowthe  wynde  blawenge  MS.  IIasl. 
in  the  monethe  of  May  makethe  hepes  of  gravelle,  fro  whom     2261. 
the  durres  of  that  floode  callede  Nilus  be  stoppedde,  fro      "~~ 
whiche  stoppenge  the  pleyne  growndes  of  Egipte  be  replete 
with  water ;  that  wynde  seasenge  and  the  gravelles  y-loosede 
hit  retumethe  in  to  his  place,  by  whom  hit  descendethe  in 
to  the  grete  see. 

Capitulum  septimum  decimum. 

Hit  is  to  be  attendede  that  Scythia  is  duplicate,  the  supe- 
rior in  Asia,  the  inferior  in  Europa.  The  superior  Scylhia 
is  a  grete  region  moche  inhabitable  in  the  northe  parte  of 
hit  for  coldenesse,  coplede  of  the  este  parte  to  Ynde,  of  the 
northe  to  the  occean,  of  the  sowthe  the  hille  caUede  Caucasus, 
somme  tyme  porrecte  in  to  the  begynnenge  of  Germanye, 
now  hit  is  made  lesse,  and  copulate  to  the  region  of  Hircany 
to  the  weste  parte  of  hit.  In  whiche  londe  be  the  hilles 
Tperboreus,  huge  griphonnes,  golde,  gemmes,  and  smaragdis. 
Tragus^  libro  secundo.    There  be  noo  endes  'distincte  of  the 

'  J)ts]  J>e,  Cx. 
2  stopped^  Cx. 

•  tumeV\  renneth,  Cx. 

*  So  Cx.;  rcJe,  MS. 

« Both  MS8.,  a.  andCx.  here  and 
below  give  Sdcia  or  Sicia ;  other 
proper  names  are  also  a  little  cor- 

^  that  eche  of  hew.  is  named,  Cx. 

''  is  in,  Cx. 
'  streiyte,  a. 

®  anon  to"]  vnto,  Cx.,  and  so  below. 
^»  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  >c  ende,  MS. 
"  to]  toward,  Cx. 
'2  lermania,   MS.,  and  «,  ;    but 
elsewhere  (asp,  171)  spelt  correctly, 
»  So  0.,  Cx. ;  of,  MS. 



cult]»  Nulla  illis^  domus.  XjTxores  et  liberos  in  plaus- 
tris  vehunt.  Coriis  ferinis  tecti,  laneis  vestibus  non 
utuntur.  Lacte  et  melle  pasti,  aurum  et  argentum  non 
curant.  Nihil  parant  quod  amittere  timent.  Nullum 
apud  eos  deUctum  forto  gravius.  Victores  effecti»  nihil 
prsater  gloriam  concupiscunt.  Nulli  hominum  unquam 
jsubacti,'  Vesorem*  regem  ^gypti  debellaverunt;*  Ba- 
rium regem-  Persarum  fiigarunt;  Cyrum  regem  trucida- 
runt;  Zephironem,^  Alexandri  magni  ducem,  cum  suis 
copiis  deleverunt,  Asiam  ter  conquisierunt/  quse  eis  post- 
modum  per  mille  quingentos  annos®  vectigalis  mansit^ 
Viri  eorum  Parthos  et  Bactrianos,  feminse  eorum  Ama- 
zonum  regna  condiderunt.  Incertumque  est  apud  illos 
quis  sexus  illustrior  fuerit.  In  prima  namque  expedi- 
tione  ^®  Asiana,  post  Vesorem  regem  uEgypti  ftigatum,  in 

^  ittis]  om.  A.    B  has  eis. 

'  effecti\  om,  CD. 

«  8ubact%\  subject!,  CD. 

*  Vesogem^CSi.  The  name  of  this 
king  is  given  as  Vexcris  in  Greevius' 
edition  of  Justin  (m.  «.),  where, 
however,  the  MSS.  differ  ;  Vossius 
conjectures  Sesosis,  B.,  by  accident, 
has  victorie  here,  but  reads  Vesorem 

'  So   E.,    in    full  ;    debelltwunt, 

•  Zephironam,  A.B.CD.  The  true 

form  is  ZopyrioTut*    See  Justin,  lib. 

ii.  c.  3. 

^  conquesieruntf  MSS. 

*  armos']  om.  E. 

'  qtuB'  eis  per  multoa  annos  vecti- 
galisfuit,  CD. 

**  expeditione"]  om.  A. 



sette  her  feeldes  by  boundes,  nofer  by  meres ;  ^  fey  hauej?  Trevisa. 

non  house  yn  for  to  wonye  ;  her  wyfes  and  here  children      

pei  ledep  in  cartes  ;  and  fey  beef  i-clofed  in  wylde  bestes 
skynnes.  WoUen  clof es  usef  fey  nou^t :  ^  fey  lyuetf  by 
mekk  ^  and  by  hony ;  fey  recchef  nou^t  of  gold,  nof er  of 
siluer;4  fei  greifef  «"^  no  fing  fat  fey  dredef  to  lese,  fey 
acountef  no  trespas  gretter  fan  robberie  ;  here  werrioures  ^ 
and  victoures  desiref  not  ^  but  worschippe  :  fey  were  neuere 
soget  to  no  man.^  J)ey  oueircome  ^  Vesore  f  e  kyng  of  Egipte 
in  werre  and  batayle,  Darius  f e  kyng  of  Pers  '*  fey  chasede , 
and  ferede,  and  made  him  flee.  Cyrus  fe  kyng  fey  slowh. 
Also  fei  destroyed  Zephirona  and  his  riches  ;  Zephirona  was 
fe  greet  Alexander  his  ledere.^^  pries  fey  conquered  Asia, 
and  Asia  was  afterwarde  tributarie  to  hem  a  f  owsand  ^ere 
and  fyue  hondred.  pe  men  of  f  is  peple  be  ^^  by  hem  selue 
and  fe  ^^  women  by  hem  self.  Also  fey  made  ^**  kyngdoms  of 
dyuerse  londes ;  f e  ^^  men  made  of  Parthia  and  Bactria,  and 
f  e  wommen  i^  made  of  Amazonia  kyngdoms  mytty  and  stronge, 
and  so  it  is  among  hem  vncerteyn  and  vnknowe  whefer  is 
more  worfy  and  more  noble  in  kynde,i^  men  or  wommen.^^ 
In  f e  firste  iourney  in  Asia  after  fat  fey  hadde  i-dreue  and 
i-chased  and  i-pursewed  Vasore  f  e  kyng  of  Egipt  in  to  f  e  ^^ 

feldes  of  that  peple.     Thei  haue  noo  howses,  caryenge  theire  MS.  Habi.. 

wyfes  and  chil&en  in  waynes  couerede  with  the  skynnes  of     2261. 

wilde  bestes   and  not  clothes  of  woUe, .  fedde  with  mylke 

and  hony,  ^iffenge  noo  attendence  to  golde  and  siluyr,  whiche 

ordeyne  not  eny  thynge  that  thei  drede  to  lose.     There  is 

noo  trespace  to  theym  more  grevous  than  thefte,  whiche 

beynge  victores  desire  no  moore  but  glory ;  not  subiecte  to 

eny  man,  causenge  Darius  kynge  of  Persa  to  take  fli^hte, 

sleenge  the  kynge  callede  Cyrus,  and  Zephirona  ^^  the  nowble 

di^ke  of  kynge  Alexander  with  his  hoste,  conquerenge  twyes 

Asia,  whiche  was  tributary  to  theim  by  m*.  and  y^^  yeres ; 

the  women  of  whom  made  the  realmes  of  Amasonnes ;  hit 

is  incerteyne  to  theym  whefer  kynde  be  more  nowble.    In 

tjie  firste  expedicion  Azian,^®  after  Vesour  the  kynge  of  Egipte 

'  neUiermarke  her fddes  by  boundes f 
ne  by  dyches,  Cx. 
^  none,  Cx. 

*  melk,  a.;  mylk,  Cx. 

*  selver,  a, 

^  make,  Cx* 

*  jnen  ofwarre,  Cx. 
^  nothing,  Cx. 

^  subget  yet  to  (my  man,  Cx. 

*  ouercame,  Cx.  (not  a.) 

"  BeffemPersarum,a,  \fered  Darius 
the  kynge,  Cx.,  who  has  sloughe  Cyrus 

^*  Alysaunders  capytayn,  Cx. 
'*  6e]  Added   from    Cx,   (ahsent 
from  a.) 
"  om.  J>fi. 

"  made^  Added  from  a.  and  Cx. 
1*  So  Cx. ;  i>at,  MS.,  a. 
^*  wymmen,  Cx.  (bis), 
"  nature  and  kynde,  Cx. 
'*  in  the,  Cx. 
"  Sirus  and  Zephizona,  Harl.  MS, 

^  So  Harl,  MS.  (z  and  y  are  iden- 
tical in  this  MS.) 



redeundo  circa  Ajsiam  pacandam  quindeeim  annis  viri 
immorati,  quereKs  iixorum  tantam  moranx   non  feren- 
tium  revocantur.     In  secunda  expeditione,  viris   dolo 
interfectis,  uxores  debitam  de  hostibus  iiltionem  sump- 
serunt.    In  tertia  vero  ^  expeditione,  viris  per  quatuor 
aimos  absentibus,  nupserunt  conjuges  serviis  propriis 
ad  custodiam  pecorum  domi  relictis,  qui  simul  vincti 
dominos  suos  post  victoriam  reverses  beUo  excipiunt. 
Quibus  vicissim^  varia  sorte  sic  bellantibus,  monentur 
domini  mutare  genus  pugnsD,  tanquam  non  cum*  lios- 
tibus  sed  cum   servis  conflicturi.     Unde   et   depositis 
armis  militaribus,  flagella  manu  ferunt,  et  sic  servos 
terrent*  et  abigunt.     Qui  vero  capi  poteranfc,  una  cum 

*  vero]  om.  B, 

^  sic  vicissiniy  B.,  which  has  also 
the  sic  immediately  following. 

3  cum]  om  B. ;  but  which  has  it 
just  afterwards. 

*  UfTunt,  A.  apparently. 



tomynge  aje,  pey  abedei  fiftene  ^ere  for  to  make  pees  in  Tbevisa. 

Asia.    But  wyfes  made  grete  pleyntes  and  sorwes^  fat  hire      

housbondes  were  so  longe  from  home,^  and  so  pe  men  were 
of  sent^  and  torned  home  to  5  dwelle  wi]>  hir  wifes.  In 
fe  secounde  iornay  ]?e  men  were  by  traisoun  i-slawe,  and 
pe  wifes  took  greet  wreche  of  fe  enemyes.  In  fe  fridde 
iornay  6  fe  men  were  oute  and  absent  foure  ^ere  to  gidres, 
and  []>e]7  wifes  wedded  hir  owne  seruauntes  and  bonde 
men  pat  were  i-left^  at  home  for  kepynge  of  bestes.  But 
whan  here  lordes  and  housbondes  had  pe  victorie  and 
tomed  home  ajen,  'pe  wyfes  and  here^  newe  housbondes 
gadred  hem  to  gidres  and  arrayed  hem  in  a  greet  bataile  ; 
to  fi^te  a^en  hire  olde  lordes  and  housbondes  p&t  were 
comyng  home  ;^^  and  whan  pey  mette  to  gidres  hap  ^^  was 
vnstable  and  vnstedefast ;  ones  *^  wi]>  pat  oon  side,  and  eft 
wij)  pat  open  panne  ^^  pe  lordes  bypou^te  hem,  and  toke 
hem  to  rede  ^*  operwise  to  fi^te  wip  hir  owne  ^^  bonde  men 
pan  wip  *^  enemyes  of  straunge  londes,  and  caste  awey  hire 
owne  armure  and  wepene  of  kny^tis,  and  bere  whippes  in 
hir  hondes  5  and  so  fered  pe  cherles,^^  and  droof  hem  away, 
and  made  hem  to  lie.  And  afterward,  al  pat  my^te  be 
i-take  of  pilke  false  eherles  and  of  pe  false  wifes  pat  hadde 

y-putte  to  fliihte,  taryenge  xv.  yere  to  make  Asia  to  theire  MS.  Hakl. 
pleasure,  were  callede  home  ageyne  thro  the  instaunces  of      2261. 

iheire  wifes  wyilenge  not  to  suffre  the  taryenge  of  theyme.      

In  the  secunde  expedicion,  the  men  sleyne  by  treason  and 
gyle,  theire  wifes  toke  dewe  vengeaunce  on  theire  enmyes. 
In  the  thrydde  expedicion,  the  men  beenge  absent  by  iiij.  f.  31,  a. 
yere,  the  wifes  of  theim  were  maryede  to  theire  seruauntes 
lefte  at  home  to  kepe  bestes,  whiche  ioinede  to  gedre  re- 
cey ved  theire  lordes  with  batelle  returnede  after  peire  victory, 
whiche  fi^htenge  thro  diuerse  chaunce  were  movede  at  the 
laste  to  putte  aweye  theire  armor  of  cheuallery,  vsenge  not  to 
conflicte  as  with  theire  enmyes  but  with  theire  seruaundes, 
takenge  a  flayle  in  theire  honde,  ferenge  theire  seruauntes 
and  dryvenge  theyme  aweye.    And  somme  of  the  seruauntes 

'  ahode,  Cx. 

*  sorwe,  o. 

»  So  Cx. ;  hire,  MS. 

*  sentefore,  Cx. 

^  and  dweBede,  a.  and  Cx. 

*  So  a.  ;  iordat/,  MS. 

'  Added  £K)m  Cx.  ^  absent  from  a, 

« lefty  a,,  Cx. 

»  Me,  Cx. 

'"  homeward,  Cx.$  hoom,  a. 

^^  fortune,  Cx, 

^2  So  a.  and  Cx.;  unstedfastnesse 
M>«>,  MS. 

"  that,  Cx.  (typogr.  error  ?) 

**  and  toke  hem  to  rede"]  and  con* 
eluded,  Cx. 

***  owne"]  Added  from  a.  and  Cx. 

1«  wiik  iheifr,  Cx. 

"  Cx.  omits  some  words  which 
follow  down  U>  false  wifea. 



adulteris  uxoribus,  partim  ferro,  partiiu  patibulo,  sunt 
peremptL  Post  hsec  apud  Scythas  pax  fuit^  usque 
ad  temporal  Darii  regis  Persarum,  qui  ab  illis  con- 
tritus  in  redeundo  Maeedones  perdomuit  et .  Athenienses 
DeBactria,  Bactria,  quam  primum  incoltdt  Cham/  filius  Noe, 
jacet  a  mari  Caspio  usque  ad  Indum*  fluvium  pro- 
tensa,  habetque  ab  ocddente  montem  Caucasum,  ab 
austro  Parthos. 

De  monte 

Hie  autem  Caucasus^  inter  omnes  montes  orientales 
prolixior®  et  formosior, ''  a  finibus  Indise®  usque  ad* 
montem  Taurum  ^^  porrigitur.  TJnde  "  unus  atque  idem 
mons  Taurus  et  Caucasus  ^^  reputatur.  Sed  volunt  qui- 
dam  ^*  ut "  occidentalis  pars  Caucasi  versus  Armeniam  sit 
Taurus.'*  Habet  autem  Caucasus  ab  aquilone  Caspium 
mare  et  Hyrcaniam/*  ab  austro  Parthiam,  Assyriam,"  et 
Babyloniam.'®  Qui  quidem  mons  pro  varietate  collimi- 
tantium'*  regionum  variis  appellatur  nominibus.  Itaque  ^® 

*  paxfuii  apud  Scyt/tas,  B. 

^  tempus,  B. 

'  In  prima  namque  .  .  Athenienses 
debellavii]  om.  CD. 

^  Sham,  E. 

»  Nylum,  C,  distinctly  (not  D.)  ; 

^  A.  and  B.  add  est 

^fatnasior,  CD. 

^  Judea,  B. 

»  ad]  om.  B. 

*®  Taurum  montem,  CD. 

»  Unde  et,  CD. 

''  mons  cum  eodem,  CD. 

"  guidenif  A. 

"  quodf  B. 

1*  Sed  volunt . .  Taurus^  om,  CD. 

*^  Hispaniam,  C,  distinctly  (not 

"  Syriam,  B. 

*^  Bahyloniam  et  Mesopotamiam 
tangit,  CD. 

^*  Sic  A.B.E. ;  de  proprietate  ha- 
bitantinm,  CD. 

^  /to,  A. 


i-broke   spousaille    hadde    schenful  ^    deth ;    for    som    were  Trevisa. 

i-slawe  with  iren,  and  som  wer^  an  honged  ful  hite.    After      

J?is  phare^  was  pees  in  Scythia  for  to  Darij  his  tyme^ 
kyng  of  Persida.  panne  Darius  was  ouercome  of  fe  Scytes  ^ 
men  of  Scythia,  and  in  Jje  tornyuge  homward  he  ouer- 
come Macedones,  ]>at  beej>  men  of  Macedonia  of  ]>at  londe, 
and  werede  vppon  Athenienses  men  of  Athenis. 

Bactria  is  a  lond  ^  J>at  Cham,  Noe  ^  sone,  woned  first  ynne, 
and  strecchef  from  pe  see  Caspius  anon  to  pe  ryuer  of 
Inde,  and  ha]?  in  pe  west  side  ]>e  mount  Caucasus,  and  in 
fe  south  Farthia.  pis  hille  Caucasus  is  lengest  of  alle  J)e 
est  hilles,  and  most  famous,  and  strecchej?  from  fe  eudes 
of  Inde  anon  to  ]>e  hille  ]>at  hatte  Mount  Taurus,  so  ]>at 
mont  Taurus  ^"  and  Caucasus  is  i-conteyned  al  oon  hille  ; 
but  som  men  sei|>  p&t  pe  westside  of  Caucasus,  )>at  is  to- 
ward Armenia,  is  and  hatte  mount  Taurus,  pat  mount 
Caucasus  ha]>  in  ]>e  northside  ]>e  see  ]>at  hatte  Caspius  and 
Hyrcania  jiat  londe,  and  in^  pe  southside  Parthia  and 
Assyria  and  Babylon.^  pat  hil,  for  dyuerse  contrees  and 
londes   fat    strecche|>    and    reche]?    jjerto,   haf  ^^  many  and 

taken  with  theire  wifes  in  advoutery  were  hongede  and  somme  MS.  Harl. 
sleyne  with  swerde.     After  that  tyme  peace  was  amonge      ^^^* 
theyme  vn  to  the  tyme  of  Darius  kynge  of  Persa,  whiche 
ouer  commen  of  theyme    in  returnenge  from  theim    hade 
victory  of  the  men  of  Macedony  and  did  fi^hte  also  ageynes 
men  of  Atheynes. 

Bactria,  whom  Cham,  sonne  of  Noe,  inhabite  firste,  lye^he  Bactria. 
from  the    see  Caspy   to  the  floode    of  Ynde    proitendede, 
hauenge  of  the  weste  parte  to  hit  thp  mownte  Caucasus,  and  Mons 
of  the  sowthe  men   of  Parthia.     This   hille  callede  moste  Caucasus, 
nowble  in  fame  amonge   alle  other  mowntes  of  the  este  ^^ 
to  the  mownte  of  Taurus  from  the  costes  of  Ynde,  where  Mons 
the  hille  callede  Taurus  and  Caucasus  be  reputate  oon.   But  Taurus, 
sonpne  men  wille  that  the  hille  callede  Tam'us  is  made   of 
the  weste  partes  of  Caucasus  towarde  Armenye.     This  hille 
Caucasus  hathe  of  the  northe  to  hit  the  see  Caspy  and  Hircany, 
of  the   sowthe  Parthia,  Assyria,  and  Babylon,  whiche  hille 
is  callede  in  diuerse  maneres  and  name  for  the  diuersite  of 

»  schendefuiy  a. ;  shameful,  Cx. 

*/artf,«. ;  iowmcy,  Cx. 

«  vnto  tlie  tyme  i^  Darius,  Cx. 

*  So  Cx. ;  Cyte«,MS.;  Qftees,  a. 

^  aiid  werede  ...  a  lond]  Added 
firom  a.  and  Cx. 

«  Noes,  o. 

'  so  l^at  Mont  Taurus']  Added 
fh>m  a.  and  Cx. 

*  a.  adds  in, 

'  Babiloun,  MS.  and  a. 

i^  That  hiUe,  by  cause  it  stretcheth 
to  dyuerse  contreys  and  londes,  hath, 
^c,  Cx. 

"  The  verb  (  ==  porrigitur^  is 





De  Al- 

versus  orientem,  ubi  in  celsiorem  surgit  ^  verticem,  pro 
candore  nivium  ibidem  jugiter  morantium,  Caucasus 
dicitur,  quod  sonat  ^  candidum.  Et,  secundum  fratrem 
Albertum,  mons  iste  tantae  est  altitudirds,^  quod  qui  sub 
eo  degunt  vident  super  eum  radios  solis  occidentis  per 
tres  horas  infra  noctem,  et  itidem^  mane^  per  ires 
horas  ante  diem  super  orientalem  partem  mentis.^ 

Hyrcania  regio''  habet  ab  ortu  mare  Caspium,  ab 
austro  Armeniam,  a  septentrione  Albaniam,  ab  occasu 
Hiberiam.^  Jacet  autem»  sub  jugo  Caucasi  montis, 
a  sylva  Hyrcania  sic  vocata/^  regio  qusedam"  feras 
fovejas,  tigrides  et  pantheras.  Eegio  vasta  et  lata, 
habens  gentes  xKv.,  quarum  qusedam '«  terraa  colunt, 
qusedam  de  ^®  venatione  vivunt,  quaedam  humana  came  '* 
vescuntur.  Ibi  sunt  aves  Hyrcanse,  pennas  liabentes 
de  nocte  lueentes.  Hiberia*^  est  regio  sub  monte 
Tauro  jacens,  quae  ^^  versus  occasum  et  ^''  juxta  pontum 
jungitur  ArmenisB. 

Albania  habet '®  ab  ortu  mare  Caspium,  descenditque 
per  ora  septentrionalis  oceani  usque  ad  Mseotides  pa- 
ludes ;  habetque  ^^  populum  albo  ^  crine  nascentem  cum 

*  exsurgit,  C. 

^  qitod  lingua  eorutHf  D. 
'  mons  . . .  aliitudinis]    om.   A. 
B.  omits  mons  iste, 

*  So  B.E.,  distinctly  ;  iterum,  A, 
^  de  mane,  B. 

®  Et,  secundum . . .  partem  mantis'] 
om.  CD.  A.  and  B.  have  montis 

''regio']  om.  CD. 

®  Hibemiamy  E. 

^  Ja4iet  autem]  Est  itaque  regio, 

'•  «ic  vocata]  nuncupata,  CD., 
wbich  omit  regio  ,  .  .  pantheras. 

1^  quadam]  qnidom,  A.E. ;   qni- 
dem,  B. 

'*  quidam.    A.,    and   so    below 
*'  de]  om.  A. 

"  carne  humana,  CD. 

"  E.  has  for  rubric  t  De  insula 

^*  quce]  om.  A. 

"  C  and  D.  omit  qua  and  et, 

"  after  ortu  in  CD. 

^^  huneque,   E.    (misreading  the 
copy);  habet  D, 

^^  cum  dibo,  B. 


dyuers   names,      pat  hille  is  hiteste  in*   fe   est   side,  and  Trevisa. 

for  whi^tnesse  of  snowe  fat  liep  alwey  J)eron  he  is  clep^d  2      

Mons  Caucasus,  ])at  is  to  menynge  a^  white  hille.  Albertus 
seif  fat  hil  is  so  hi^e,  fat  men  fat  Wonef  ferbj  seef  fe 
Sonne  hemes  *  in  fe  west  side  fre  houres  wif  ynne  fe*  ny^t, 
and  so  meny  houres  to  fore  f e  day  in  f e  est  side  of  fat  ^  hille. 

Hyrcania  fat  londe  haf  in  fe  est  side  fe  see  Caspias,  in. 
fe  south  Armenia,  in  fe  north  Albania,  and  in  fe  west 
Iberia  fat  lend;  and  lief  beside^  fe  mount  Caucasus,  and 
haf  f e  name  of  fat  wode  fat  hatte  Hyrcania.  In  fat  londe 
beef  dyuers  wylde  bestes  and  foules,  tigris  fat  beeste,^ 
and  pantera  also,  pat  londe  is  wyde  and  large,  and  haf 
foure  and  fourty  manere  men.  Som  tilief  ^  lond,  and  som 
lyuef  by  huntynge,  and  som  etef  manis  flesche.  pere  beef 
briddes  fat  hatte  ^®  hircane,  hire  fetheres  schyne  by  ny^te. 

Hiberia  fat  lond  lief  "  vnder  mont  Taurus,  and  lith  west- 
ward fast  by  Pontus,  and  ioynef  to  Armenye.  Albania 
fat  lond  haf  in  fe  est  side  fe  see  Caspius,  and  strecchef 
dounward  by  f  e  mouthes  of  f  e  North  Occean  anon  to  f  e 
wateres  fat  hatte  Meotides.    And  f e  men  of  fat  lond  beef 

men   inhabitenge   hit.     For   towarde   the   este,   where    hit  MS.  Harl. 
dothe  aryse  in  moste  altitude,   for   the   huge  whitenesse  of     2261. 
men   that   dwelle   there,  ^  hit    is   callede   Caucasus,    whiche 
sowndethe  whyte.     And,  after  Alberte,  hit  is  of  so  huge 
altitude  that  men  lytfenge  vnder  hit  see  on  hyt  the  beames 
of  the  sonne  beenge  in  the  weste  by  iij.  howres  with  in  the 
iiy^hte,  and  also   in    the    mornenge  iij.  howres  afore  day 
on  the   este    parte    of    hit.     The    region    Hircany    hathe  Hyrcania 
on    the    este    parte    to  hit    the    see    of   Caspy,    on    the^'^g^^*     / 
northe  Albania,   on    the    weste    Hiberia,    beenge  subiecte 
to    Caucasus,    callede    Hyrc|inia  of  a  woode    so    namede, 
whiche    is    a    region    noryschenge    wilde    bestes,    tigres, 
panteres,  a  waste  region    and  brode,  the  peple  of   whom 
somme  tylle  erthe,   somme  lyve    by    huntenge,   somme  of 
theyme  do  eyte  the  flesche    of  man.     There  be  bryddes 
in  that  region  hauenge  fethers   schynenge  in  the  ny^hte. 
Hiberia  is  a  region  vnder    that    hille  Taurus,    whiche  is  Hiberia. 
ioinede  to  Armenye  towarde  the  este. 

Albania  hathe  on  the  este  parte  to  hit  the  see  of  Caspy,  Albania, 
descendenge    by    the   regiones   of   the   northe    occean    to 
Meotides  paludes.     That  region  hathe  peple    with   white  f.  31.  b. 

^  on,  Cx. 

*  i-cleped,  a. 
» the,  Cx. 

*  heme,  Cx. 

^  Cx.  omits  |»e. 
^  |>e,  a.,  Cx. 


by  the  syde  of^  Cx.;  beside  of,  a. 

*    »  heeste\  So  Ox. ;  fod,  MS.,  o. 

»  tyUen,  Cx. 

^^  birdes  that  bencaXied^  Cx.,  who, 
however,  has  heyghteytXBi  before. 

"  Ml,  o. 



oculis  pictis  ^  et  glaucis,  melius ,  de  nocte  quam  de  die 
videntes.^  Hujus  terrse  sunt  canes  tarn  immanes  et' 
feroces  ut  tauros  premant,  leones  *  perimant,  e  *  quibus 
unus,  Alexandre  magno  missus^  triumphavit  in  stadio 
de  leone,  elephante,  et  apro. 
De  Gothia.  Gothia  est  regio  Seythise  inferior  •  versus  circium,  cui 
subjacet  insula  Ootlilandia  omni  mercium  genere  copiosa. 
Habet^  ab  aquilone  Daciam  et  oceanum  septentiiona- 
lem.  Dicitur  autem  Gothia  a  Gog  fiUo  Japhet,®  cujus 
gentes  potius  Gothos  quam  Gogos  nominaverunt.  Gens 
quidem  *  fortis,  ingens,  terribilis,  de  quorum  *®  stirpe  pro- 
cesserunt  Daci  in  Europa,  G^tuli  in  Afiica^  Ama^ones 
in  Asia. 

Armenia,  qud3  alio  nomine  dicitur  Ararath^  ab  Ar- 
menio  Jasonis  milite"  nuncupata  est,  qui^^  Armenius, 
amisso  Jasone  Thessalo  rege  suo,^*  reeoUecta^*  multitu- 
dine  militum  qui  passim  vagabantur,^^  Armeniam  occu- 
pavit  ^^  et  inhabitavit.    Quae  quidem  *^  regio  protenditur 

De  Ar- 

*  octdisque  pictriis  (quid  ?),  B. 

'  adeo  ut  TiieUus  .  . .  videant,  CD. 
^  ingentes  sunt  canes  tarn/»,  CD. 

*  et  leones,  A. 
« c]  de,  CD.  ♦ 

*  So  A.E. ;  inferioris,  B.CD.  C. 
and  D.  omit  versus  circium, 

^  Hahet  autem  hac  Gothia,  CD. 
(the  latter  has  gens,) 

^oceanum,  a  Gog  {Gotk,T>.)fiUo 
lAphet  sic  dicta,  §*c.,  CD. 

*  quidem^  om.  CD* 

**  quarum,  D. 

*^  milite  Jasonis,  0.3X 

»«  hie,  CD. 

^*  amisso  rege  Jasone  Tkessah, 

"  coUecta,  A. 

^^  vacahantur,  B. ;  multiiudine  ejus 
qu(B  passim  vagabatur,  CD. 

"  cepit,  CD. 

"  hcec,  fc.D. 


i-bore  wij>  white  here  and  wif  ^elowe  ^  ey^en  i-peynt,  and  Thevisa. 

seep    better    be  ny^te    fan   be    daye.     pe   houndes    of  J>at      

londe  beef  so  greeto,  so  grym,  and  stronge  fat  fey  f rowef 
doun  boles  2  and  sleef  lyouns.  Oon  of  filke  houndes  was 
sent  to  kyng  Alexandre,  and  fau^te  wifynne  lystes  wif  a 
leon  and  an  olyfaunt,  and  wif  a  wylde  bore,  and  hadde 
fe  maystrie. 

Got  ha  is  fe  nefer  partie  of  Scythia  toward  Circium.^ 
To  fat  lond  Gotha  lief  f e  ilond  Gothlandia ;  fat  y londe. 
haf  plente  of  al  manei;e  marchaundise,  and  haf  in  fe  north 
side  D«icia,  and  in  fe  southe  syde^  occean,  and  hatte 
Gothea  of  Gos,  laphef  his  sone.  pe^  men  of  fat  lond 
beef  rediloker^  i-cleped  Gothy  fan  Gogi,  and  bef  wel 
stronge  men  and  huge  J  grym  and  stei'ne,-  and  of  hem  com 
f e  Dacies  in  Europa,  Getuli  in  AfTrica,  Amazones  in  Asia. 

Armenia,  fat  hatte  also  Ararath,  haf  fe  name  of  Arme- 
niiis,  lasons  kny^t,  the  whiche  Armenius,  whan  he  hadde 
i-lost  lason,®  l^yng  of  Thessalia,®  he  gadered  kny^tes  fat 
roiled  1"  aboute,   and   toke   Armenia,    and   woned    ferynne. 

heii'e.  peyntede  eien  and  ^elowe,  seenge  better  in  the  ny^hte  MS.  Hakl. 
then   in  the   daye.      The    dogges   of   whiche    region   be  so      2261. 

greete  and  feerse  that  thei  depresse   bulles    and  peresche      

lyones,  of  whome  oon  was  sonde  to  kynge  Alexander, 
whiche  hade  the  victory  with  in  a  forlonge  of  a  buUe,  an 
elephaunte,  and  of  a  boore.  Gothia  is  a  region  of  Scythia  Gothia. 
towarde  the  weste,  to  whom  the  yle  of  Gotlande  is  sub- 
iecte,  copious  of  alle  kyndes  of  marchandise,  hauenge  on 
the  northe  parte  to  hit  Dacia  and  the  northe  occean. 
That  londe  wjis  called e  Gothia  of  Gog,  the  sonne  of 
lapheth,  the  peple  of  whom  be  callede  rather  Gothos  then 
Gogos,  whiche  be  niy^hty  men  and  teiTible,  of  whom  men 
of  Denmarke,  in  Europe,  come,  Getuliones  or  Getules  in 
Afirike,  and  the  Amasonnes  in  Asia. 

Armenia,  whiche  of erwise  callede  Ararthe,  toke  the  name  Armenia, 
of  hit   of  Armenius,  kny^hte    of  lason,   whiche   Armenius 
lason  his  kynge  loste    gedrenge  a  multitude   of  kny^htes, 
whiche    wente   abowte  as  vagabundes,  occupiede  Armenye 
and    inhabite    hit,  whiche  region    is    protendede    betwene 

*  yleWf  a, 

^  boohs,  a. ;  btdles,  Gx. 

''  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  Cireon^  MS. 

*  southe  syde]  So  Cx. ;  nor\f,  MS. 
Dacia  and  \>e  nortli  occean,  a.,  which 
agrees  with  the  Latin,  and  is  pro« 
bably  right. 

*  So  o, ;  J)af,  MS, 
^  reedloker,  a. ;  redyilyer,  Cx. 
'  and  hen  right  stronge  men,  grete, 
grym,  and  sturne.  Ox. 
^  a.  and  Cx.  adds  his, 
»  Tessalia,  MS.,  a.  (not  Cx.) 
"  roiUede,  a.  ;  royled,  Cx. 

yoL.  I.  K 



inter  montem  Taurum  efc  Caucasum  a  Caspio  mari 
usque  ad  Cappadociam.  Hatet  autem  in  longitudine 
undecies  centum  millia  passuum>  in  latitudine  vero 
septingenta  *  millia.^  Ibi  est  mons  AxaratH,^  ubi  area 
Noe^'consedit  post  diluvium,  et  sunt  duse  Armenise/ 
major   et   minor,  superior  et   inferior,  sicut  duse  Pan- 


Cap.  XVIII. 

De  Gappadocia. 

Cappadocia  regio  ®  equorum  nutrix  ab  ortu  habet 
Armeniam,  ab  occasu  Asiam  minorem,  ab  aquilone 
Amazones,  ab  austro  Taurum^  montem,  cui  subjaeet 
Oilicia,  Lycia,®  et  Isauria,  usque  ad  Cilicium  sinum  qui 
De  pro-  prospicit  ®  contra  insulam  Cyprum.  Asia  minor  ab  ortu 
tangit  Cappadociam,  a  cseteris  lateribus  clauditur  ^^  mari 
magno.  Nam  a  septentrione  habet  Pontum  Euxinum, 
ab   occasu  Propontidem,   ab   austro    iEgyptium    mare. 




*  So  E.  at  length  and  rightly  ; 
septuaginta,  A.  (at  length);  lxx*%  B. 
The  versions  also  differ. 

2  Habet  .  .  .  miliia]  om.  CD. 

^  Araraika,  B. 

*iVog]  om.  CD. 

^  CD.  add  sicut  Pannonia  du<B, 
omitting  the  test.    E.  omits  sieut 

dua  PannonicB,  The  text  agrees 
with  A.B.  (which  latter  h^s  scilicet 
hefore  major),  and  the  versions. 

*  regio]  om.  CD. 

^  CD.  add  habet. 

^  Lycial  om.  A.CD. 

^  8pectat,  CJ>, 

^®  D.  adds  undique. 



pat  londe  strecchej)    by*  pe  mount    Taurus  and   Caucasus  Trevisa. 

from  fe  see  Caspius  anon  to  Cappadocia,^  and  haf  in  leng]?e      

eleuene  hondred  Jiowsand  paas,  and  in  brede  seuene  hon- 
dred  myle.  pere  is  fat  hille  mount  Ararath,.  pere  Noe  is 
schippe  abood^  after  Noes  flood,  and  pere  is  Armenyes 
tweie,4  ])e  more  and  fe  lasse,  fe  ouer'*»  and  fe  ne]?er,  and 
so  beef  tweye  Pannonyes  also. 

De  Cappadociafi      Capitulum  octavum  deeimum, 

Cappadocia  fat  londe  noriscbef  and  fedef  many  hors,^  and 
haj)  in  fe  est  side  Armenia,  in  fe  west  side  ^  Asia  fe  lasse,  in 
fe  norf  Amazonia,  and  in  fe  south  mount  Taurus,  perto 
be-lyef  ^  Cilicia  ^^  and  Isauria  anon  to  fe  see  Cilicius  fat 
strecchef  toward  the  ilond  of  Cyprus,  pe  lasse  Asia  ioynef  to 
Cappadocia  in  the  est  side,  and  is  biclipped  and  i-closed  in  f  e 
of er  sides  wif  f e  grete  see.  For  he  haf  in  f e  noiiih  side  fat 
mouth  and  see  fat  hatte  Euxinus,ii  in  f  e  west  f  e  mouth  and  f  e  ^^ 
see  Propontides,  and  in  f  e  south  f  e  sec  of  Egipte.     pis  lasse 

the    hUl   Taurus    and    Caucasus,   from   the  ^  see  Caspy  vn  ms.  Harl. 
to  Cappadocia.     This  region  hathe  in   longitude  xj^.  ml  of      2261. 

passes,  in  latitude  Ixx**  mt.     There  the  mownte  of   Ararth 

is,  where  the  schippe  of  Noe  remaynede  after  the  floode. 
Also  fer  be  ij.  Armenyes,  the  moore  and  lesse,  as  fer  be 
ij.  Pannonyes. 

Capitulum  octavum  decimum, 

Cappabocia  is  a  region  nutrix  of  horses,  hauenge  on  the  Cappadocia, 
este  parte  to  hit  Armeny,  on  the  weste  the  lesse  Asia,  on 
the  northe  the  Amasones,  on  the  sowtlie  the  hille  Taurus,  to 
whom  Cilicia,  Lycia,  and  Isauria  be  subacte  vn  to  the  water 
of  Cilicia,   which  hathe    prospecte   ageyne  the  yle  of  Ci- 
presse.    Asia  the  lesse  towcheth  in  the  este  parte  Capa-  Asia 
docy,   on  other  sides  hit  is  schutte  with  the  grete  see.     For  Minor, 
in  the  northe  parte  hit  hathe  the  see  Eusyne,  and  of  the 
weste  Propontides,  on  the  sowthe  parte  the  see  off  Egipte, 

» to,  Cx. 

2  Capadocia,  MS.  and  Cx.,  and 
so  below. 
^  aJfode,  Cx. 

*  ther  he  two  Armenyes,  Cx. 
^  ouerer,  Cx. 

*  The  proper  names  in  this  chap- 
ter are  more  than  usually  corrupted 
and  distorted,  in  both  versions,  as 

well  as  in  the  text  Their  false  spell- 
ings will  not  in  general  be  noticed. 

'  horses,  Cx.  (not  a.) 

^  Cx.  omits  side» 

^  hiUe\>y  a. ;  ther  by  lyeth,  Cx. 

^^  Scicilia;  MS.  and  Cx.,  which 
have  SiMctts  and  Sylycns  below. 

'^  Eusynus,  MS. 

'-  J>e  omitted  in  a.  and  Cx. 

K  2 


Continet  autem  in  se  plures  provincias.      Nam  primo 
De  Bi-  ^    ab  aquilone  habet  Bithyniam  in  ^  Ponti  exordio  Thraciss 

thynia,  bIyc 

Phrygia  adversam,  quj©  etiam^  dicitnr  Phrygia  major,  cujus 
De  Galatia.  metropolis  est  Nicomedia.  Deinde  Galatia,  a  priscis 
Galloram  gentibus  per  regem  Bithynise  ad  bellandnm^ 
invitatis  sic  denominata  et  occupata.  Sed  tunc  dice- 
batur  Gallogr^ecia,  et  populi  ejus  Gallogra^ci,  tanquam 
ex  GrjBcis  et  Gallis  mixti/  qui  nunc  dicuntur  Galatje, 
quibus  Paulus  unani  scribit  epistolam.^  Tertio  est^ 
I>e  Phrygia  minor,  sic  dicta  a  Phrygia,  filia  Europae,  filige 


mmore,      A<^enoris,  quae  etiam  dicitur  Dardania,  a  Dardano  filio 

sive  Dar-         o  '   u  > 

Jovis.  In  qua  terra  est  civitas^  Troja,®  quae  et  Ilium 
dicitur.  Dicitur  autem  Troja  a  Tros^  filio  Erichthonii,  filii 
Dardani,  filii  Jovis.^^  Cui  region!  ^^  ab  oriente  est  Lydia, 
De  Lydia.  ab  occasu  Hellespontus.  Quarto  est  Lydia  ad  orientem 
Phrygiae  minoris,^^  in  qua  rex  iUe  dives  Croesus  ^^  quon- 
dam regnabat,  quae  quidem    terra    dum    pro    brevitate 

*  in]  am,  B. 

-  ctf  B, ;  dicitur  etiam,  CD.  ;  ad- 
versamque  et  dicitur^  A. 

3  hellumy  CD. 

^  et  populi .  .  .  mixtt]  oxn.  CD. 

^  quibus  .  .  .  epistolatn]  om.  CD. 

°  est"]  om.  CD.,  in  which  the  fol- 
lowing sentence  is  slightly  altered. 

*  2Voya,  E.  not  A,B. 
»  So  the  MSS. 

'*•  Dicitur  autem  .  .  .  Jovis]  om. 

"  regioni]  om.  CD. 

^-  mittoris]  om.  CD. 

"  Crcesus  rex  dives,  CD.,  (which 

'  civitas]  om.  CD.  I  ^^^^^  ^*^  quondam  after  Croesus), 



Asia  conteynej)  meny  prouynces  and  londes.    For  firste  in  |)e  Tbevisa. 

norJ>  side  he  conteytte]>  Bithynia  in  fe  bygynnynge  vppon  ]?e      

see  a^enst  Thracia,  and  liatte  also  Jje  more  Phrygia.  pe  chief 
citee  of  Bithynia  hatte  Nicomedia.  J)anne  is  G-alatia  and  haj> 
]?e  name  of  men  fat  were  i-cleped  Galli,  J)at  come  at  pe  prayere  ^ 
of  J>e  kyng  of  Bithynia  to  helpe  hym  in  his  werres,  and  woned 
in  ]7at  lond  Galatia  :  but  po  }mt  lond  hi^te  Gallogrecia  and  ])e 
qien  of  ]>at  lond  hijte  ^  Gallogreci  as  men  i-melled  of  Gallis 
and  of  Grecis  ;  but  now  ]>ey  bee]?  i-cleped  Galate,^  and  to 
hem  Poule  wroot  ^  his  pistel  ad  Galatas.  pe  fridde  is  pe  lasse 
Phrygia  and  ha|>  pe  name  of  Phi'ygia,  Europa  his  ^  doubter, 
Agenore  his  doubter.  And  fat  Phrygia  hatte  Dai'dania  also  ^ 
of  Dardanus  lupiter  "^  sone.  In  fat  londe  is  f e  citee  of  Troye, 
fat  hatte  Ilium  also.  IVoye  hatte  after  Tros,^  Erichthonius 
sone,  fat  was  Dai^danus  sone,  fat  was  lupiter^  sone.  pat 
lond  *^  haf  in  fe  est  side  Lydia^  and  in  fe  west  fe  mouth  and 
fe  see  Hellespontus.  pe  fourf e  is  Lydia,  and  is  in  f e  est  side 
of  the  lasse  ^'  Phrygia.  In  fat  Lydia  regned  somtyme  fe 
riche  kyng  Cresus,  but  whan  fat  lond  was  to  litel  for  tweie 

conteynenge  in  hit  mony  prouiuces.     For  hit  Iiathe   firste  MS.  Hasl. 
in    the    nortlie    Bithynia,    in    the    begynnenge   of   Pontus      2261. 
ageyne   Thracia,  whiche  is  callede   also  Phrygia  maior,  the  -djiT    ' 
chiefe  cite  of  whom  is   Nicomedia,  afterwarde  callede  Ga-       ^ 
latia,   of  peple  desirede  to  fithte  by  the  kyng    of  Bithynia, 
then    callede  Gallogrecia,   and  the  peple   of  hit  Gallogreci, 
as    peple  mixte  of  Frensche  men  and  of  Grekes,   whiche 
be  callede  now  GaJate,^  to    whom    Paule    did    wryte    an 
^pistole.     The  thiydde  is  the  lesse  Phrygia,  callede  by  that  Phrygia 
name  of  Phrygia  the  doihter  of  Europa,   the  do^hter  of  ^^^^* 
Agenoris,    whiche  was  callede  Dardania,  of  Dardanus  the 
son  of  lupiter.      In  whiche  londe    is  the  cite  of  Troye,  f.  32.  a. 
namede  so  of  Tros,  son  of  Erichthonius,  son  of  Dardanus  the  Troja. 
son  of  lupiter.     To  whiche  region  Lydia  is  in   the    este 
pai*te,  and  Hellespontus  of  the  weste  parte.     Lydia  is  at  theljydia. 
este  pai'te  of  the  lesse  Phrygia,  in  whom  Cresus,  the  ryche 
kynge,  reignede  somme  tyme,   whiche  londe  for  the  litelle 
quantite  of  hit  my^hte   not  suiFre  and  suffice  to  ij.  brefer, 

'  preterCf  a. 

^  GaUogreeia  ....  kiyte"]  added 
from  a.  and  Cx. 

'  Cfcdaikey  MS.,  a.,  and  Cx.,  and  so 
the  Harl.  MS.,  as  well  :as  all  the 
Latin  MSS.  ^ 

*  wrytethy  Cx. 

^  Europaes,   Cx.;    and    Agenors 
^  also]  added  from  a. 
'  lupiter  hiSf  a. ;  lupyters,  Cx. 
«  So  o. ;  Troosy  MS.  and  Cx. 
^  Ok  addB  his, 

'"  fonrf]  added  from  a.  and  Cx. 
"  eeste^  Cx. 



sui  duos  reges,  fratres,  Lydum  et  Tyrrhenunij  ferre  non 
posset,'  Tyrrhenus,  agitante  sorte,  cum  multitudine  egres- 
sus,  locum  in  superioribus  partibus  Gallise^  occupavit, 
quern  Tyrrbeniam^  nominavit.  Ab  isto  Tyrrheno  Tyr- 
rhenura  mare  videtur  denominari,  sicut  Lydia  terra  a 
Lydo,  reliquo  fratre,  cujus  metropolis  est  Smyrna,  aS 
quam  Johannes  *  Evangelista  scribit  in  Apocalypsi.  Et 
principalis  fluvius  Lydise  dicitur  Pactolus,  aureas  secun- 
dum  poetas   gignens  arenas.^     Quinta  provincia  Asiae 

Be  Pam-  minoris  dicitur  Pamphylia,®  quae  et  Isauria,  habens  me- 
tropolim  Seleuciam,  quam  Seleucus  Antiochus  fundavit.'^ 

De  Cilicia.  Deinde  est  ^  Cilicia,  in  qua  continetur  Lycia  sive  Lyca- 
onia,  cujus  urbes  celebres  erant  Lystra  et  Derbe,^  sicut 
patet  in  Actibus  Apostolorum,  per.quas  de*^  Syria  ad 
Italiam  navigatur.  Harum  omnium  urbs  metropolis  erat 
Tharsis  ^^  inferius  versus  mare.^^ 

Amazonia  regio  est  partim^'^  in  Asia,  partim^^  in 
Europu.  Albanise  est  vicina,  et  fuerunt  Amazones  primo 
Gothorum   uxores,    quae,   viris  suis    dolo^*    interfectis, 


debitamde  hostibus  ultionem  sumpserunt.  Nam  spolia 
accepenmt,^^  masculos  occiderunt,  foeminas  reservarunt. 

Be  Ama- 

^  potuitf  B. 

*  GalilecB,  B. 

3  Tiream,  MSS. 
^  B.  prefixes  heaius. 
^  4^u<B  quidem  terra  ,  *  .  Urenas'] 
cm,  CD. 

*  Quinto  est  Pampkylia,  C-D. 

"  quam  .  .  .  fundavit]  onii  CD. 
» est]  om.  A. 

^  Listris   et  Derhen,  MSS.,  and 
similarly  both  the  yersions; 
^^  de]  om,  A. 

"  The  MS.  reading  is  here  best 
retained ;  in  fact,  Tarsus  (not  Tar- 
tessos)  is  most  probably  the  same 
as  Tarshish. 

'^  Ci).  thus  contract  the  two  last 
periods  :  Deinde  Cilicia^  in  qua  est 

"  B.  has  partim  est  (twice. ) 

"  ddo]^om,  C  (not  D.) 

**  c^^fHint,  CD. 



breferen  fat  were  kynges,  pat  hitte  Lydus  and  Tyrrhenus,  Tkevisa. 

hit  by  lott  happed  ^  pat  Tyrrhenus  went  oute  wip  many  men,       

and  gat  hym  a  lond  in  pe  oner  partie  of  Gallia,  and  cleped  his 
lond  Tyrrhenia.2  Hit  semep  pat  pe  see  Tyrrhenus  hap  pe 
name  of  pis  king  Tyri-henus,  as  pe  lond  Lydia  hap  pe  name  of 
his  broper  Lydus.  pe  chief  cite  of  Ly(fia  hat  Smyrna,  to 
pat  3  citee  lohan  pe  euangelist  writep  in  pe  Apocalips.^  pe 
chief  ryuere  of  Lydia  hatte  ^  Pactolus,  and  bringep  forth 
goldene  graule,  as  poetis  tellip^  The  fifte  prouince  of  pe  lasse 
Asia  hatte  Pamphylia  and  Isauria  also,  pe  cheef  citee  of  pat 
lond  hatte  Seleucia.  pat  citee  Seleucus  Antiochus  bulde  and 
arerede.  pan  is  Cilicia  and  conteynep  Lycia,  and  pat  hatte 
Lycaonia.  perynne  were  noble  citees  Lystra  and  Derbe, 
as  it  is  i- write  in  Actibus  Apostolorum.  By  pilke  citees  me 
seilep  s  out  of  Syria  to  Italia,  but  pe  cheef  citee  of  alle  pese 
was  Tharsis  dounwai'd  toward  pe  see.  Amazonia  pat  lond 
is  som  in  Asia,  and  som  in  Europa,  and  is  nyh  to  Albania. 
pe  firste  Amazones  were  pe  wyfes  of  Gothes,  pat  took  wreche 
of  hire  housbondes  dep  pat  were  traytouresliche  i-slawe.^ 
For  'pej  toke  prayes  and  slowe  men  and  saued  wommen,  and 

Lydus  and  Tyrrhenus,   ij.   kynges.      Tyrrhenus  enchaunce  MS.  H^u 
movenge  goenge  furthe  with  a   grete  multitude  occupiede      2261. 
a  place  in  the   superior  pai'te  of  Fraunce,  whiche  londe  he 
namede  Tyrrheni%2  lyke  as  that  londe  Lydia  was  namede  of 
Lydus   his   brother,  the  chiefe  cite  of  whom   is  Smyrna,  to 
whom   Seynte   John    Euangeliste   wrytethe    in   his   Apoca- 
lypsis  :   the  pfincipalle  floode   of  Lydia  is   caDede  Pactolus 
gendrenge  gravel  of  golde.     The  v*'*«  prouince  of  the  lesse  Pamphylia. 
Asia  is    callede  Pamphylia  and  Isauria,   hauenge   Seleucia 
the  chiefe  cite  of  hit,  whom  Seleucus  Antiochus  causede  to 
be  edifiede.     After  that  is  Cilicia,  in  whom  Lycia  or  Lyca-  Cilicia. 
onia  is  conteynede,  the  nowble  cites  of  whom  were  Lystra 
and  Derbe,  as  hit  is  expressede  in  tho  Actes  of  thapostles, . 
by  whom  hit  is  saylede  from  Syria  to  Ytaly.     The  now- 
bleste  cite  off   theyme    alle  was    Tharsis,    more    inferialle  Thavsis 
towarde  the   see.  i^rhs. 

Amazonia  is  a  region  parte  in  Asia  and  parte  in  Europe,  Amazonia, 
nye  to  Albania,   and    the  Amazones  were  firste  the  wifes 
of  Gothes,  the  husbondes  of  whom  sleyne  by  gyle,  they 
toke    dewe  vengeaunce    on    the    enmyes  of  theym  perfore. 
For  thei  robbede,   sleenge  the  male  childer  and   reseruenge 

*  happened  hy  lotte,  Cx. 

-  Tirea,  MS.;  Turea,  Harl.  MS. 

^  of  Lydia  • . .  \tat  citee j    Added 
from  a.  and  Cx. 

*  seynt  lohan  emngdyst  wryteih  in 
tkapocalipsis.  Ox. 

*  men  sayUe^  Cx. 

« traitourliche  i-slawei  a. ;  traifourly 
slayne,  Cx. 


Diu  Sine  viris  vixerunt.  Tandem  duas^  reginas  sta- 
tuerunt,  quarum  una  exercitum  extra  dncebat,  altera 
rempublicam  domi  regebat.  Per  centum  fere  ^  aunos 
magnam  Asiae  partem  perdomuerunt.^  Demum*  ex 
finitimis  locis  maritos  sobolis  gratia  sumpserunt/  certis 
temporibus  coeuntes  et^  certis  tempoiibus  abstinentes/ 
MascuUnos®  foetus  aut  mactabant  aut  certo  tempore 
ablactatos^  patribus  transmittebant.  Foeminas  vero^^ 
resetvantes  ad  venandum,  ad  sagittandum,  ad  militan- 
dum"  informabant.  Et  ne  mamillarum  grossities  sa- 
gittationem  ^^  impediret,  septimo  setatis  anno  dextram 
mammam  exurebant  Inde  ^^  dictae  sunt  Urimammse 
vel  Amazones^  quasi  sine  mamma.  Quarum  ^*  feritatem 
primo  perdomuit  Hercules,  deinde  Achilles,  et  ^^  tandem 
Alexander  magnus.  Ranulplms.  Et  ^®  quamvis  Isidorus, 
Etymolog.  lib,  xiv.,  dicat  Amazones  per  Alexandrum 
magnum  deletas,  historia'^  tamen  Alexandri  dicit  Tha- 
lestrem  ^^  Amazonum  reginam  Alexandre  petenti  tributa  ^^ 

^  Duas  tandeftt,  CD. 

'^fermey  A.  CD. 

•^  m.  p.  A,  svhigehant,  CD. 

*  TandetRy  CD. 

*  siimebantj  CD. 
®  ef\  om.  B. 

^  coeuntes  et  iterum  vacantes,  CJ), 

*  nuisculos,  CD. 
°ablactafy)s]  om,  CD. 
^^  et  foeminas,  B. 

^ '  ad  venandum  et  militandumi  CD. 
*2  sagittationiy  D. 
"  et  inde,  CD, 
'*  Harutity  CD. 

**  deinde  Achilles  ef]  om.  CD. 
»«^q  om.  CD.    This  sentence 
is  blandered  in  B. 
*'  ostia,  A. 

**  TkaJestrem^  om.  CD. 
^®  tributa  peteniij  D» 



leued  longe  wij>  oute  housbondes,  and  afterward  made  hem  Tuevisa. 
tweie  queenes  ;  fat  oon  ladde  fe  oost  and  meynteyned  the  — 
werre,  and  werred  faste  ;  )?at  ojier  quene  was  at  home,  and 
ruled  J>e  lond,  and  gouernede  fe  peple  at  home.  And  *]?eBe 
wommen  helde  vnder  hond  a  grete  deel  of  Asia  aboute  an 
hondred  yere.  And  at  fe  laste  ^  }>ese  wommen  wolde  haue 
children,  and  toke  housbondes  of  fe  next  conti'ayes  aboute, 
and  certeyn  tymes  lelte  [her]  ^  housbondes  ligge  by  hem,  and 
certeyne  tymes  absteyned  hem.  But  J)ey  slow^  alle  J)e  knaue  ^ 
children,. oJ>er  certeyn  tyme  i-wened  sent  hem  to  J>e  fadres, 
and  saued  alle  ^  mayde  children,  and  tau^t  hem  to  schetynge, 
and  to^  dedes  of  ai*mes  and  of  chyualrie.  And  for  grete 
bresfces  schulde  nou^t  lette  hem  to  schete,  of  eueriche  maide 
of  seuen  ^ere  olde  fey  brende  of  fe  rijt  brest ;  and  ferfore 
p&y  were  cleped  Unmammoe,  fat  is  to  menynge  brend 
bristes ;  and  fey  were  i-hote  Amazones,  fat  is  to  menynge 
wipoute  brest.  Hercules  was  fe  firste  fat  chastised  fe 
schrewednesse  ^  of  fese  wommen,  and  fan  Achilles,  and  fan 
at  fe  laste  fe  grete  Alexandre.^  "JEji.  And  fei,  Isid.  Eth.  14, 
seie  fat  fe  grete  Alexander  destroyed  Amazones,  neuerfeles 
f e  storie  of  Alexander  self,  fat  whan  f e  kyng  Alexandre 
asked  ^   of  hem   tribute,   Thalestris  fe   quene   of  Amazones 

the  childer  female,  lyvenge  longe  with  owte  howsebondes.  MS.  Harl. 
At  the  laste  thei  made  ij.  qwenes,  oon  of  whom  gouernede      2261. 

the  hoste,  that  of  er  kepede  residence  8;t  home,  hauenge  vie-      

tory  ouer  a  grete  parte  of  Asia  by  c.  yere.  At  the  laste 
thei  toke  to  theym  men  of  ferre  costes  for  cause  of  mul- 
tiplicacion,  vsenge  the  acte  venerealle  in  certeyne  tymes, 
and  absteynenge  of  er  certeyne  tymes,  anther  sleenge  the 
male  childer  other  elles  sendenge  them  to  the  faders  after 
a  certeyne  tyme,  reseruenge  the  female  childer,  informenge 
f  eym  to  hunte,  to  schote,  and  to  vse  cheuallery,  brennenge 
the  ry^hte  pappe  of  theyme  in  the  vij*«  yere  of  theire  age, 
lesfce  the  grosenes  of  hit  scholde  lette  theyme  to  schote. 
Wherefore  thei  were  caUede  TJrimammse,  or  Amazones,  as  f.  32.  b, 
with  owte  a  pappe ;  the  cruellenes  of  whom  Hercules  did 
mitigate  firste,  after  that  Achilles,  and  at  the  laste  kynge 
Alexander.  ^,  Thau^he  Isidorus,  Eth.  14%  seye  Ama- 
zones to  be  destroyede  by  kynge  Alexander,  neuerthelesse 
the   story  of  Alexander   seythe  that  Thalestris,    qwene  of  ^ 

^  atte  lasUy  Cx. 

-  Added  from  Cx«,  who  has  theyr; 
absent  fh>m  a. 

*  wicn,  Cx,,  who  omits  otiuer  . . . 

*  aUe]  the,  Cx. 

^for  to  shote  and  to  do,  Cx. 

^  schrewednesse]  ylle  disposlcioii) 

^  and  aite  laste  the  grete  Afysaun" 
der,  Cx.  Alexander  and  Alexandre 
are  both  so  ^tten  in  the  MS.  and 
a.  at  length. 

'  asked]  axede,  a. ;  axed,  Cx. 




Littera       rescripsisse  in  hunc  modum  :   "  De  tua  prudentia  ^  mi- 

missa    .  .... 

Akxandro    "  randum  est  ^  quod  cum  fceminis  congredi  voluisti ;  quia 

de  regina  ,  ,  .  , 

Amazmum!  "  si  favente  nobis  fortuna  succumbere  *  te  contingat, 
"  merito  es  confusus,  cum  a  fceminis  sis  devictus.^ 
"  Quod  si,  iratis  nobis  diis,  nos  deviceris,  parum  bono- 
"  raberis  qui^  de  fceminis  triumphasti."  Placatus  ex 
his  Alexander  libertatem  illis  concessit/  diceris  quod^ 
mulieres  amore  non  terrore  ^  forent  ^^  devincendse.^*  2Vo- 
gu8,  libra  secundo}^  Hsec  autem  Thalestris  regina,  post- 
quam  concubitu  Alexandri  ad  sobolem  capiendam  per 
quadraginta  dies  usa  fdisset,  in  regnum  reversa,  brevi 
post  tempore,  cum  gente  sua,  intercidit^^ 

Cap.  XIX. 

De  Africa  et  ejus  provinciis, 

Isidorus,  libra  quarta  decvma}^  Omnes  historici 
astruunt  quod  ^^  Africa  sit  dicta  ab  Afer,^^  fiKo  Madian, 
filii  Abrahse  ex  Cethura  progeniti ;  proceditque  ^'^  a  fini- 

1  This  is  the  rubric  of  E. 

2  prudentia  tua,  B. 
^  estnUrandunif  D. 

*  occumbere,  0.  (not  ]).) 

*  mulierihus    sis    dejectus,     C.D. 
(which  latter  has  devictus.) 

"  quia^  D. 

'  donavitf  C.D. 

*  quod]  om.  CD. 

®  per  amorem  non  per  t,  CD. 

J'  sunt,  A. 

^^fore  devincendas,  C.D. 

"  A.  omits  the  reference  ;  which, 

however,  is  correct.     See  Just.  lib. 
ii.  c.  4.  in  fine.    B.  has  libra  primoi 

**  interiity  B.     Tragus  .  *  .  inter- 
cidit^  om.  CD, 

"  13»,  A.  wrongly.     Kefference 

omitted  in  B.  See  Isid.  lib.  xiv.  c.  6. 

^*  Omnes  ,  .  .  quod"]    om.   CD., 

which,  consequently,  alter  the  con- 
struction below, 

"  So  A. ;  Affer,  B,CD.E.,  (bttt 

Jfer  below  in  E.) ;  see  also  the 

versions.    The  Vulgate  has  Opher, 
*'  quia,  A* 


Amazones,  did  wroot  to  kyng  Alexandre  in  J>is  manere  :  "  Of  Tbetisa. 

"  ]>j  wittes  we  wonder,  i  |>at  J>ou  desirest  to  fi^te  wij>  wommen ;      

"for  ^if  fortune  fauerij»  2  vs,  and  J>ou  be  ouercome,^  it  is^ 
"  grete  schame  and  vilonye,  whan  J)ou  art  ouercome  of 
"  wommen.  Also  ^if  ^  oure  goddis  heep  wrooj?  wi])  vs  and 
"  J>ou  ouercome  vs,  for  to  wyune  ]?e  maystrie  of  wommen 
**  )>ou  getest  but  litel  worschippe."  Kyng  Alexandre  was 
i-plesed  wif  ]?is,  and  graunted  hem  fredom,  and  seide : 
*'  Wommen  moste  be  ouercome  with  fairenesse  and  loue,  and 
"  nou^t  wi]?  stemesse  and  drede."  Trogusy  libro  secundo. 
pis  queene  Thalestris,  after  }?at  sche  hadde  be  kyng  Alex- 
andre his  lemman  fourty  dayes,  sche  torned  a^eyn  in  to 
here  owne  lond,  and  afterward  in  schort  tyme  fil^  yn  wif 
here  peple. 

De  Africa  et  ejus  prouinciis»     Isidorus,  libro  quarto  decimo, 

Capitulum  nonum  decimum. 

Alle  auctors  of  stories  witnessi]?  ]?at  Affrica  ha]?  Je  name 
of  Aifer/  Madians  sone,  Abrahams  sone,  fat  was  geten  on 

wryte    to  kynge    Alexander  in    this  forme»^     «  Hyt  is   to  MS.  Harl. 

'•  meruayle  of  thy  prudence  wyllenge  to  make  batayle  with      2261. 

"  women  :   for  if  hit  happe  vs  to  haue  the  victory,  fortune  «  ^7^ 

"  schewenge  fauor,   thou  scholde^  be   conftisede  by  merite, 

"  sythe  that  thou  was  ^  ouercommen  with  women  ;  and  thau^he 

"  thou  haue  the  victory  of  vs,  thow  schalle^  obteyne  but 

"  ly telle  worschippe,  hauenge  victory  of  women/*    Kynge 

Alexander    pleasede  grauntede  to  tlieyme  liberte,   seyenge, 

"  Women  ar  to  be  ouercommen  not  with  feere,  but  with 

"  luiFe."     TroguSy  libro  secundo.     That   qwene    Thalestris, 

after  that  sche  had  vsede  the  bedde  of  kynge  Alexander  by 

xl*^  dales  to  haue  a  childe,  returnenge  to  here  realme  felle 

at  variaunce  soone  after  with  here  peple. 

Of  Affrike  arid  the  prouinces  ofhyL     Isidorus,  libro  quarto 
decimo.      Capitulum  nonum  decimum. 

Alle    scriptoi*es  historicalle  and  croniclers   affei*me    ]?at 
Aifrica  toke  the  name  of  hit  of  AiFer,  son  of  Madiaii,  the  son 

'  wytte  is  wonder^  a,  Cx.,  which  is  j       ^  The  MS.  readingof  the  yersions, 
probably  right.  i  though  rather  incorrect,  is  retained, 

^fauoure,  Cx. 

3  So  o.  and  Ca,  MS,  adds  of  wom- 

*  is]  flhal  be»  Cx. 

^  and  yfy  Cx. 

^  MS.  adds  fid,  seemingly  by  a 
clerical  etror  j  o.  and  Cx.  hate  it  not. 

because  Africa  is   always  writteii 
Affrica^  or  Affiitte  therein. 

^fforme,  Harl.  MS.,  which  com- 
mdnly  uses  the^  merely  as  a  capiUil 

^  So  the  HarL  US. 


bus  iEgypti  juxta  meridiem  per  ^thiopiam  inferiorem 
usque  ad  montem  Atlanticum/  ab  orienfce  et  septen- 
trione  man  magno  clauditur,  ab  occasu  veto  liabet  ocea- 
num  occidentalem.  Ranulphtis.^  Iste  Afer,  secundum 
Joseplium,  libro  prime,  capitulo  octavo,^  et  secundum 
Isidorum,  Etymolog.  libro  nono,  duxit  exercitum  versus  * 
Libyam,  auxilioque  Hereulis  majoris  hostes  superans, 
gentem  et  patriam  ex  suo  nomine  dictam  Africam  no- 
minavii^  Cujus  filiam  Etheam  Hercules  desponsavit, 
ex  qua  genuit  Dodorim,  ex  quo  Pharon.  Haec  regio 
Africa  plures  continet  provincias,  videlicet,^  occiden- 
talem partem  j^thiopise,  Libyam/  Tripolim,  Gsetuliam, 
Numidiam,  Mamitaniam  duplicem,  de  quibus  hie  per 
De  -.Ethiopia  tres  habet  partes ;  prima  namque  ^  pars  occi- 


dentalis  monfcuosa  est,  quae  ab  Atlantico  monte  celsis- 
simo  protenditur  usque  ad  jEgyptum,  media  pars  are- 
nosa  est;  tertia,  quae  orientalis  est,  pene  deserta  est.^^ 
Et  ilia"  situatur  inter  australem  oceanum  et  Nilum 
fluvium,  liabens  ab  ortu  mare  Bubrum.  Dicta  est 
Ethiopia  a  colore  populorum,  quos  solis  vicinitas  torret. 

»  «5^«^  A,  montem^  CD,  \      ^  Lihyam]  added  fi-om  B.C.D. 

"'  Reference  added  from  A.B.  I      ,  ^„^;^^^         ^^^^^^^  ^^  ^  j^ 

^  The  true  reference  is  to  Antiq. 
lib.  i.  c.  15.,  ^here  the  MSS.  differ  j  "  «Z"^'  (?0>  B.  apparently, 
much  in  the  forms  of  the  proper 
names.  Josephus  is  quoting  Alex- 
ander Polyhistor,  who  again  derives 
his  account  from  Halchus. 

*  adversua,  C. 

^  nuncupavitf  P« 

^  scilicet,  CD. 

"  qute  est  orientalis,  pcene  deserta^ 
B.  ;  tertia  vero,  qtue  orientalis,  est 
ptene  deserta,  C.D.,  "which  also 
slightiy  alter  the  following  sentence. 

"  C.  adds  autem  ;  B.  has  que ;  D« 
has  etutm» 



Cethura.    AfFrica  strecche]?  forj)  from  pe  endes  of  Egipt  by  Tbetisa. 

J)e  south  by  fe  neyj>er  Ethiopia  anon  to  the  hillei  Atlas,      

and  is  i-closed  yn  wi]>  ))e  grete  see  bofe  in  fe  estside  and 
yn  fe  northside  also ;  and  ha])  in  |)e  west  side  ]>e  west 
occean.  ^,  losephus,  libro  primo,  capitulo  octavo,  and 
Isidoi'us,  libro  nono,  seij?  fat  fis  Affer  ladde  his  oost  toward 
Libya,  and  ouercome  his  enemyes  by  fe  help  of  ]>e  more 
Hercules  ;  and  nempned  ^  pe  men  and  the  lond  after  his  owne 
name,  AfFrica.  Hercules  wedded  Ethea,  Affer  3  is  doubter, 
and  gat  on  hir  Dederym  ;  of  Dederym  com  Pharon.  J)is 
Affrica  conteynej)  many  prouinces  and  londes  ;  first  he  con- 
teyne])  ^  fe  west  dele  of  Ethiopia,  fan  Libya,  Tripolis,  Getulia, 
Numidia,  and  tweie  Mauritania.  Of  alle  fese  now  by  ordre 
ir>  onre  speche.  Ethiopia  ha]>  fre  parties,  fe  firste  is  hilly 
and  montuous,  and  strecchef  from  )>e  mount  Atlas  anon  to  ^ 
Egipt  ;  fe  myddel  partie  is  ful  of  grauel ;  fe  fridde,  fat  is 
fe  est  partie,<5  is  almost  alle  wildemesse.  pat  partie  is 
bytwene  fe  soufe  occean  and  fat  "^  ryuer  Nilus,  and  haf  f e 
Reed  see  in  f  e  estside,  and  hatte  Ethiopia  of  f  e  colour  and 
hewe  of  f e  men  of  f e  lond,  fat  bef  blewe  ^  men,  and  is  for  ^ 

of  Abraham,  geten  of  Cethura.  Whiche  procedethe  from  the  MS.  Hari. 
costes  off  Egipte,  nye  the  meridien  by  the  inferior  Ethiop  226 1. 
vn  to  the  mownte  Atlantyke,  schutte  of  the  este  parte  and 
northe  with  the  grete  see,  hauenge  on  the  weste  to  hit  the 
westerne  occean.  B.  This  Affer,  after  losephus,  libro 
primo,  capitulo  octavo,  and  also  after  Isidor,  in  his  Ethimolo- 
gies,  libro  nono,  hade  an  hoste,  ledenge  hit  towarde  Libya, 
hauenge  victory  of  his  enmyes  thro  helpe  of  grete  Hercules, 
namede  that  cuntre  Af&ica,  after  his  name  ;  whiche  toke  to 
his  wife  Editha,  doubter  to  Hej'cules,  of  whom  he  gate 
Dodoris.  This  region  of  Aflfrike  conteynethe  mony  pro- 
uinces, that  is  to  say,  the  weste  parte  of  Ethioppe,  Libya, 
Tripolis,  Getulia,  Kumidia,  and  tweyne  Mauritanyes,  of 
whom  hit  schalle  be  se'yde  by  ordre.  Ethioppe  hathe  thre  Ethiopia, 
partes ;  the  firste  parte  of  it,  that  is  in  the  weste,  is  fuUe 
of  hilles,  whiche  is  protendede  from  that  hie  hille  Atlantyke 
vn  to  Egipte.  The  mydde  parte  is  ftiUe  of  gravelle.  The 
thrydde  parte,  that  is  of  the  este,  is  alle  moste  fuUe  of 
deserte,  whiche  is  sette  between  the  sowthe  occean  and 
the  floode  of  NUus,  hauenge  on  the  este  to  hit  the  Eedde 
See.     Hit  is  callede  Ethiopia,  of  the  colour  of  peple  whom 

»  Cx.  adds  of, 
2  named,  Cx. 
^  Affersy  «.,  Cx. 

^  MS.  origmally  had  many  (clerical 

*  antrn  to\  vnto,  Cx.  (as  usual.) 

*  MS.  and  a.  add  and, 

'  |>a<]  the,  Cx.  (not  o.) 

*  hlajCy  Cx. 


Et  continet  monstruosos  populos,  videlicet,'  Garamantes, 
Troglodytas,^  qui  cervos  cursu  prsetereunt,  quorum  aliqui 
inaledicunt  soli  propter  ejus  nimium  fervorem.®  AKqui* 
serpentes  comedunt,  aliqui^  leones  et  pantheras  veoantur. 
Aliqui  *  specus  excavant  et  inhabitant/  quibus  stridor 
est  potius  dn  ore  quam  vox.  Alii  incedunt  nudi,  nullo 
exercitio  occupati.  Alii  sine  capitibus,  os  et  oculos 
in  pectore  habent.  Apud  aliquos  eorum  quadrupedia 
nascuntur  sine  auribus,  etiam  et  elepliantes.  Aliqui 
eorum  canem  habent  pro  rege,  cujus  motu  augurantur. 
Aliqui  solis  loeustis  vivunt,  sole  vel  fumo  induratis. 
Ibi  sunt  chamseleon  et  basiliscus,  rhinoceros,  cameli,  par- 
di,^  et  dracones,  ex  quorum  capitibus  et  cerebro  gemmae 
extrahuntur.  Isidorus,  lihro  tertio  dedmo.  In  Africa 
apud  Troglody tas  ^  est  fons,  cujus  aqua  potata  canoras 

scilicet, 'B.  \  pilosi:  chamcdeon  et  ha^Uiscus  ,  *  . 

^  Troffoditas,  MSS.)  and  similarly 
the  MSS.  of  the  versions. 

3  Dicta  .  .  .  fervorem]  Slightly 
contracted  in  CD. 

*  Alii,  CD.  (thrice.) 

*  After  this  CD.  have ;  ignes  ibi 
de  nocte  videntur»     ^atyri  quoque  ac 

dracones.    Alter  which  the  citation 
from  Isidore. 

«  So  all  the  MSS.  and  hoth  ver- 
sions ;  hut  camehpardi  is  in  all 
likelihood  the  true  reading. 

"  apnd  Troglodtftas"]  om.  CD. 



gret  breimynge  and  hete  of  the  Sonne,  ))at  is  hem  i  ful  nyh.^  Trevisa. 

In  Ethiopia  heep  meny  dyuerse  peple  grisliche  and  wonder-      

liche  i-schape ;  som  hatte  Garamantes  and  som  Troglodyte, 
and  bee])  ^  swifter  fan  hertes.  And  som  curse]?  J)e  sonne  for 
his  grete  hete  ;  some  etef  serpentes  and  addres  5  som  huntef 
leouns  and  panters.  Some  diggep  caues  and  dennes,  and 
wone]>  vnder  erjie,  and  maki]>  hir  noyse  wi]?  grisbaytynge  ^ 
and  chirkynge  of  tee]?  more  than  wif  voys  of  ]?e  Jrote,  Som 
goop  naked  and  no  werk  wirche}),^  some  wij»  oute  hedes 
and  haue]>  mouj;  and  y^en  in  pe  ^  breest.  Among  som  of 
hem  beej>  foure  foted  bestes  wi]>oute  eren,  and  olyphantes 
also,  Som  of  hem  ha])  an  hound  for  hire  kyng  and  deuyne  7 
by  meuynge  and  sterynge  of  hym,  som^  leuej)  onliche^ 
by  honysoukels  i-diyed  wif  smoke  oj^er  wij)  pe  sonne.  pere 
beep  also  camelions  and  basiliscus,  vnycornes,  camels,  pardes, 
and  dragouns,  fat  hauej)  in  here  brayn  and  hedes  many 
precious  stones.  Camelion  is  a  flekked  best  in  colour  liche 
to  alupard;  and  so  is  pardus,  and  pantera  ^^  also,  and  som 
dele  of  ])e  kynde;  but  pantera  is  frende  to  alle  manere  bestes 
but  to  ^*  ])e  dragoun  al  lone ;  for  hym  he  hate]?  as  deth. 
BasUiscus  is  kyng  of  serpentes  Jiat  wip  smyl  and  si^t  sleep 
beestes  and  foules.  IsidoruSy  libro  terUo  decimo.  In  Afirica 
amonge  pe  puple  Troglodyte  ^^  is  a  welle  pat  makep  hem  ])at 

the  ny^henesse   of  the  sonne    dothe    brenne,  whiche    con-  MS.  Harl. 
teynethe  in   hit  peple  to  be    meruaylede,  that  is  to  saye,      226I. 
Garamantes,  Troglodytes,  which  renne  and  turne  hertes  and      ■: — 
other  bestes  thro  rennenge,  somme  of  whom  curse  the  sonne  Troglodyte, 
for  the  grete  feruent  hete  of  hit.     Spmme  do  eite  serpentes, 
•somme  men  of  theyme  hunte  panteres  and  lyonnes.    Somme  f  33.  ^, 
of  theyme  make   caves   in  the   erthe,  whiche  berke   rather 
then  speke  lyke  men.     Somme  men  of  theyme  goe  nakede, 
not  occupyenge  theyme  in  eny  exercise.     Somme  with  owte 
hedes,  hauenge    theire    mowthe    and    ei^en    in  the  breste. 
Somme  of   theyme  haue  a    dogge    to    theire  kynge,   thro 
movenge  of  whom  thei  vse  wycchecrafte.     There    be    also 
cocatrice,   cameles,  cattes  of  the  mownteyne,  and  dragones 
from  the  hedes   of  whom   and  breyne   pannes    gemmes  be 
extracte,     IsidoruSy  libro  tertio  decimo»     There  is  a  welle 
amonge  the  Troglodytes  in  Affrike,  the  water   of  whom  y- 

'  whiche  is  to  hem,  Cx. 
2  nt^y^  a, 

*  whiche  ben,  Cx. 

*  gruntyngCf  Cx. 

*  doo  no  werke,  Cx. 

^  in  J>fi3  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  wi>o«fe, 

'  deui/ne]>,  a.,  Cx. 

*  MS.  omits  «01».     Added  from  a. 

^  So  a.;  fiQuyht,  MS.;  somme  lytte 
only,  Cx. 

"  panthera,  Cx.,who  however  has 
panters  above. 

"  saufto,  Cx. 

1^  peple  ^t  ben  called  Q>at  hatte, 
a.)  Trogo^te,  Cx. 


facit  voces.  Item  apud  Garamantes  dicunt  esse  fontem 
ita  algeiitem  de  die,  ut  bibi  non  possit;  ita*  ealentera 
de  nocte,  ut^  tangi  non  valeat. 

J)e  Libya.»  Libya  Cyrenensis  habet  ab  ortu  ^Egyptuni,  ab  austro 
iEthiopiam  occidentalem,  ab  oecasu  Syrtes  majores  et 
Troglodytas,  a  septentrione  mare  niagnuin.  Est  autem 
Libya  dicta  vel  quia  Libs,  id  est  ventus  Africus/  inde 
flat,  secundum  Isidorum,  libro  xv^.,  vel  a  Libya,  filia 
Epaplii,  filii  Jovis,  ibidem  regnante.  Et  gentes  ibidem 
dicuntur  Phutei  a  Phut  filio  Cham;' 

Deregione     Tripoli  tana  regio  habet  ab   ortu®  aras  Philsenorum 

tana,         inter  Syrtes  majores  et  Troglodytas  situatas,^  ab  austro 

Gaetulos  et  Garamantes,  usque  ad  oceanum  iEthiopicum 

protensos/  ab  oecasu  habet  Byzantium  usque  ad  lacum 

Salinarum,  a  septentrione   habet   mare   mediterraneum 

et  Syi^tes  minores.® 

^  at  ita,  C.  (not  D.)  i       «  habet  after  ortu  in  A. 

**  quod,  A, 

^  E.  has  for  rubric,  De  Lihya 

•*  SoA.B.;  AfrieiiovAfrim7),'Fj, 

^  a  septentrione  ♦  .  .  filio  Chani] 
om.  CB. 

'  situatas]  om.  CD.  (with  other 
very  slight  omissions.) 
*  protensus,  A. 
^  minores]  om,  A.B. 



clrynkeji  Jierof  to  haue  good  voys,   sch[r]ille,2  and  clere.  Tkeyisa. 

Also  among  pe  ofere  peple  Garamantes  is  a  welle  al^  day      "— 

so  colde  fat  no  man  may  ferof  ^*  drynke,  and  al^  ny^t  so"^ 

bote  l)at  no  man  may  it^  touche.    Libya    Cyrenensis  fat 

lond  ha]?  in  fe  est  side  Egipt,  in  J>e  souj  side^  Ethiopia,  in  fe 

west  J>e  perilous  place  of  ])e  see  pat  hatte  fe  more  Syrtes,® 

and  Troglodytas  ^  also,  in  the  norf  fe  grete  see,    Isidorus, 

libro  quinto,  seij?  fat  [Libya  haf  fe  name  of  fat  wynd  fat 

hatte  Libs,  and  is  f e  wynd  fat  blowef  out  of  Alfrica,  of er]  J'* 

Libya  haf  f e  name  of  Libya,  Epaphies  doubter,  fat  Epaphi 

was  lupiter  his  sone.     J)at  womman  Libya  reigned  in  fat 

lond  Libya,  and  fe  peple  of  fat  lond  hitte  Phutei  ^^  of  Phut, 

Chamys  sone.     Tripolitana  fat  regioun  haf  in  fe  est  side 

aras  Philenorum,  fe  auters  and  wenedes'^  of  fat  peple  fat 

beef  i-sette  bytwene  f  e  peple  Troglodyte  and  f  e  more  Syrtes. 

Syrtes  maiores  beef  perilous  places  faste  by  f e  ^^  see,  fat  is 

mare    Arenosum.     And   Tripolitana  haf  in  fe  south  side 

Getuios  and  Garamantes,  fat  strecchef  anon  to  f e  occean  of 

Egipt,  and  haf  in  f  e  west  side  Byzantium  anon  to  f  e  lake 

fat   hatte  lacus  Salinamm,  and  in  f e  norf  side  he  haf  fe 

see  of  myddel  erfe  and  fe  perilous  place  fat  hatte  Syrtes 

minores,  fe  lasse   Syrtes.      Getulia  is   fe  myddel  londe  of 

drunke  yeldethe  clere  voices.     Also  tliei  seye  an  other  welle  MS.  Hakl. 

to   be  amonge  the  Garamantes,  the  water  of  whom  is  soe      2261. 

colde  on  the  day  that  hit  may  not  be  drunke,  and  soe  hoote 

ill  the  ny^hte  that  hit  may  not  be  towchede.     Libya  Cyre-  Libya. 

nensis  i^  liathe  of  the  este  parte  to  hit  Egipte,  of  the  sowthe 

parte  the  weste  Ethioppe,  of  the  weste  the  more  Syrtes  and 

Troglodytes,   of  the   northe  the    grete   see.    And  Libya  is 

callede,  for  libs,  the  sowthe  wynde,  blawethe  from  thens,  and 

after  Isidorus,  libro  xv**,  hit  is  callede  of  Libya,  the  do^hter 

of  Epaphus,    reignenge  f  er ;  and   peple  be  namede    there 

Phutei  of  Phut,   the  son  of  Cam.      The  region  Tripolitan  Tripoli- 

hathe  of  the  este  to  hit  the  cuntre  of  Philenes,  sette  be-  tana. 

twene  the  grete  Syi^tesand  the  Troglodytes,  and  of  the  weste 

parte  Byzantium  ^^  vn  to  the  Dedde  see,  hauenge  of  fe  northe 

to  hit  the  see  Mediterrany  and  Ihe  lesse  Syrtes.     Getulia  Getulia. 

is  a  litelle  region  of  Affricke.      Sothely  Getulia    toke  the 

*  drungye\>f  a. 

^  So  Cx.  (shri/U)  ;  schU,  «, 

*  Cx.  adds  tlie  (bh), 

*  ofya»\  drynke  tkerof,  Cx. 

*  so]  it  is  so,  Cx. 

*  it]  om.  Cx. 

'  tvestf  a.;  Cx.  omits  side. 

*  Cirtes,  MSS.  of  both  versions. 

»  So  a.  and  Cx.,  but  misspelt ; 

VOL.  I. 

Trogodite,  MS.  Trevisa's  usage  is 
inconstant,  see  below. 

^«  The  words  iti  brackets  added 
from  a.  and  Cx. 

»  Putei,  o. 

**  wpndes,  Cx. 

^^  a.  and  Cx.  add  grawJy, 

^*  Cretensis,  Harl.  MS. 

^*  Bisancinm,  Harl,  M^. 




DeGffitulia.  GaBtulia  est  media  regio  Africse,  sic  denominata  a 
Getis,  qui  a  Gothis  *  processerunt.  Et,  ut  dicit  Grego- 
rius  in  Homilia,*  piscatores  non  habet.^ 

Cap.  XXI. 

De  Nwmdia. 

NuMiDiA  habet  ab  ortu  Syrtes  minores,  ab  austro 
^thiopes,  ab  occasu  Mauritaniam^  a  septentrione  mare 
Siculmn.  Hsec  regie  habet  in  se  Rusicadam^  et  Car- 
thaginem  magnam,  quae  sic  condita  fdit  secundum 
auctores.^  laidorus,  libro  qui/rvto  decimo,  ca/pitvlo  xii^. 
Phcenices,  a  Rubro  mari  profecti,  Sidonem  et  Tyrum  in 
Syria,  Uticam  in  Africa,  Thebas  in  Boeotia/  Gades  in 
fauce  ocddentaUs  oceani  condideruntJ  Nam  mos  erat 
antiquis  Phoenicibus  mercandi  causa  a  dome  longius®  pro- 
ficisciy  et  cum  alienigenarum  animos  commercio  novarum 
rerum  sibi  oonciliassent,®  loca  condendis  urbibus  apta 
capere.*^    Trogus,  Ubro  oeta/vo  deeimo.   Ex  his  profecta 

'  A  space  left  for  the  word  in  B« 

^  omdiis,  B. 

3  CD.thus  (after  4/rica):  a  Gothts 
qui  earn  occnparunt  denominata ;  pis' 
catores  non  habet 

*  Buscidam,  MSB. 

^  secundum  auctwes]  cm.  O. 

^  CD.  add  duce  Cadmo. 

'  et  Gades  iTistdam  in  ultima  f.  o, 
c,  CD. 

^  longius']  om.  D. 

^  reconeiliassent,  CD. 

^*  capere  (carpere,  C)  eceperunU 
CD.;  sibi procuraverunt,  "B, 


Affrica,  and  ha]?  'pe  name  of  Gethes  ;  ])at  folk  com  of  Gothes,i  Tbetisa 

and  in  an  omelie  Seint  Gregorie  seip  ]>at  J?ilke  men  hauef      

no  fisheres. 

De  Numidia.^    Capitulum  vicesimum, 

NuMiDiA  ha])  in  pe  est  side  Syrtes  minores,  pe  lasse 
Syrtes,  a  perilous  place,^.  in  pe  southe  Ethiopia^  in  pe 
west  Mauritania,  and  in  pe  norj)  pe  see  Siculus.  In  J>at 
lond  is  Busicada^  and  Carthago^  pe  grete  citee^  bat  was 
in  ]?is  manere  arereJ  and  i-buld,  as  auctors  tellif.  Isidonis^ 
Itbro  quinto  decijno,  capitulo  tertio  decimo.  Phenices,  men 
of  Fhenici%  ]>at  lond,  wente  from  pe  Eede  see  and  bulde  ^ 
fese  citees :  first  in  Syria  pel  bulde  Sidon  ^  and  Tyrus,®  in^ 
Affi*ica  Utica,  in  Beotia  Thebe,  and  in  pe  moup  of  pe' 
west  occean  Gades;  for  in  olde  tyme  pe  Phenices  were 
grete  marchaundes,  and  passed  into  dyuers  londes  vrip 
marchaundise  J^at  ]7ei  brou^te,  and  feng^  |>erfore  londe 
and  place  to  bulde  on  citees  and  townes*      Tragus,   libro 

name  of  hit  of  Gethes,  of  whom  Getuliones  didde  precede,  MS.  Haul 
and,  as  Seynte  Gregory  seythe  in  a^^  omely,  that  region  hath     2261. 
no  fischers  in  hit  for  the  wontenge  of  fisches.  

Capitulum  vicesimum, 

NuMiPiA  hath  on  the  este  parte  to  hit  the  lesse  Syrtes,  Numidia. 
of  the  weste  men  of  Ethiope,  on  the  weste  Mauritany,^*  and 
on  the  northe  parte  the  see  of  Sicilia.^^  This  region  hathe 
in  hit  Rusicada^  and  Carthago,^  whiche  was  edifiede  in  this  Carthago. 
manor  after  auctores*  Isidorus,  libro  vicesimo  quinto,  capi" 
tulo  tertio  deeir^o.  Men  off  Phenicia,  goenge  from  the  Bedde 
See,  made  the  cites  of  Sidon  and  of  Tyrus  in  Syria,  Utica 
in  Affi*ike,  Thebas  in  Beotia,  Gades  in  the  mowthe  of  the 
occean.  For  a  consuetude  was  vsede  amonge  theyme 
somme  tyme  to  goe  in  to  ferre  regiones  from  theire  cuntres, 
and  when  thei  perceyvede  the  hertes  of  straunge  peple  to 
haue  iheyme  in  fauour,  thro  the  merchaundise  of  newe 
thynges  thei  toke  places  apte  to  make  cites.     Tragus,  libra 

^folke  of  the  Grothes,  Cx. 

2  Nwmedia,  MS.  (not  Cx.)  Va- 
rious other  unimportant  deflections 
from  the  classical  forms  will  not  be 

^  a.  and  Cx.  add  in  the  see, 

*  Buscida,  MSS.  of  both  versions 
and  Cx. 

*  Cartago,  MSS.  of  both  versions 
and  Cx.,  here  and  belov.   Cartage 

has  been  retained  below,  as  an  En- 
glish form. 

*  buylded,  Cx. ;  who  has  buyld 

'  SydouTif  MS» 

^  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  of  Tims,  MS. 

^feng'\  resseyued,  Cx. 

"  So  the  MS. 

*i  Mduritamyf  Harl.  MS.,  and  so 

«  Siltcia,  HarL  MS. 

L  2 



Dido,  qu8B  alio  nomine  Elissa  vocabatur,  electa  secum  ro- 
bustorum  juveniim  multitudine,  Cyprum  insulam  primo 
venit,  ubi  assumptis  secum  Ixxx.  virginibns  ad  sobolem 
propagandam  Africam  devenit.  Ibique*  empto  loco 
pro  refocillatione  navigantium  qui  corio  bovis  cir- 
cumduci  ^  posset,  corium  in  tenue '  .filura  secari  jussit/ 
locumqne  emptnm^  circuraduci,  qnem  Byrsam,  id  est 
Coriumy  vocavit.  Iddorus,  libra  qumto  dedioio,  Sive 
Carthago.  Carthadam,®  quod  sonat  villayn  novam.  Tandem'  verso 
nomine  locus  ille  Carthago  vocabatur.  Trogits^  lihro 
octavo  dedmo?  Sicque  conditur  Carthago  Ixxij.  auTiis 
ante  urbem  Bomam.  RanulphuaP  Idem  dicit  Papias ; 
cum  ergo^^  secundum  historicos  Roma  sit  fundata  quarto 
anno  Achaz  regis  Juda,"  si  isti  quatuor  anni,  et  sedecim 
anni  regis  Joathse,  et  quinquaginta  duo  anni  regis  Ozise,^® 
qui  regem  Achaz  prsecesserunt,  simul  numerentur,  pate- 
bit  quod  circa  primum  annum  regis  Oziae  Carthago 
fuerit  fundata.    Veruntamen*^  Isidorus  Etymolog.,  libro 

>  Ubi,  CD. 

« iegi,  CD. 

'  tenuissimumf  C.T). 

*juhet,  C.J) 

*  C.D.  add  eodem, 
«  Cartadam,  MSS. 

*  deinde,  C.  (not  D.) 

®  The  reference  added  from  C.D. 
See  Just,  Lib.  xviii.  c.  6. 

*  In  CD.  the  article  from  BannU 
phus  stands  thus :  **  Ycrias  tamen 
**  iestimandum  est*  quod  si  («t,  cm. 
**  B.)  Ciirthago  condita  sit  ab  illaDi* 
**  done  qnam  JEneas  reliqiiit,  quod 
<*  {et  quodj  D.)  Carthago  fundata 
**  sit  570  annis  ante  urbem  Bomam. 

*'  Nam  tot  anni  sunt  inter  »Tair  ju- 
"  dicem  et  Romulum.  Quod  autem 
^  quidam  dicunt  Car<haginem  fuisse 
"  conditam  tempore  regis  David  a 
"  Carthedone  Tyrio,  sive  a  filia 
"  (fliOf  C)  ejus  Didone,  potius 
**  puto  Carthaginem  tunc  fuisse  ara- 
"  pliatam,  et  illain  Didonem  aliam 
•*  fuisse  a  prima."  After  this  the 
paragi-aph  on  Mauretania  begins. 

*•  igitur,  A. 

"  Jttdttf  added  from  A.B.,  which 
write  Iiide,  though  having  Lalt 

<^  Azariah  is  intended. 

"  Verumptame»,  A.B.K. 


octavo  decimo.      Dido,  fat  hi^te  Elissa  also,  went  oute  of  Trevisa. 

Phenicia  wi|)  a  gi*ete  companye  of  ^ODglynges   i-chose,  and       

seilede  first  into  Cyprus.^  And  pere  J>is  womman  Dido 
toke  wi])  hir  foure  score  maydens  for  to  brynge  forf  chil- 
dren^ and  com  into  Afiric%^  and  peve  fore  ese  and  reste  of 
here  men,  fat  were  wery  of  seillynge,  aclie.boujte  as  moche 
lond  as  sche  my^te  byclippe  wij?  an  oxe  hide,*  and  kutte^ 
fe  hyde  into^  a  J?ong  fat  was  ful  long  and  ful^  smal, 
and  bicHpped  ferwip  a  grete  place,  and  cleped  hit  Byrsa, 
fat  is  a  pwong,  IsidoruSy  lihro  quinto  decimo.  Of er  Car 
thada,6  fat  was  a  newe  toun.  After  fat  f e  name  was 
chaunged  and  fe^  place  i-cleped  Carthago.^  And  so  Car- 
thago was  i-buid  f re  score  ^ere  and  twelue  to  fore  f e  citee 
of  Rome*  ^.  Papias  seif  f e  same ;  and  ^  stories  tellef  fat 
Eome  was  i^bulde  f e  fourfe  ^ere  of  Achaz,  kyng  of  luda. 
pan  ^if  we  acounte  rediliche  and  putte  to  giders  foure  ^ere 
of  Achaz,  xvi.  ^ere  of  lotham,!^  and  two  and  fifty  ^ere  of 
Ozias,  fat  regned  to  fore  Achaz,  hit  folwef  fat  Carthago 
was  i-founded  aboute  fe  firste  }ere  of  Ozias  fe  kyng, 
Neuerfeles  Isidorus,  libro   quinto  Etii.,   and  Magister,   in^* 

octavo  decimo.     Dido  goenge   furthe   from  theyme,   whiche  MS.  Harl. 
was  callede  by  an  other  name  Elissa,  takenge  a  multitude      2261. 
of  yonge  men  with  here,  come  firste  to  the  yle  of  Cyprus,^  and  „    7T 
Ixxx.  virgynes  to  norysche  multiplicacion,  come  to  Aflft'ike,  •  *  •   • 
whiche  byenge  a  place  f er  for  noryschenge  of  men,  trauayl- 
euge   as  ferre  as  the   skynne    of  an  ox  myihte   extende, 
causede  hit  to   be  kytte   in   as  smalle  partes,   and    so  the 
grownde  to  be  compassede  abowte,  whiche  place  was  callede 
Byrsa,^*  that  is  to  say,  leder,    Isidorus,  libro  xv^.     Or  elles 
that  cite   was    callede  Carthada,^  and  after warde  Carthago, 
whiche  cite  was  edifiede  Ixx*»  yere  afore  the  cite  of  Rome. 
I^.    Papias  seythe  the  same,  sythe  after  alle  wryters^  histo» 
ricalie  Eome   was  made  in  tlie  iiij^^«  yere  of  Achaz  kynge 
of  the  lewere.    If  these  liij,  yere,  and  xvi.  yere  of*  kynge 
loachim,*^  and  lij'*  yere  of  kynge  Ozias,  whiche  precedede 
kynge  Achaz,   be  annumerate,  hit  is    expressede  that  lij^ 
yei*e  resulte   fat  Carthago  was  made   in  the  iiij*^^  yere  of 
Achaz    kynge    of    lewcry.     Neuerthelesse    Isidorus    wille, 

^  Opres,  MS.,   a.,    Harl.  MS.  ; 
Ciprisy  Cx. 

*  oxe  huyde,  a.  ;  oxes  hf/de,  Cx. 
^  h/ttCf  Cx. 

*  tOf  a. ;  vntOf  Cx. 

5  Cx.  omits  the  second /a/. 
«  Canada,  MSS.  of  both  versions;, 
and  Cx,  • 

'  So  Cx,  (Me)  5  to  J>c,%S, 

*  thnSf  Cx. 

^  and]  added  from  a.,  and  Cx. ; 
the  latter  has  historyes, 

"    ^®  loihasj  MS.,  a.  ;  lonathas,  Cx. 

"  ?w]  added  fi*om  Cx. 

'2  Birisa,  HarL  MS. 

"  So  the  HarL  MS.,  but  lotham  is 



qmnto,  et  Magister  in^  Historiis^  Scholasticis,  videntur 
sentire  quod  fundata  sit  ^  circa  xxxiv"»  annum  regis  Da- 
vid, Marianus  autem  dicit  quod  circa  quartum  annum 
AmasisB  regis  Juda,  Non  ergo  potent  ad  litteram  stare 
quod*  tradit  Virgilius,  et  Phrygius  Dares  in  historia  sua 
de  bello  Trojano,  quod  scilicet*  iEneas  vidit  Didonem, 
cum  iEneas  obierit  ante  fundationem  Carthaginis,  quam 
Dido  fundavit,  plus  quam  trecentis  annis ;  vel  erit  dare 
aliam  Didonem  ab  ista  antiquiorem,  vel  quod  Carthago 
prius  fuerit  ®  fundata.  Proinde  dicit  Augustinus,  primo 
Ubro  Confessionum  in  fine,  quod  docti  negabant' 
^neam  vidisse  Carthaginem  aut  Didonem.  Igitur  se- 
cundum Orosium,  libro  quarto,  Carthago  in  circuitu 
murorum  habuit  xxij.  miUia  passuum.  Altitudo  muri 
quadraginta  cubitus;  latitudo  triginta  pedes;  et  tota 
pene  man  cingebatur  absque  faucibus  quae  tria  ®  millia 
De  Mauri-      Mauritania  duplex  est,    Prima  CsBsariensis,  quae  habet 


ad  orientem  Numidiam,^  ab  austro  arenas  oceani,  ab 
occasu  flmnen  Maluam,*®  a  septentrione  fauces  maris 
magnl  Mauritania  Tingitana^^  ultima  est  provincia 
Africse,  habens  ab  ortu  flumen  Maluam,  a  septentrione 

'  in]  om.  A, 

2  So  E.  at  lengfih  ;  A.B.  abbre- 
yiate  the  words  ;  the  singular  would 
he  preferahle.    See  the  yersions. 

^Jitit,  A. 

*  quod]  sicut,  A.B« 

^  scilicet]  om.  A.B. 

«  So  A.B. ;  Juerat,  E. 

'  negabunt,  A.E. 

^  trio]  in  mU.,  B.  The  text  runs 
awkwardly.    See  the  versions. 

'  Prima  habet  ab  ortu  Numidiam^ 


^^  Apparently  an  error  for  Mu- 
htcham.  Both  yersions  have  like- 
wise Malua  in  all  the  MSS. 

"  TingtHna,  MSS. 


Historia  Scholastica,  seif  ]>at^  it  semef  fat  Carthago  was  Tbbvisa. 

i-founded   aboute  pe   foure  and  J^ritty  ^ere  of  kyng  Dauid.      

Marianus  seij>  pat  Carthago  was  i-bulde  aboute  pe  four]>e 
^ere  of  Amazias,  kyng  of  luda.  pan  it  may  nou^t  stonde 
pat  Virgilius  and  Phrygius  Dares  in  his  storie  of  pe  bataille 
of  Troye  seij?,  pat  .Eneas  sih  pat  womman  Dido,  for  Eneas 
was  dede  pre  hondred  ^ere  and  more  or^  Cartage  was 
i-founded  pat  Dido  foundede ;  oper  pere  was  anoper  Dido, 
an  3  elder  pan  sche ;  oper  Cartage  was  raper  ^  i-founded.^ 
J)erfore  Seynt  Austyn,  libro  prime  Confessibnum,  seip  pat 
wise  men  denyep  pat  Eneas  sij  Carthago  oper  Dido  pat 
womman,  J)erfore  Orosius,  libro  quarto,  seip  pat  Carthago  ^ 
is  al  aboute  two  and  twenty  powsand  paas,  and  eueiy  wal 
is  fourty  cubites  ^  hi^e,  and  pritty  foot  brood  5  and  pe  citee 
is  byclipped  wip  pe  see  wel  nyh  al  aboute,  ou[t]  ^  take 
faucibus  quae  tria  milia  aperiebantur.^ 

Mauritania  is  pe  name  of  twei  londes,  pe  firste  Cesariensis, 
pat  hap  in  pe  est  side  Numidia,  in  pe  soup  pe  grauel  of  pe 
see  1^  occean,  in  pe  west  pe  ryuer  Malua»  and  in  pe  norp 
pe  gewes  of  pe  grete  see. 

Tingitana  is  pe  laste  prouince  of  Afirica>  and  hap  in 
pe  est  side  pe  lyaer  MaLua,  in  pe  north  pe  see 
Gaditanus,    in    pe    west    pe    hulle    Atlas,    and    the    see 

Ethimolog.,  libro  y%  and  the  Maister  in  his   story  scholas-  MS.  Habl. 
ticalle,  that  Carthago  was  edifiede  abowte  the  xxxiiij*^  yere      2261. 

of  kynge  Dauid ;  wherefore  the  seyenge  of  Virgille  and  of     

Phrygius  Dares  in  his  story  of  the  batelle  of  Troye,  that 
Eneas  see  Dido ;  or  elles  hit  is  to  ^iffe  a  more  elder  Dido 
then  this.  For  Eneas  dyede  moi'e  then  iii«  yere  afore  the 
edifienge  of  Carthago,  or  elles  hit  wille  folowe  that  Carthago 
was  made  a  fore.  Where  of  Seynte  Austyn  seythe  in  his 
booke  of  confessiones,  libro  prime,  in  the  ende,  that  wyse 
men  denye  Eneas  to  hare  seen  Carthago.  Therefore  after 
Orosius,  libro  iiij***,  Carthago  hade  with  in  the  circuite  of 
the  walles,  xxij.  ml.  passes.  The  altitude  of  the  walle 
was  of  xl**  cubites,  the  latitude  of  xxx^  foote  alle  moste 
compassede  abowte  with  the  water  of  the  see.  There  be  Maurita- 
tweyne  Mauritanyes,  that  firste  is  Mauritany  Cesariense,  ^^ 
whiche  hathe  at  the  este  of  hit  Numidia,  at  the  sowthe  the 
gravelles  of  the  occean,  at  the  northe  the  floode  callede 
Malua,  of  the  weste  the  chekes  of  the  occean.    Mauritania 

*  as,  Cx. 

^  afy  a.  ;  efy  Cx. 

^  and,  Cx. 

''  ra]>er]  added  from  o. 

*  i-buld, «.  and  Cx, 

« i>at  Carthago}  added  firom  Cx. 

'  cubitf  a, 

^  out,  a» ;  oute,  Cx.  Trevisa  and 
the  HarL  translator  seem  to  haye 
been  puzzled  with  the  Latin  text 

^  tiiat  iif,  m,  were  opend,  Cx. 

*•*  Cx.  omits  see» 



fretum  Gaditanum,  ab  occasu  montem  Atlanticum  et 
oceanum.  Dicitur  autem  Mauritania  ^  a  mauron,  quod 
est  nigrum,  quasi  nigrorum  patria.  In  hac  Africa  est 
tnons  Atlas  ad  occidentem,  non  longe  ab  oceano,^  ita 
supra  monteis  alios*  elevatus  ut  circulum  lunarem 
credatur  attingere ;  ubi  de  nocte  crebri  ignes,  fauni  et 
satyri  videntur,  tubse,  fistulse,  et  cymbala  frequenter 
audiuntur.  Augustinus  de  Civitate,  libro  octavo 
decimo.^  Atlas  fuit  astrologus,  et®  frater  Prometliei, 
qui  ideo  ^  portare  coelum  fingitur ;  a  quo  et  '^  mons  ille 
Atlas  dicitur,  quern®  propter  immensam  altitudinem 
coelum  portare  vulgus  credit.  Hugutio,^  capitulo 
Phoenix.  Nota'^  quod  Puni,  Poeni,  Punici,  et  Punices, 
dicuntur"  tarn  Phoenices  quam  Afri  sive  Carthagi- 
nenses,  quia  Dido  Carthaginensis  fuit  de  terra  Phoenicise 

Cap.  XXIL 
De  EiiTopa  et  ejus  pi^ovinciis, 

RanulphusP    Ponit  Isidorus,   libro  quarto  decinio, 
quod  ^*  Europa  sit  dicta  ab  Europa,  filia  Agenoris  regis 

*  q,  n.  p,  after  Mauritania  in  C.l)., 
which  add  :  alia  Mauritania  dicitur 

^  mon  longe  ab  oceanoi]  om.  CD. 

*  alios]  om.  CD. 

*  i  9,  E.,  vrongly.  See  Lib.  xviii, 
c.  8.  and  c.  39.  E.  also  heads  the 
previous  paragraph  :  Augustinus  de 
Civitatejibro  zviij.  likewise  wrongly; 
for  the  two  passages  above  named, 
which  alone  name  Atlas,  do  not 
contain  what  is  here  said. 

*  astrologus  c<]  om,  CD. 
^  quia  idem,  D. 

'  et]  om.  B. 

?  cujus  nomine  Atlas  dicitur  mons 
iUe,  quern,  CD. 

^  Hugo,  A.B.  (a  frequent  varia- 

'*  JNotandum,  D, 

^^  quod  Punici  et  Punices  dicuntur, 

**  de  civitatibus  Ph.  veniens,  CD. 

w  So  E. :  the  other  MSS.  omit 
the  name. 

"  Ponit ,  ,  .  .  quod]  om.  C.D., 
which  also  contract  slightly  the 
first  two  sentences  throughout. 


occean.     Mauritania  haj)  }>e  name  of  mauron^   })at  is   blak^  Tkevisa. 

as  it  were  ])e  contray  of  black  men.     In  J?i8  Afii»ica  is  fe      

liulle  Atlas  in  ]?e  west  side  and  ende,  nou^t  fer  from 
occean.  And  Atlas  is  so  M^e  ouer  pe  ^  huUes,  fat  lewed 
men  wenej)  J>at  it  rechej?  to  Jie  mone.  pere  is  ofte  by  ny^te 
i-seie  fire,  fauni,  and  satyri,  fat  beej>  spiritus  ^  of  fe  ^  aier 
dyuersliche  i-schewed.  Also  fere  is  ofte  i-herde  tymbers, 
pipes,  and  trompes.  Augustinus  de  Civitate  Dei,  libra 
octavo  decimo.  Atlas  was  ah  astronomyour,  Prometheus 
brofer  ;  f erfore  ^  som  men  ^  feynef  fat  Atlas  beref  lieuene. 
And  of  f  is  man  Atlas  f  e  hul  haf  his  name  and  hatte  Atlas 
also,  and^  is  so  hi^e  fat  fe  lewed  peple  wenef  fat  he  7 
beref  heuene.  Take  hede  fat  Puni,  Peni,  Punici,  and 
Pun  ices  also  beef  i-cleped  Phenices,  Afri,  and  Cartha- 
ginienses,  as  f ei  were  men  of  Phenicia,  of  Affrica,  ofer  of 
Cartage.  For  fat  womman  Dido,®  fat  founded  Carthago, 
was  a  comlynge,  and  com  of  ^  Phenicia. 

£>e  Europa  et  ejus  partibus.     Capitulum  vicesimum  primum, 

IsiDORUs,  libro  quarto,  seif  fat  Europa  haf  the  name  of 
Europa,    Agenores   doubter,    king   of   Libya ;   and  lupiter, 

takethe  the  name  of  hit  of  maurouy  that  is  blacke,  as  the  MS.  Harl. 
cuntre  of  blacke  men.    In  whom  is  the  mownte  callede  Atlas      2261. 
at  the  weste,  not  ferre  from  the  occean,  whiche  is  so  eleuate  ^^ 
ouer  other  hilles  that  is  ^iffen  to  credence  the  altitude  of  ^^^g 
hit  to  towche  the  cercle  of  the  moone,  where  claryones  and 
symbales  be  herde  oftetymes  in  the  ny^hte.     Augustinus  de 
Civitate f    libro   octavo    decimo.     Atlas    was   an  astronomier  f.  34  a. 
and  the    broder   of  Prometheus,   whiche    was    feynede    to 
berre  heuyn,   of  whom    this   hille   callede  Atlas  toke    the 
name  of  hit,  whom  commune  peple  suppose  to  berre  heuyn 
for  the  huge  altitude  of  hit.     Also  hit  is  to  be  attendede 
that  Puni,  Peni,   Punici,  and  Punices  be   callede  as  welle 
men   of  Phenicia    of    Afirike  and  of   Carthago,   for  Dido 
dwellenge  in  it  was  of  the  londe  of  Phenicia. 

Of  Europe  and  of  the  Provinces  of  hit.      Capitulum  21. 

IsiDORUS  rehersethe,   in    his    xiiijt'^e   boke,    that  Europa  Europa. 
toke  name  of  Europa,  doubter  of  Agenoris,  kynge  of  Libya, 

'  f  e]  other,  Cx. 

2  spiritis,  a.  ;  sprites,  Cx. 

«>e]  om.  a.  (not  Cx.) 

*for,  «. 

*  Cx.  omits  men. 

®  it  is,  Cx. 

'  itf  Cx.  (and  so  often.) 

•  Didoo,  a. 

^fro,  Cx. 



Libyse,  quam  Jupiter  Cretensis  rapuit  sibL  Hsec 
autem  Europa,  pars  mundi  tertia,  indpiens  a  flumiiie 
Tanai  et  Moeotide  palude,  descendit  per  septentrio- 
nalem  oceanum  usque  in  fines  HispanisB  apud  Gades 
insulam«  Ab  oriente  et  austro  marl  taagno  cingitur.^ 
Plures  continet  provincias  et  insulas,  de  quibus  hie  per 

ordinem  aliqua  sunt  tangenda,^  Est  autem  sciendum 
quod  ex  parte  orbis  septentrionaUs  Moeotides  paludes 
et  fluviua  Tanais  distinguunt  Asiam  majorem  ab 

Fluvius  autem*  Tanais  dictus  est  a  Thano  prime 
rege  Scytharum,  qui  fluvius  exoriens*  a  Eipseis  mon- 
tibus®  descendens  intrat  pontum  Mediterraneum. 

Scy thia  inferior  regio ''  frigida  est  ®  valde.  Incipit  a 
flumine^  Tanai/®  inter  Danubium  et  oceanum  septen- 
trionalem  usque  Germaniam  protenditur.  Sed  propter 
barbaras  gentes  quas  continet  generaliter  Barbaria" 

DeAiania.     Alania/*  pars  Scythise   inferioris/*    declinat  a  lacu 
Moeotidis  usque  Daciam. 

De  Mcesia.     Mcesia  ^^  ab  ortu  clauditur  ostiis  Danubii ;   ab  euro 



^jungitur,  P. 

^  aliqua  . .  .  tarigenda^  om.  C«D. 

'  et  JSuropam,  CD, 

^  autem]  om.  CD. 

*  S,  et  exorienSf  CD. 

^  apud  i?.  montes,  CD. 

''regio]  om.  CD. 

^est]  om.  A.B.C 

^Jlumo^  A.D. 

»»  Thanaysy  B. 

"  So  A.CD. ;  barbarica^BJ^. 

"  vocatur^  D. 

»  Albania,  B.E. 

"  inferioris]  om.  CD. 

'^  Misia,  HSS.  Mysia  and  Koesia 
may  be  dialectical  variations  of  the 
same  name  (Smith's  Anc,  Geogr,  ii. 
389)  :  but  to  edit  Jt^^  would  only 
confase.  A  little  below  A.  has 
Mestam,  and  this  fonn  has  been 
adopted  in  the  versions. 



kyng  of  Creta,  rauisched  Europa,  Agenores  doubter.  But  Tbevisa. 
J)is  Europa  is  ]?e  fridde  deel  of  fis  worlde  wyde,*  and  — 
bygynnef  fro  fe  ryuer  Tanais  ^  and  f e  water  Meotides,  and  - 
strecchef  dounward  by  pe  norJ>  occean  anon  to  pe  endes 
of  Spayne  at  pe^  ylond  Gades,  and  is  byclipped  by  J?e^ 
est  and  also  by  fe^  soup  wip  pe  grete  see.  In  Europa 
beep  many  prouinces  and  ylondes,  pe  wbiche  now  scbal  be 
descreued;^  but  firste  take  hede  pat  in  pe  north  side  of 
p6  world  pe  water  ^  Meotides  and  pe  ryuer  Tanais  departep 
atwjmne^  pe  more  Asia  and  Europa.  J)e  ryuer  Tanais 
hap  pe  name  of  Thanus^  pe  firste  kyng  of  Scythia.  pat 
ryuer  Tanais  bygynnep  from  pe  huUes  Ripheis,  and  goop 
doun  to®  pe  see  of  myddel  erpe.  IsidoruSy  Itbro  qtiarto 
decimo,  J)e  lower  Scythia  pat  lond  is  ful  colde,^  and  by- 
gynnep from  pe  ryuer  Tanais,  and  strecchep  bytwene  pe 
ryuer  Danubius  and  pe  ^^  norp  occean  anon  to "  Germania 
pat  contray.  Alania  is  a  party  of  pe  lower  Scythia^  and 
strecchep  somdel  from  pe  wateres  Meotides  toward  Daciam. 
Mesia  ^2  pat  lond  is  i-closed  in  pe  north  est  wip  pe  moup 
of  Danubius,  and  ioynep  in  pe  soup  est  to  Thracia,!^  and 

whom  lupiter  Cretensis  raveschede  to  hym.  That  Europe,  MS.  Hasl. 
the  thrydde  parte  of  the  worlde,  begynnenge  from  the  flood©  ^261. 
of  Thanay,  descendethe  by  the  northe  occean  vn  to  the 
costes  of  Speyne,  compassede  abowte  with  the  see  at  pe  yle 
callede  Gades,  on  the  este  parte  and  in  the  sowthe  with  the 
grete  see,  conteynenge  mony  prouinces  and  yles,  of  whom 
sommo  thynges  schalle  be  towchede  by  ordre. 

Hyt  is  to  be  attendede  that  of  the  northe  parte  the 
marras  of  Meotides  and  the  floode  of  Thanais  diuiden 
the  lesse  Asia  from  Europe.  Floode  of  Thanais  was 
namede  firste  of  Thanus,  kynge  of  Scythia,  which  floode 
descendenge  entrethe  in  to  the  see  Mediterrony.  Isidorus, 
libro  quarto  decimo*  The  inferior  Scythia  is  colde,  begyn-  Scythia. 
nenge  from  the  water  of  Thanus,  betwene  Danuby  and  the 
norSie  occean  is  protendede  to  Germanye,  which  is  callede 
Barbarica  for  the  men  of  Barbre  that  hit  conteynethe. 

Alania  is  a  parte  of  the  inferior  Scythia  declinenge  to  the  Alania. 
water  of  Meotides  vn  to  Denmarke.^4    Mesia  is  schutte  of  Mesia. 
the  este  parte  of  it  with  the  dun'es  of  Danuby,  from  the 

^  tppde  world,  Cx. 

2  Thanai,  MS.,  a. ;  Thanay^  Cx» 

'  at  pe]  atte,  Cx. 

^  Cx.  omits  \>e  (twice). 

^  descryuedj  Cx. 

*  wateris,  a. 

^  a  sonder,  Cx. 

*  into,  a, 

^ful  of  cold,  Cx, 

^^  j>€]  om.  o. 

1'  anon,  to"]  vnto  the,  Cx. 

^^  Misia,  MSS.  oft)oth  yendons, 
and  Cx.,  and  so  below. 

"  Tracia,  MSS.  of  both  versions, 
and  Cx. 

"  The  medieval  use  of  Dacta 
and  Daci  has  heze  misled  the 



Thraciae,  ab  austro  Macedoniae^  ab  occasu  Istrise,  ab 
Africo  Dalmati0B  jungitur.'  Terra  frugifera  maxime 
tritici,^  unde  et  earn  veteres  Cereris  horreum  nuncu- 
De  Sclavia.  Sclavia  pars  est  ®  Moesise,  qxxdd  *  tamen  duplex  est,  una 
major  quae  proprie  dicitur  Sclavonia,  et  continet  Dal- 
matisB  partem  et  Sarmatas.  Feras  habet  gentes  et 
piraticas.  Alia,  minor  Sclavia,  extenditur  a  Wandalis 
et  Bohemis  *  usque  ad  Saxones,  quae  gentem  habet  magis 




Pannonia,  a  Penninis  Alpibus  quibus  ab  Italia  secer- 
nitur  sic  vocata,  duplex  est,  major  quae  in  ulteriori 
Scythia  est  ultra  Moeotides  paludes,  a  qua  Huni'^ 
primitus  venationis  gratia  exeuntes,  per  longa  paludum 
spatia  cervorum  vestigia  insectantes,*  ut  dicit  Hero- 
dotus,® tandem  Pannoniam  minorem  invenerunt,  qui 
reversi  ad  propria,  coUecto  agmine,  in  illam  rediere,  et, 
expulsis  incolis,  nomen  patriae  Hungariam  indiderunt. 
Cujus  tamen  pars  Bulgaria  dicitur,  quae  habet  ab  oriente 
Moesiam^  ab  euro  Istriam,  ab  Africo  ^^  Alpes,  ab  occidente 

^jungitur]  om.  CD. 
'  So  A.B.  ;  triiicea^  C. }  triticoy  D. 
^  €${]    om.  A.,  placing  it  after 
majgr;  omitted  entirely  in  B.D. 

*  qu<B]  CD.  contract  a  little  here. 

*  Boemiis,  A.E. 

'^p'ann,  B.,  (possibly  blundered 
for  placidam,  which  is  very  likely 
the  true  reading). 

"  So  the  MSS.,  which  form  is 

fully  as  good  as  Hannii  if  less  com- 

^  insequenies,  B. 

•  ut  dicit  Herodotus]  om.  CD. 
Herodotus  never  names  the  Hims  j 
and  his  remarks  on  the  Scythians 
can  hardly  be  the  origin  of  this 

"  austro,  B. 



in  l>e   south  to   Macedonia,    in    )>e  west    to   Histria,'   and  Trevisa. 

in  J)e  south   west  to    Dalmatia.     Mesia  is    a   prise  ^    lond      — — 

of  corne  and  of  whete,  J^erfore  feolde  ceteris^  cleped  hit 

a  berne.      Sclauia    is   a   partie  of   Mesia  ;    fere   beef   also 

two  londes,  eifer  hatte  Sclauia.     pe  more  hatte  properliche 

Sclauonia,  and   conteyne])   som  of  Dalmatia   and  Sarmatas, 

and  haj>  wjlde  men  and  see  J?eues.   J)e  lasso  Sclauia  strecchef 

from  Wandalia  and  Bohemia  anon  to  Saxone  ;  and  fere  ynne 

bef  more  myldc*  peple.     Pannonia  haf  fe  name  of  Penninis 

Alpibus,  fat  beef  ^  hulle,^  fat  beef  i-cleped  Alpes,  and  f ilke 

hilles  departef  Pannonia  and  Italia  :  fere  is  anofer  Panno- 

nia  be   tonde  fe  wateres  Meotides    in   f  e   lender  Scythia. 

Out  of  f  e  more  Pannonia  Hunni  7  went   an    huntynge,   and 

passed  long  by  marys  and  wateres,   and  folwed  fe  trace  of 

hertes,  ut  dicit  Herodotus,*  and  so  at  fe  laste®  fei  founde 

fe  lasse  Pannonia,  and  torned  home  a^en,   and   fette    to^" 

hem  grete  strong  fe  and  com  eft'^  in  to  fe  lasse  Pannonia, 

and  put  out  f e '  men  fat  were  f erynne,  and  cleped  f e  lond 

Hungaria.i2    But  a  partie  ferof  hatte  Bulgaria,  and  haf  in 

f  e  est  side  Mesia,  in  f  e  souf  est  Histria,i*  in  f  e  west  Alpes, 

(fe  hilles  fat  so  hotef,)  in  fe  west   Gallia  Belgica,  fat  is 

este  of  Tracia  to  the    sowthe  parte  of  Macedony  ;  a  plen-  MS.  Hakl. 
tuous  region,  and   specially  of  whete,  wherefore   olde    men      2261. 
namede   hit    the    berne    of   God   of  come.     Sclauia    is  a  „  ~r* 
parte  of  Mesia,  of  whom  the  nowmbre  is  duplicate,  the  more  "^^^^^*^* 
and   lesse.      The  more   is   callede  proprely   Sclauonia,  con- 
teynenge  a  parte  of  Dalmatia  and  Sarmatas,  hauenge  ferse 
peple  and  schippemen.      The  litelle   Sclauia  is   extendede 
from  Wandalinges  and  men  of  Boemy  vnto  the   Saxones, 
the  peple  of  whom  is  more  meke.      Also  Pannonye  is  du-  Pannonia. 
plicate,  the  more  that  is  in  the  ferfer  Scythia,  ouer  the  waters  f-  34.  b. 
of  Meotides,  from  whom  Hunes   goenge  furthe   for  cause 
of  huntenge  by  ferre  cuntrees  folowenge  hertes,  as  Herodotus 
scythe,  at  the  laste  founde  the  lesse  Pannonye,  whiche  ro- 
turnenge   home,  gedrenge  a  multitude   of  peple,  returnedc 
ageyne  to  hit,  the  inhabitatores  of  hit  expulsede  thei  namede 
that  cuntre   Hungary.     A  parte   of  whom  is  callede  Bui- Hungaria, 
garia,  hauenge  on  the  este  to  hit  Mesia,  of  the  weste  Gallia  . 

*  and  in  |>e  ,  .  ,  Histria]  add.3d 
from  A.  and  Cx. 

*  prisy  a. ;  goody  Cx. 

^  This  absurdity  is  found  also  in 
a.  and  Cx. 

^  a.  and  Cx.  add  men  and  after 

*  heo)^y  a. 

®  kuUesy  a. 

'  Humiy  MS. }  Hinnify  Cx. 

*  as  Erodotus  septk,  Cx, 

®  atte  lasfe^  Cx.,  and  so  often. 

'» toke  withy  Cx. 

'^  agayUy  Cx. 

'2  Hungeria^  MS. ;  Hongariay  Cx. 

"  So  «.  and  Cx. ;  Historia,  MS. 



Galliam  Belgicam,  a  septentrione  Danubium  seu  ^  Ger- 
maniam.  Habet  haec  terra  venas  aureas,  et  moBtes  in 
quibus  effoditur  marmor  et  sal  optimum.* 

Cap.  XXIII 
De  GroBda  et  ejus  provmciis. 

Innttunt  auctores  quod  Grsecia,  cum  provinciis  ^  suis, 
regnorum  sit  domina,-  militias  nutrix,  philosophise  mater, 
magistra  artium  et  inventrix;  a  quodam*  Grseco  ibidem 
regnante^  Graecia  dicta  est,  quaa  tamen  gener alitor 
dicitur  lllyricus,  cujus  populi  dicuntur  Graeci,  Graii^ 
Achaei;  Achivi,  Argivi,  Attici,  lones,  lonii,  sive  Hel- 
lenes.^ Sed  quando  Constantinus  Magnus  sedem  Ro- 
mani  imperii  in  Constantinopolim  transtulit,  Grsecorum 
gens  Romania  vocabatur  quasi  nova  Roma,  ut  dicit 
Rabanus.  Ideo  usque  hodie  Grseci'  non  se  vocant 
GrsBCOs  vulgariter,  sed  Ramayses,®  gens  olim  beDico- 
sissima,  sed  regibus  subdita*     Oiraldus,  dUti/nctione 

'  seu]  ety  A. 

^  Hahet , . ,  (^iimum]  om.  CD. 

^  insidis,  CD. 

*  qvodam]  om.  A.B, 

*  regnante  ibidem^  B. 

^  The  opening  sentence  is  much 
contracted  in  CD. 
'  GrcBci]  om.  R 

•  sed  Ranutyses']  So  E.  j  Ramay- 
soSf  A. ;  Homanos,  B.,  which  is 
perhaps  right ;  though  more  pro- 
bahly  the  other  readings  mean  to 
express  *Pw fuUovs.  C  and  D.  omit 
the  clause  and  all  the  preceding 

^  gens .  . .  subdita]  placed  in  C 
after  Hellenes. 



Fraunce,  and  in  pe  nor]>  fat  rjner  Danubins  a&d  Germania  Tbevisa. 

fat  lond.    pis  lond  Bulgaria  haj)  veynes  of  golde  *  and  hilles      

in  fe  whiche  me  digge}>  marbel  and  salt  goode  at  ])e  best. 

De  Gr€Bcia  et  eius  prouindis,     Capiiulum  vicesimum 


AucTOURS  telle])  J)at  Grees  with  ]?e  prouinces^  ferof  is 
lady  of  kyngdoms,  norice  of  kny^tiiode  and  of  cbiualrie, 
moder  of  philosofie,  fynder  and  mayster  of  art  and  sciens,^ 
and  ba]7  \q  name  of  con  Greens  ]»at  reigned  j^ere  somtyme. 
Neuerfeles^  j)at  lond  is  comounliehe  i-cleped  Illyricus,^  Jie 
men  perof  bej>  i-cleped  G^'oci,  Graii,  Achei,  Aehivi,  Argivi, 
Attici,  lones,  lonii,  and^  Hellenes.  But  whan  fe  grete 
Gonstantyn  made?  Constantinopolim  ])e  cheef  sete  of  ]?e 
emperour  ^  of  Rome,  fan  were  f e  Grees  ^  i-cleped  Romanij,^^ 
as  it  were  men  of  newe  Rome,  so  seij>  Rabaiius.  And  anon 
to  ])is  day  fe  Grees  clepef  noutt  hem  self  Grees,  but 
Romayses,^^  and  were  somtyme  stalworfe  and  orped  and  best 
men  of  armes,  and  neuerf eles  sugett  ^^  to  lawes.  Isidorusy^^ 

Belgica,  of  the  northe  Danuby  or  Almayne.      That  londe  MS.  Harl. 
hathe   veynes  of  golde,    and   hilles  in  whom    marbole    is      2261. 
diggede  and  goode  salte.  

Of  CrrecCf  and  of  the  prouinees  of  hit     Capiiulum 

vicesimum  secundum, 

AucTORES  remembre  and  reherse  that  Grece  is  lady  Orecla. 
of  other  londes  with  his  provinces,  nutrix  of  cheuallery, 
the  moder  of  philosophy,  maistresse  of  artes,  callede 
Grecia  of  a  man  named  Grecus  reignenge  there,  whiche 
is  callede  generally  Illyricus,  fe  peple  of  whom  be  callede 
Greci,  Graii,  Achei,  Achivi,  Argivi,  Attici,  lones,  lonii, 
or  Hellenes.  But  when  grete  Constantyne  transferrede 
the  seete  of  the  Roman  ympyre  to  Constantinople,  the 
men  of  Grewe  were  callede  as  newe  Romanes,  as  Rabanus 
seythe ;  where  fore  men  of  that  cuntre  vn  to  this  tyme 
calle  not  theyme  Grekes,  but  Ramoyses,  somme  tyme  peple 
moste  victorious  but  subjecte  to  lawes.     Gir.  de  papa,  ca- 

'  So  a.  and  Cx.  ;  coZcfe,  MS. 

*  prottincey  MS.  (not  Cx.) 
'  of  science,  Cx. 

*  f^etheks,  Cx.  (and  so  often.) 

*  Iliricus,  MS. 
«and]  SoCx.;  fie,MS. 

^  Constantyn  tnade']  added  fh>m 
a,  and  Cx. 

« ]>e  empere,  «. ;  thempyre,  Cx. 
This  is  nearer  the  Latin. 

*  Grekes,  Cx.,  and  so  belov. 

»"  So  MS.,  o.,  and  Cx. 

"  the  Grekes  be  but  JRamattses, 

^^  natkeles  smbget,  Cx. 

"Seemingly  a  clerical  error  for 
GiraMus.  Cf.  Prof,  DisU  1.  p.  6, 
(Ed.  Brewer.)  Bnt  the  inference  is 





'^eciiThda,  capitulo  ncnio  decimo}  In  hac  terra  quondam 
Palladis  et  Minerv83  studia  musse  et  militte^  castra 
junctis  dextris  firinatisque  foederibus  sese  comitabantur, 
ideoque  respublica  tunc  prosperabatur ;  item  multa 
Grail  veteres  et  armis  aggressi  et  studiis  aissecuti  sunt. 
Sed  virtus  ilia  refriguit  in  posleris,  et  in  orbem  Latimim 
migravit,  ut  qui  ante  fontes  fuerant*  nunc  rivuli,  vel 
potius  alvei  arentes  et  exhausti.  Virtutum  siquidem 
successor  nuUus/  scelerum  omnes.  Namque  Sinonis 
figmenta,  UHxis  fallaciam,  Atrei  atrocitatem  retinent. 
Arte  non  armis  dimicant.  Hsec  itaque  regio  Grsecia 
juxta  mare  magnum  sita  plures  in  se  continet®  pro- 
vincias,  quae  sunt  Thracia,  Lacedsemonia,  Macedonia, 
Acbaia,  Arcadia,  Thessalia,  Helladia,^  Boeotia/ 

Thracia,  quae  et  Epirus,  terra®  quondam  Epirotarum, 
habet  ab  austro  uEgeum  mare,  ab  occasu  Macedoniam, 
quam  quondam  inliabitabant  Massagetae,  Sarmatae, 
Gothi.  Isidorus,  libra  ayv^,^  In  hac  terra  est  fons 
extinguens  faces  accensas  et  iterum  extinctas  reaccen- 

^  So  tvritten  at  length  (but  as  one 
word)  in  E.  Jligden  or  his  scribes 
Beem  to  hare  avoided  the  form  unde' 

^  milUi{s'\  om.  CD. 

'  fucrunt,  A. 

*  temuIuSi  B. 

^  conihiet  in  se^  B. 

8  EUadia  or  Elladea,  MSS. ;  CaU 

ladia,  B.;  Hellas  is  of  course  in« 

•  HcEc  itaque  .  ♦ .  Baotia]  Slightly 
contracted  in  CD.  (the  names  ex- 
cepted), which  place  the  sentence 
before  Giraldus  ;  A.  has  et  Achaia 
aod  et  Arcadia, 

^  tota,  B.  (apparently). 

®  The  true  reference  is  to  lib.  xiii, 
c.  13. 



libro  primoy  capitulo  septimo  decimo,    Li  J^is  lond  was  som-  Trsvisa. 

tyme  J>e  studie  and  J?e  scole  of  Pallas  and  Minerua,  of  grettest      

art  and  scions  of  kny^thode  and  of  chiualiie,  and  ]7e  clergie 
and  the  chiualrie  hilde^  so  to  giders  J>at  in  fe  comyn  profi^t 
was  all  way  good  spede.  Also  ]je  olde  Graii  auntrede  ^ 
and  gat  many  ]>inges  by  clergie  and  dedes  of  annes,  but  ]jat 
vertue  keled^  and  wi]>  drowe  ynne  bam  Jat  com^  afterward, 
and  passede  from  \e  Grees  to  fe  Latyns,  so  fat  fe  rafer  welles 
beef  5  now  but  lakes,^  ofer  more  vereyliche  dreye  cbanels  wi]? 
oate  watir.  For  now  fey  holdef  Sinonis  '*  feynynge,  Vlixis  ® 
gile,  Atreuis  craeluesse>  and  fitef  Wif  sleife  and  wif  cauteles 
and  nou^t  wif  armoure  and  wepoun.  pis  lond  Grecia  is 
faste  by  f e  grete  see,  and  conteynef  many  prouinces,  fat 
beef  Thracia,^  Lacedemonia,  Macedonia,  Acbaia,  Arcadia, 
Tbessalia,  Helladia,  Beotia.^<>  Thracia  hatte  Epirus  also,  for^^ 
Epirote  woned  f  erynne  somtyme,  and  baf  in  f  e  souf  side  f  e 
see  Egeus,^2  jj^  j,^  s^^st  Macedonia.  In  Macedonia  woned 
somtyme  dyuers  men  fat  bi^te  Massagete,  Sarmate,  and 
Gotbi.  IsidoruSy  libro  quinto,^  In  f is  lond  is  a  welle  fat 
quencbef  brennynge  brondes,  and  tendef  brondes  fat  beef  a 

pitulo   septimo    decimo.     In  whicbe   londe    somme   tyme  MS.  Harl. 
were  libraryes,  studies,  muses,  and  companyes  of  cbeuallery,      2261. 

where  fore  the  londe  stode  that  tyme  in  prosperite.      But 

that  vertu  in  theyme  was  refusede  after  and  wente  to 
the  cuntre  of  men  of  Latyn,  and  thei  that  were  somme  tyme 
the  nowble  welles  now  be  ^*  as  ryueres  with  owte  water  and 
consumede  ;  noo  folower  of  vertu  f  er,  but  alle  off  vices.  For 
thei  reteyne  to  them  the  figmentes  of  Sinonis,  the  fallace 
of  Vlixes,  fi^htenge  by  arte  and  not  by  armes.  That  region 
of  Grece,  setfce  nye  the  grete  see,  hathe  mony  prouinces  in 
hit,  whiche  be  Thracia,^  Lacedemonia,  Macedonia,  Achaia, 
Arcadia^  Tbessalia,  Helladia,  Beotia.^'^  Thracia,  or  Egiptus,i* 
somme  lyme  the  londe  Epiratores,  hauenge  on  the  este  to 
hit  the  see  of  Ege,  of  the  weste  Macedony,  where  the  Mas- 
sagetes  inhabite  somme  tyme.  IsidoruSy  libro  quinto  decimo. 
There  is  a  welle  in  that  londe  qwenchenge  brennenge  brondes  f,  35.  a, 
of  fire  and  li^htenge  theyme  ageyne.      The  chiefe  cite  of 

'  heUde,  Cx. 

^  aventaredy  Cz. 

^  So  a.  and  Ox. ;  hele\>,  MS. 

^  cam,  a,  and  Cx. 

*  So  o. ;  is,  MS. 

'  so  that  to  fore  where  weUeswere, 
ben  now  but  lakes,  Cx. 
'  Stfnonis,  MS, 
^Soa  ;  VlixuSyMS.',  VUxeSjCx, 

•  init  bee^  Thracia']  Added  from  o. 
and  Cx.  TheMSS.have  7Vac«a,as 

yOL.  I. 

usual ;  but  Thessalia  U  correctly 
written  in  MS.  (not  Harl.  MS.) 

*•  Boeda,  MSS.  of  both  versions, 

"^r]  added  from  Cx. 

"  Egedeus,  MS. 

"  15,  a.,  Cx. 

*^  ihei  be,  MS.,  but  thei  erased. 

'*  This  is  of  course  for  Epirus; 
but  the  sentence  is  otherwise  cor- 



dens.^  Hujus  provincisB  metropolis  est  Constantinopo- 
lis^  in  orientali  parte  patens  inter  Ponticum  mare  et 
Propontidejn,  terrse  marique  pervia,  caput  quondam 
orientis,  sicut  Ropaa  ocddentis ;  et  quondam  yocabatur 
Byzantium.^  De  qua  loquitur  sic  Willielmus  de  Eegi- 
bus,  libro  quarto  j*  Hanc^  urbem  Constantius  magnus 
constituit  SBquam  Romae,  decemens  imperatorem  non 
debere  Romee  principari,  ubi  principabantur  apostqli 
coronati  Invexit  quoque  iUuc  innumeras  Sanctorum 
reliquias,  qui  possent  ^  contra  hostium  insultus  ^  suffra- 
gari.  Statuas  etiam  deorum  et  tripodes  Delphicos  ad 
ludibrium  intuentium  adduxit,  gratum  sBstimans  ibi 
urbem  imperialem  condere  ubi  esset  soli  ubertas®  et 
ccbU  temperies,  ju:^ta  regionem  Mysiam®  frugum  feracem. 
P^tet  quoque  undequmque  *^  adnavigantibus  ab  Asia 
et  Europa,  undique  pene  mari  magno  cincta,  ambitu 
murorum  juxta  situm  pelagi  angulosi "  viginti  miHia  '* 
passuum  muro  complexa.     Quapropter  rilpium  molibqs 

^  accendens,  3. 

^  ConstantipopoUm,  £). 

^  Tkracia .  .  .  SyzanHum]  Much 
altered  and  transposed  in  CD.,  which 
omit  all  that  follows  till  the  section 
on  Lacedcemon. 

^  in  libro  quarto  Hegum,  A. 

^  Quapropter  kanc,  4^, 

^  insidias,  B. 
®  Ubertasj  B. 

^  Mestam^  A. ;  but  Mysia  is  most 
probahly  intended. 
"  undique^  B. . 
11  angidosa,  B.E. 


queynt,*    pe  chief  cite  of  f  is  lond  is  Constantinopolis  in  po  Trbtisa. 

est  side,  openliche  i-^eie  by  twene  J>e  tweie  sees  Ponticus      

and  Propontides,  and  opounliche  i-seie  out  of  water  and  of 
lend,  and  was  somtyme  ]>e  cheef  citee  of  ]>e  Est ;  ri^t  as 
Borne  was  of  J»e  West,  and  hi^te  som  tyme  Byzantium.^  Of 
ph  citee  WiUielmus,  libro  quarto  Regum^  speke]>  in  pis 
manere  :  pe  grete  Constantinus  bulde  and  made  fis  citee 
euene  and  pere  to  Borne  ^  and  demed  ]?at  pe  Emperour 
schulde  nou^t  be  chief  ]7ere ;  pe  Apostles  were  cheef,  and 
nameliche  i-crowned»  And  he  brou^t  ])ider  also  meny 
relikes  of  holy  seyntes,  fat  my^te  hem  helpe  a^enst  her 
enemyes.  Ymages  of  false  goddes  and  tripodes  Delphicos 
fat  were  Apolynes  ymages  he  brou^te  to  byskome^  and 
bysmer©^  to  hem  pat  byhelde  hem  and  say,^  So  fis 
Emperour  vouched  sauf  to  bulde  pe  chief  citee  of  pe 
empere  in  good  corn  contray,  where  J>ere  is  good  tem- 
perure  of  heuene  and  of  wedir,  besides  pe  londe  Mysia,^  fat 
haf  grete  plente  of  corn  and  of  firuyt.  pe  ^  citee  is  i-sei^e 
and  i'Schewed  to  alle  schipmen  fat  seillef  f ider  ward  out 
of  what  lond  fat  fey  come  of  Asia  and  ^  Europa^  and  is 
wel  ny^  byciipped  al  aboute  wif  fe  grete  see,  and  is 
cornered  wif ynne  f  e  clippynge  of  f  e  walles  faste  by  f  e  see 
side,  and  is  ^®  byciipped  wif  a  wal  of  twenty  f owsand 
paas.    pere  wif   hupes  of  stones  ^^   and  of  grauel,  i-caste 

that  cuntre  is  Constantinople,  ^^  in  the  este  part  of  hit,  MS.  Harl. 
betwene  the  see  Pontyke  and  Propontides,  the  hede  of  alle  ^^ei. 
the  este,.  as  Bome  is  of  the  weste,  somme  iyme  callede 
Byzantium;^  of  whom  Willielmus,  libro  iiij^**,  de  Begibus,  spe- 
kethe;  Constantine  made  that  cite  egaUe  to  Bome,  seyenge 
hit  was  not  conueniente  an  Emperoure  to  kepe  residence 
where  thapostles  crownede  kepede  the  principate,  brynffenfi^e 
thider  innLierable  relikes  of  ^yntes  wliiche  m^hte  Aewe 
socoure  to  the  cite  ageyne  the  sawtes  of  theire  enmyes, 
thenkenge  hit  fre  to  hym  to  make  a  cite  imperialle  where 
was  the  pleasure  and  liberte  of  grownde,  temperaunce  of 
heuyn,  nye  to  the  region  callede  Mysia,^'  plentuous  of  whete. 
Whiche  is  patente  on  euery  syde  to  men  saylenge  from  Asia 
and  Europa^  compassede  alle  moste  with  the  grete  see.    The 

'  acquenchydy  Ox. 

^  Bisancvum^  MSS. 

^  R(m&\  So  o.  and  Ox. ;  Ltm- 
doun,  MS. 

*  byskorne,  MS.,  and  similarly  often. 

^  busmere,  a. 

^he  brought  to  be  scorned  and 
spyght  to  them  that  behdde  hem  and 
sawe,  Cx, 

'  Misia,  MSS.  (of  both  versions). 

«  That,  Cx. 

^  and  of,  Cx. 

"  J  is,  MS.  (not  a.  or  Cx.) 

1^  ther  with  keepes  and  huppels  of 
stones,  Cx. 

'^  PropowtidesConstantinople,^^»} 
but  Propontides  erased. 



et  ai'enarum  cumulis  juxta  urbem  profundo  injectis 
tellus  dilatatur ;  Danubius  etiam^  fluvius  (qui  et  Hister) 
occultis  sub  terra  canalibus  influit ;  urbi  diebus  con- 
stitutis,  ablato  pessulo,  inductus  centum  plateas  in- 
undat.  In  qua  urbe  Constantinus  erexit  duas  ecclesias 
famosas,  sed  Justinianus^  postmodum  Uteris  et  bellis 
egregius  addidit  tertiam  ecclesiam  in  honorem  Divinse 
SophisB,  id  est^  Domini  Christi,  quem  "hagiam^  sophiam'' 
vocavit ;  opus,  ut  ferunt,  omnibus  per  orbem  sedificiis 
magnificentius,  ita  ut  verba  referentium  vincat.  Ibi 
per  Helenam  allatum  fuit  lignum  dominicse  crucis. 
Ibi  quieseunt  apostoU  Andreas,  Jacobus  frater  Domini, 
Matthias,  prophetse  quoque  HeKseus,  Samuel,  Daniel. 
Item  Lucas  Evangelista  et  martyres  quamplures.  Item 
confessores  Johannes  Chrysostomus,  Basilius,  Gregorius 
Nazianjzenus.  Item  virgines  Agatha  et  Lucia. 
Deliace-       IsidoTus,    Ubro   quiniodecimo,     Lacedsemonia  sive 


Spartania  provincia  est  Grsecise  juxta  Thraciam,  cujus 
incolse    vocantur    Lacedasmones    a    Laeedaemone    filio 

'  etiam]  So  A.B. ;  et,  E. 
^  A.  adds  imperator» 
*  A.  repeats  in  konorem. 

*  Trevisa's  MS.  must  have  had 
Agia,  to  judge  hy  his  translation. 


inta  pe  see  besides  pe  citee,  pe  lond  i-serchedi  and  i-made  Trevisa. 

more.    Also   fe  ryuer   Danubius,  fat  hatte  Hister  also,   is      

i-lete  and  i-ladde  in  to  dyuerse  places  of  J>e  cite  by  goteres 
vnder  erfe  in  ])is  manere.  Wban  fe  water  schal  torne^ 
in  to  fo  citee  men  take]?  out  a  barre,  }>at  fe  water  is 
i-stopped  wif,  and  lettef  J>e  water  renne,  and  stoppe]?  whan 
bem  like]?.  And  so  Danubius  fynde]>  water  i«now  to  an 
hondred  stretis.  In  }>is  citee  Constantinus  arered  and  bulde 
tweie  famous  chirches ;  but  lustinianus  fe  Emperour  bulde 
afterward  J>e  f ridde  chircbe  in  worschippe  of  Diuina  Sophia, 
]?at  is,  oure  Lord  Crist,  ]>at*  Agia  clepe])  Diuina  Sophia, 
in  4  Englisshe,  pe  Wisdom  of  God.  And  men  telle)?  fat 
fe  werk  passef  al  pe  buldynge  of  pe  worlde,  and  is  more 
noble  l?an  men  konne^  telle,  peder  Seint  Eleyne^  brou^te 
]>e  holy  crosse  fat  oure  Lorde  Crist  deied  on ;  fere  restef 
fe  apostles  Andrewe  and  lames,  fat  is  i-cleped  Frater 
Domini; 7  fere  restef  Mathias  and  prophetes  also,  Heliseus, 
Samuel,  and  Daniel ;  and  also  Luke  f  e  euangeliste,  and 
martires  ful  many  ;  also  confessours,  lohan  wif  fe  gilden^ 
mouth,  Basilius,  and  Gregorius  Nazianzenus ;  and  virgines, 
Agatha  and  Lucia. 

Lacedemonia,  fat  hat  Spartania^  also,  is  a  prouince  of 
of  Grecia  faste  byside  Thracia.  Men  of  fat  prouince  beef 
i-cleped   Lacedemones  of  Lacedemon,    Semelis^^   sone,  and 

floode  Danubius  flowethe  in  to  the  cite  in  condettes  vnder  MS.  Habl. 
the  erthe ;  in  dayes  ordeynede,  a  barre  take  a  way,  that  water    ^  ^^^^* 
clensethe  cL  weyes    in    that    cite.     Jsi  whom  grete  Con-    " 
stantine  erecte  ij.  famose  chirches ;  but  lustinian  the  Em- 
peroure,  instructe  in  letters  and  in  armes,  addede  the  chirche 
in  the  worschippe  of  oure  Lorde  Criste,  moste  nowble  in 
worke  of  alle  of  er  chirches  in  the  worlde.  The  crosse  of  oure 
Lorde  was  brou^hte  f  ider  by  Elene,  where  Seynte  Andrewe, 
Seynte    lames    brofer    of    oure    Lorde,    Mathias,   Eliseus, 
Samuel,  and  Daniel  reste.      Also  Lucas  the   Euangeliste, 
and  mony  other  martires.     Also  lohn  Crisostom,  Basilius, 
Gregory  Nazanzene.    Also   Agatha   and    Lucia,    virgines. 
Lacedemonia  is  a  prouince  of  Grece,  nye  Thracia.      The 
inhabitatores  of  whom  be  callede  Lacedemones.    Men  of  that 


eehedf  Cx, 
2  renne,  Cx. 
»  K  MS.  (not  a.) 
*  cm,  a. 

^  kun,  a, ;  can,  Cx« 
« HeUnet  Cx« 


Ox.  adds :  in  JEnglisshe,  oure 
lorries  broder» 

«  golden,  Cx.  (not  a.y 

9  Spariania]  So  o.  and  Cx.  } 
Speratonia,  MS. 

'®  SoCx.;  SamueHsyMB*',  Samdis^ 



Semeles.  Dicuntxir  etiam^  Spartani.*  Trogus,  libro 
tertio,  ca/pitvlo  secundo.  Hi  aliquaJido*  circa  obsidionem 
Messenes*  dvitatis  in  Apulia  per  deceimiiim  immorati/ 
querelis  uxorum  fetigabantur,  timentesque®  ne  diutur- 
nitate  prselii  spem  prolis  amitterent,  statuerunt  ut 
eomm  virgines  cum  juvenibus  domi  reliciis  promiscue 
concamberent>  arbitrantes  per  hoc  sobolem  maturiorem 
provenire  si  singulse  mulieres  plures  viros  experirentur. 
Ex  quibus  nati,  ob  notam^  materni  pudoris,  Spartani 
Yocabantur.  Qui  cum  tricesimum  annum  attigissent, 
metu  inopisB,  cum  nullum  certum  patrem  haberent/ 
duce  Phalantho  filio  Araci,^  insalutatis  matribus^  per 
varios  casus  jactati  tandem  Italiam  devenerunt^  ex- 
pulsisque  veteribus  incolis,  sedem  apud  Tarentum 
De  Maco.       Macedonia,  a  Macedone^^  Deucalionis  nepote  sic  dicta, 


quondam  Emathia  a  rege  Emathio  vocabatur."  Ab  ortu 
habet  ^geum  mare,  ab  austro  Achaiam,  ab  occasu 
Dalmatiam,  a  septentrione  Moesiam.^^ 

^  Dicuntur  etiam  Spartaml  sive 
Spartani,  C  J). 
^  aliguando'\  om.  C.D. 
*  Messetie,  MSB. 
^  0?»  afinos  ntoratiy  B. 
'  A.  and  B.  omtgue. 

^  wUam^  A«B.  \  naturam,  C« 
^  haherent  patrem,  A«B*D. 
^Both  the  Latin   and   Engtish 
MSB.  bare  the  form  Articim, 
1«  Macedo,  MS. 
"  dicehatur,  C. 
»  Misiam,  MSS. 



beef  i-deped  Spartaxii  also.  Tragus^  libro  tertio.  pese  men  TaEvigA. 
somtyme  byseged  fe  citee  Messena  ten  ^ere  to  gidres,  and  — - 
were  wery  and  i-greued^  of  pleyntes  and  grucchinge  of 
her  wyfes,  and  dradde  also  })at  longe  abidynge  from  home 
in  werro  and  in  bataille  schulde  make  hem  childrenlese  ^ 
at  hom,  and  ordeyned  terfore  )?at  fe^  maydenes  of  her 
londe  schulde  take  ^ongelyiiges  fat  were  i-left  at  home  ;  so  j>at 
euery  mayde  schulde  take  many  ^ongelynges,^  euerich  after 
of er  ;  for  fey  hoped  to  haue  fe  strenger  childeren,  ^if 
eueriche  womman  assayed  many  men.  But  for  fe  schameiul 
doynge  of  the  modres  f e  children  fat  were  i-gete  and  i-brou^t 
forf  in  fat  manere  were  i*cleped  Spartani,  and  whan  fey  were 
fritty  wynter^  olde  fey  dredde  sore  of  nede  and  of  mes- 
cheef ;  for  non  of  hem  wiste  who  was  his  owne  sire.^  perfore 
fey  toke  hem  a  ledere  and  a  chifteyn  ^  Phalanthus,  Aracus  ^ 
his  sone,  and  toke  no  leue  of  hire  modres,  but  wente  forf 
and  were  i-cast  hider  and  fider  by  dyuers  happes,^  and 
at  f  e  laste  cam  in  to  Italia,  and  dryue  ^^  oute  f e  men  f  ai 
woned  fere,  and  made  f e  cheef  sede  "  at  Tai-entum* 

Macedonia  haf  f  e  name  of  Macedo,  Deucalions  neuew, 
and  hi^t  somtyme  Emathia  of  Emathius  the  kyng,  and 
haf  in  fe  est  side  fe  see  Egeus,  in  fe  soufe  Achaia,^^  in 
fe  west  Dalmatia,  and  in  fe  norf  Mesia.^^    In  fis  prouince 

prouince  taryenge  abowte  the  sege  of  a  cite  callede  Messene  MS,  Habi/. 
in  Apulia^  wexede  feynte  thro  compleyntes  of  theire  wifes,      2261. 

dredenge  to  lose  multiplicacion  off  chUder  by  diutuniite  of      

batelle,  ordeynede  that  the  childer  of  theyme  lefte  at  home 
scholde  folowe  the  luste  of  the  flesche  to  gedre,  supp<)singo 
the  more  multiplicacion  to  encrease;  but  the  women  experte 
the  knowlege  of  diuerse  men,  the  childer  of  whom  were 
callede  Spartani.  Whiche  childer  atteynenge  the  age  of 
xxx*^  yere,  not  knowenge  their  faders  in  certitude,  takenge 
to  theyme  a  duke  callede  Phalax,  sonne  of  Aracus,  come 
to  Ytaly,  expellenge  the  olde  inhabitatores  of  hit,  made  a 
mansion  and  a  seete  to  theyme  at  Tarentum.  Macedonia^ 
callede  by  that  name  of  Macedo,  neuewe  to  Deucalion,  some 
tyme  [was]  callede  Emathia  of  kynge  Emathius,  hauenge  on 
the  este  to  hit  the  see  of  Egee,  on  the  sowthe  Achaiii,  of 
the  weste  Dalmatia,  on  the  northe  parte  Mesia^    The  hille    f»  35.  b. 

^  agreue€[,  Cx. 

2  childeren,  Cx.  (typogr,  error). 

*  >e]  om.  Cx. 

*  ifat  were  ,  .  .  'longdynges]  om. 

*  yere,  Cx. 
^  fader,  Cx. 

'  capytayne,  Ox. 

^  PkaJantis-Aracius,  MS. 

^fortunes,  Cx. 

'»  droof,  Cx. 

11  cytCy  Cx,  (not  a.),  which  is  pro- 
bably right. 

»2  Achate,  MS, 

"  Misia,  MSS.  of  both  versions  ; 
and  so  below. 



Demonte       In  liac  provincia  est*  mons   Olympus,  qui   dividit 


Tliraciam  et  Macedoniam.^  Petrus,  capitulo  tricesi/mo 
septimo.  Mons  quidem  nubes  excedens,  in  cujus  vertice 
nee  nubes  nee  venti  nee  pluvisB  sentiuntur,  super  quern 
litteras  inscript8B  in  pulvere*  post  anniun  repertea  sunt 
illibatae;  ubi  etiam  pro  nimia  aeris  raritate  nee  aves 
vivere  queunt,*  nee  philosophi  ibidem^  ascendentes  ad 
discendum  euisum  stellarum  absque  spongiis  adaquatis 
manere  potuerunt,^  quas  naribus  suis  apponentes^  aerem 
trahebant  erassiorem. 

Est  ibi  etiam®  mons  Athos  nubes  pertingens,  cujus 
umbra  usque^  ad  Lemnum  insulam^^  extenditur,"  qusa 
distat  illo  monte  IxxvL  milliaribus. 

Dalmatia  ab  ortu  habet  Maeedoniam,  ab  occasu 
Istriam,  a  septentrione  Moesiam,  ab  austro  Adriaticum 
DeAchaia.  Achaia,  ab  Achseo  rege  sic  dicta,  tota  psene*^  est 
insula.  Nam  ab  ortu  habet  Tyrrhenum  mare,  ab  euro'^ 
Creticum  mare,  a  meridie"  mare  Ionium,  a  solo^*  sep- 

De  monte 

De  pal- 

'  In,€a  est,  C.D. 

^  et  Macedoniam]  a  Macedonia, 
A.B.C.I).;  C.  aad  B.  omit  the  title  of 
the  following  extract  from  Petrus, 

'  scriptiB  in  pidvereniy  B. 

*  possunt,  C.  (not  D.) 

^  ibi,  B.  ;  om.  D, 

^  potuerant,  A. 

'  apponentes  suis^  B.  ;  suis  is 
omitted  in  B. 

'  etiani  ibidem,  A.B.I). 

'  usque']  om.  B. 

^^  in  X.  insukim,  C. ;  in  L,  insula 

"  protenditur.  A, 
'2  pane']  fere,  CD, 
**  austro,  B. 
"  ab  occasu,  B. 

^'^  solo']  om.  B.    The  other  MSS. 
have  sola. 


is  J>e  hil  mons  Oljmpus,  and  to  deleft  tweie  londes,  Thracia  Tbbvisa. 

and  Macedonia.    Petrus,  capitulo  trieesimo  septimo.    pe  hul      

passe]»  J>e  dowdes,  in  fe  cop  ^  of  fat  hil  come}>  no  clowdes, 
wynd,  nofer  reyn;»  vppon  fat  hulle  lettres^  fat  were 
i-write  in  poudre  were  i-founde  wif  cute  wem^  at  fe  ^eres 
ende.  Also  foules  ^  mowe  not  lyue  ^  fere ;  for  f e  aier  is 
to  clere.  And  philosofres  mowe  not^  dwelle  fere  to  lerne 
f  e  course  of  sterres  ^  wif  oute  sponges  i-watred  and  i-holde 
at  Mr  nostrilles  1^  to  make  fikker  fe  ayer,  fat  fey  drawef 
to  kele  ^^  wif  here  herte.  pere  is  also  fe  hille  ^^  mons 
Athos,  fat  recehef  to  fe  clowdes;  fe  scbadewe  of  fat  hille 
arechef  to  the  ilond  Lemnum.  pat  ilond  is  from  f  e  ^^  hul 
fre  score  myle  and  sixtene.^'* 

Dalmatia  fat  lond  haf  in  fe  est  side  Macedonia,  in  f e 
west  Histria,  in  f e  norf  Mesia,  and  in  f e  souf  f e  see 

Achaia  haf  f  e  name  of  Acheus  f  e  kyng,  and  is  wel  nyh 
an  ylonde  i-ciosed  in  fe  see:  for  he  ^^  haf  in  f e  est  side  f e 
see  Tyrrhenus,  and  in  f  e  norf  f  e  see  Creticus,  in  f  e  souf  f  e 

callede  Olimpus  is  in  that  prouince  whiche  diuidethe  Thracia  MS.  Habl. 
from  Macedony.  Petrus^  capitulo  trieesimo  septimo.  That  2261. 
mownte  is  of  suche  altitude  that  the  toppe  off  hit  excedethe 
clowdes,  where  clowdes  be  not  percey vede,  neither  wyndes, 
neither  reynes,  in  whom  letters  wryten  were  founde  vnde- 
filede  at  the  end  of  the  yere,  where  bryddes  may  not  lyve 
for  rarite  of  the  aier,  neif er  phiiosophres  my^te  ascende 
to  hit  to  knowe  the  courses  of  the  sterres  with  owte  sponges, 
whiche,  puttenge  theyme  to  theire  noose,  attracte  more 
thicker  aier  to  theyme.  There  is  also  an  hille  callede 
Athon,  towchenge  the  clowdes,  the  schado  of  whom  is  . 
protendede  to  the  yle  callede  Lemnus,  which  is  from  that 
hille  Ixxvj.  [myle].  Dalmatia  hathe  on  the  este  parte  to  hit 
Macedony,  of  the  weste  Histria,  of  the  northe  Mesia,  of  the 
sowthe  parte  the  see  Adriatike.  Achaia  takenge  the  name 
of  hit  of  a  kynge  callede  Acheus,!^  is  allemoste  aUe  an  yle. 
For  on  the  este  parte  to  hit  hit  hathe  the  see  Tirene,  of  the 
weste  the  see  Cretike,  on  the  sowthe  the  see  lonius,  of  the 

^  departeth,  Cx. 

'  vpprist,  Cx. 

"  reinene  wi/nde,  Cx. 

*SoCx.;  fe<fr€,MS. 

^  hurtynge  or  wemmej  Cx. 

«  Sofowks^  Cx. 

^  nouyt  libbe,  a, 

*  nouyt,  a. 

*  the  sterresj  Cx. 

^*  her  nose  tktrles,  Cx,  j  nosetrilsy  o. 

"  coU,  Cx. 

"  Cx.  omits  J>e  hUle. 

»  that,  Cx. 

"  Ixx.  myki  Cx. 

»*  it,  Cx. 

»•  Echius,  Harl.  MS. 



De  Ar- 

tentrione  Macedonise  et  Attics3  jungitur.  Hujus  metro- 
polis est  Corinthus,  ubi  Alexander  magnus^  collegit 
exercitum,  quando  proposuit^  expiignare  orbem  terra- 
rum  ;  quibtis  et  Paulus  scripsit.^ 

Arcadia^  qusB  et*  Sicyonia,  ab  Arcade  filio  Jovis  sic 
dicta,  sinus  est  Achaias ;  inter  mare  Ionium  et  -^geum 
velut  ^  platani  folium  jacet. 

Haac  gignit  Asbeston®  lapidem/  qui  semel  accensus 
nunqiiam  extinguitur.  Gignit  etiam  ^  Candidas  merulas, 
cum  tamen  apud  nos  merulae  sint  ^  nigrse.^*^ 

Thessalia  ad  austrum  Macedonise  jungitur,  patria 
quondam  Achillis  et  Lapitharum  origo,  qui  primum 
equos  frsenis  domuerunt  et  dorsis  eorum  insederunt, 
propter  quod  unum  corpus  cum  equis  quibus  in  side- 
bant  "  a  vulgo  indocto  ^®  putabantur.  Et  inde  centum 
Centaiiri.    equites    Thessalorum    dicti    sunt    Centauri    a    centum 

De  lapide 

De  Thes- 

^  mctgnus^ Alexander^  A.B.D. 

^  disposuit,  D^r 

^  duos  scripsit  epistolas,  CD, 

*  ef]  est,  D. 

*  velut]  quasi,  CD. 

'  €dbe8ton,  A.B. ;  ctlbesten,  C.D.E. 
'  hpidem'}  om.  C  (not  D,) 

®  etiam]  et,  C  (not  D.) 
*  sint]  sunt.  A* 

^^  cum  apud  nos  omnes  sint  nigra, 

1^  quibus  insidebant]  om.  CD. 
indoeto]  ignaro,  CD. 




see  lonius,  and  onliche  in  J^e  norf  he^  ioyneth2  to  Mace-  Trbvisa. 
donia   and  to   Attica,     pe   cheef  citee   of  |>at  lond  hatte 
Corinthus;  fere  kjng  Alexandre  ^  gadrede  his  cost  for  to  ^ 
Wynne    al   fe    world;    {jeder  PouH    wroot  his    pistil    ad 

Arcadia,  fat  hatte  Sicyonia  also,  ha]>  "pe  name  of  Arcas,^ 
lupiter  is  sone,  and  is  an  angul  (]7at  is,^  a  corner)  of  Achaia, 
and  lie|>  bytwene  }fe  tweie  sees  lonius  and  Egeus,  and  is 
i-schape  as  is^  a  plane  leef.  pere  ynne  is  Asbeston^  ]>at 
wil  neuere  quenche,  be  it  ones  i-tend ;  fere  beef  also  white 
wesels.^  pe  *^  wesels  ^  be  blak  among  vs ;  fere  fey  beef 

Thessalia  ioynef  in  f  e  souf  side  to  Macedonia,  and  was 
somtyme  Achilles  contray,  and  fere  bygonne  Lapithe  ;^^  filke 
men  chastisede^^  and  temede^*  hors  firste  wif  bridels,  and 
sette  ^4  on  hire  bakkes  ;  f erfore  f e  lowed  peple  wende  ^^  fat 
it  were  i^  alle  on  ^^  body,  man  and  hors  fat  fey  sitte  ^^  on. 
And  f  erfore  an  hondred  horsmen  of  Thessalia  were  i-cleped 
centaury,  pat  name  is  i-gadered  of  tweyne,  of  centum^  fat 
is,  an  kondredy  and  of  aura,  fat  is,  pe  wynde.  And  so  fat 
name  was  to  hem  i-schappe  Centaury  as  it  were  an  hundred 

northe  oonly  Macedony,  ioynede    to  Attica.      The    chiefe  MS.Habl. 
cite  of  whom  is  Corinthus,  where  kynge  Alexander  gedrede      2261. 

his  hoste,  intendenge  to  expugne  alle  the  worlde,  to  whom       

Seynte  Paule  did  wryte.  Arcadia,  whiche  [is]  of erwise 
caUede  Sicyonia,  was  so  namede  of  Arcas,^  son  of  lupiter, 
the  bosom  of  Achaia,  betwene  the  see  lonine  and  the  see  of 
Egee,  lyenge  lyke  to  the  leef  of  a  tree.  In  this  cuntre  is 
a  ston  callede  Asbeston,^^  whiche  accendede  oonys  is  neuer 
extincte,  and  of  er  diuerse  precious  stones.  Thessalia,  at 
the  sowtiie  parte  of  hit,  is  ioynede  to  Macedony,  somme  tyme 
the  cuntre  of  Achilles,  and  the  originaUe  of  men  callede 
Laphites,  whiche  made  tame  firste  horses  with  bridelles,  and 
rydenge  on  the  backes  off  theyme,  whiche  were  trawede  to 
be  of  oon  body  with  f  e  horses  on  whom  thei  did  ryde  of 
the  commune  peple,  where  fore  a  c.  horse  men  of  that 

'  it,  Cx. 

2  So  Cx. ;  ioyned^  MS. 

^  Alkfsmmder,  Cx. 

*  Pauk,  Cx. 

^  Arckas,   Cz. ;  Archades,  MSS. 
of  both  versions. 

*  l>at  is]  or,  Cx. 

^  isi  om.  a,  and  Cx. 
^  Aibestony  MS.,  ou,  Cx. 
^  ousels,  Cx.  (twice). 

^**  >ei, a.;  tkottgh,Cx,,^}nch  seems 
^^  Laphite,  MS.,  Cx. 
*^  chastede,  a. 
1*  tamed,  Cx. 
"  satte,  Cx. 
"  supposed,  Cx. 
'®  had  be,  Cx. 
^'  oon,  a,  i  one,  Cx« 
*^  sete,  a. ;  satte,  Cx. 
1»  Albestes,  Harl.  MS. 



et  aura  quam  agitabant  sic  equitando.^  Tragus,  libra 
Famassus.  xxiiJ^.^  In  hac  ^  provincia  est  mons  Parnassus  apnd 
poetas  famosus  et  Celebris,  saxo  bicipiti  dependens ;  in 
cujus  vertice  templum  Delphid  Apollinis  sifcuatnr;  et 
in  anfractu  planitiei  mediae  putens  existit,  nbi  res- 
ponsa  dari  solebant/  mentesque  philosophantiam  inspi- 
rari.  Quamobrem  si  hominum  ant  tubanim  sonitus 
in  medio  convallis  personet,  correspondentibus  inter  se 
rupibus  multiplex  echo  resonabit.*  laidorus,  libra 
tertiadecima.  In  hac  provincia  duo  sunt  flumina^  ex 
quorum  uno  bibentes  oves  efficiuntur  nigrse,  ex  altero 
albse,  ex  utroque  fonte  bibentes  fiunt  coloris  varii.® 
Fons.  Banulphus.  In  hac  quoque  terra  sunt  loca  ilia  delec- 
tabilia  ad  spatiandum  accommoda  quae  dicuntur  apud 
philosophos  et  poetas ''  Tempo  florida,  do  quibus  Ovidius 
et  Theodosius^  scribunt.^  In  hac  quoque  terra  contigit 
illud  tertium  diluvium  particulare  ^^  tempore  DeucaUonis 
ibidem  principantis,  qui  confugientes  ad  eum "  in  rati- 
bus  salvabat,  propter  quod  fingunt  poetae  ipsum  cum 
conjuge  sua  Pyrrha  jactis  lapidibus  homines  cz'easse.'^ 

'  quam  equitando  sic  agitabanty 
C. ;  also  !>.,  omitting  sic, 

2  14,  B.;  34,  CD.  The  text  is 
correct.    See  Just  xxiy.  6. 

*  Itac  quoque,  C.  (not  D.) 

*  solentf  CD. 

^  personahitf  CD. 
^  ex  utroque  vero  bibentes  vario 
colore  Jiuntf  CD» 

^  apud . , .  poeta8'\  om.  CD. 

»  Theodolus,  A,'BJD.  Perhaps  He- 
rodotus (see  vii.  173)  is  intended. 

®  scribunt^  mentionem  feciunt,  C 

^*  partictdare  diluvium.^  A, 
.    ^^  ad  eurn]  ona.  CD. 

^^The   two   lost   sentences   are 
transposed  in,  B«^ 



wynde  waggers:  for  fey  wagged  weP  J>e  wynde  faste  in  Tkevisa, 
hir  ridynge.  Trogus^  libra  mcesimo  quarto,^  In  ])is  pro-  — — 
uince  is  ])e  Mile  Parnassus ;  (poetis  accounte]»  ]?at  hil  noble 
and  famous  ;)  and  hongej)  with  tweie  copped  stones.  In  fe 
cop  3  perof  is  the  temple  of  Delphicus  Apollo ;  ^  and  in  fe 
wyndynge*  of  fe  myddel  playn  is  a  pitte,  oute  of  \fii  pitte 
philosofres  were  enspired  ;  and  dyuers  answeres  were  i-^eue 
out  of  fat  pitte.  perfore  ^if  noyse  of  men  of er  of  trompes 
sownef  in  fe*  valey,  fe  stones  answeref  euerich  ofer,  and 
dyuers  ecco  sownef.  Ecco  is  fe  reboundynge  of  noyse. 
IsidoruSy  libro  tertiodecimo^  In  fis  prouince  beef  tweie 
ryueres ;  scheepe  fat  drynkef  of  fat  oon  schuUe  worf e  ^ 
blak,  and  schepe  fat  drynkef  of  fat  ofer  schul  worfe^  whyte  ; 
and  ^if  fey  drynken  of  bof e,  fey  schuUe  worf e  7  gpekked  ^ 
of  dyuers  colour.  Also  in  f is  prouince  beef  filke  likynge 
places  to  walke  ynne  fat  philosofres  and  poetes  clepef 
tempe^  Jlorida^  fat  is,  likynge  place  wip  fioures.  Of  fis 
place  writef  Theodolus  and  Ouidius.  Also  in  fis^^  prouince 
of  fat  lond^^  was  fe  fridde  particuler  flood,  and  ful^^  in 
Deucalions  tyme,  prince  of  fat  lond.  J)at  prince  sauede 
men  fat  fleigh  to  hym  in  schippes  and  bootes  ;  f erfore 
poetes  feynede  fat  he  and  his  wif  Pyrrha  cast  stones  and 

cuntre  were  callede  centauri.     Tragus,  libra  seeundo.    The  MS.  Haul. 
hille  callede  Pamasus  is  in  that  prouince,  a  nowble  mownte,      ^^^^' 
and  of  grete  fame  after  poetes,  dependenge  ^*  by  a  dowble      \ 
ston,  in  the  toppe  of  whom  a  temple  is  sette  lyke  to  the 
temple  of  Apollo  Delphicus ;  and  in  the  pleyne  f er  of  is 
a  pitte  where  thei    Xafe  to  viuificate  the  myndes  of  phi- 
losophres,    IsidoruSy  libra  13®.    There  be  ij.  waters  in  that  f.  36.  a. 
prouince,  of  that  oon  of  whom  schepe  drynkenge  be  made 
blacke,  of  that  other  white,  and  schepe  di^nkenge  of  bothe 
waters  be  made  of  diuerse  coloures.     Also  in  that  londe 
be  places  delectable,  of  whom  Ouidius  and  Theodolus  doe 
wryte.     In  that  londe  happede  a  particuler  floode,  in  the 
tyme  of  Deucalion  beynge  prince  there,  whiche  saluede  men 
conunenge  to  hym  in  schippes,  wherefore  poetes  feyne  hym, 
with  Pyrrha  his  wife,  to  haue  create  men  of  stones.,  Helladia 

>  weC\    om.  Gz. ;    placed  before 
fasie  in  a.,  whidi  seems  right 
2 14,  Cx. 
'  toppe,  Cx. 

*  Appoiyn,  MS. ;  Appolhfn,  Cz. 
^  wendyng^  Cx. 

'  wexey  Cx.  (thrice). 

^  splekked,  a,  and  Cx. 

•  tempore,  Cx. 

»«  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  Aw,  MS. 

"  of}pat  lond\  om.  Cx. 

" //?e,  Cx.  (not  a.) 

^^  partes  depengenge,  Harl.  MS. 



De  Hel- 

Helladia,*  a  rege  Hellene,  Deucalionis  et  Pyrrhse  filio, 
sic  dicta,  a  quo  Grsed  Hellenes  dicti  sunt.  Ipsa  quoque 
est  Attica  terra,  ab  Atthide^  filia  Granai*  sic  dicta,  inter 
Macedomam  et  Achaiam^  jacet  media,  a  septentrione 
jungitur  Arcadiae.  Ipsa  est  vera  Graacia,  cujus  dnae 
sunt  partes,  Boeotia  et  Peloponnesus,  quarum  metropolis 
est  Athense/  ubi  quondam  vigebat  stadium  litterarum ; 
natiojiumque  cunctarum^  ad  discendum'  confluebat  copia, 
quse  tali  mode  condita  fuit.  Auguati/nus  de  Civitate, 
libra  octavodeevmo.  Ea  tempestate  qua  jEgyptus  per* 
cussa  est  plagis  sub  manu  Moysis,^  quidam  uEgyptii^ 
timentes*^  jEgyptum  periturajn  egressi  sunt,"  Unde  et^^ 
Cecrops  egressus  apud  Grseciam  ^^  urbem  Acten  condidit, 
qusB  postmodum  dicta  est  Atbense.  Isto  modo  secim- 
dum  Varronem,  cum  apud  Acten  urbem  subito  appa- 
ruiaset  oliya,  et  aqua  alibi  repente  erupisset,  consuluit 

>  EUana,  A, ;  EUanda^  G,    The 
MSS.  generally  omit  the  aspirate. 
2  Aihis,  MgS. 

*  Grant,  MSS. 

*  A,  et  M.y  B. 

'^  Aikmas,  MSS. 

^  et  ecclesiarum^  C,  which  omits 
cunctarum  (not  D.). 
^  a  discendi,  B.  (vithont  sense.) 

« Moysi,  MSS. 
^Mgyptwrumf  CD. 
*^  tunc  timenieg.  A, 

"  fngerunt,  C.  <not  D.) 

J^cq  om.B. 

^^  apud  Graciam]  adveniensque 
Grsedam,  CD./ which  have  other 
slight  alterations. 



made  men.     Helladia  fat  londe  ha])  ]fe  name  of  Hellen  ^  fe  Trevisa, 

^J^Ey  V^^  "^^s  Deucaliouns  sone,  and  Pyrrha  also.     Of  f  is      

Hellen  ]>e  Grees  hatte  Hellenes,  pis  lond  hatte  Attica 
also,  of  Atthis,  fat  was  Cranaus  ^  his  doubter  ;  and  lief 
bj  twene  Macedonia  and  Achaia  and  ioynef  in  f  e  north 
side  to  Arcadia,  pis  londe  is  verrey  Greci%  and  haf  tweie 
parties;  Beotia^  is  fat  oon,  and  Peloponnesus ^  fat  ofer. 
pe  chief  citee  of  fis  lond  hatte  Athene  r^  fere  was  somtyme 
a  grete  studie  of  lettrure  ^  and  of  clergie,  and  men  of  all 
naciouns  and  londes  opme  fider  forto  leme.  Athene  fat 
citee  was  i*bulde  in  fis  manor e.  Augustinus  de  Civitate, 
lihro  oetavodecimo.  pat  tyme  fat  Egipt  was  i-smyte  wif 
God  all  myotics  wrethe  vnder  Moyses  hond,  som  seije^ 
Egipt  schulde  be  lost,  and  flowe  oute  of  Egipt  in  to «  ofer 
londes.  And  so  Cecrops^  fleigh^^^  out  of  Egipt  into  Grecia, 
and  fere  he  bulde  fe  citee  Atthen,  fat  was  i-cleped  after- 
ward Athene.  In  fis  manere,  as  Varro^^  seif,  an  olyue 
was  sodeynliche  i-sele  in  fat  citee  Atthen,  and  a  water  brak 
oute  sodeynliche    in  anofer  place,     panne   Cecrops  axede 

toko  the  name  of  hit  of  Hellen,^^  gQ^  ^f  Deucalion  and  ofMS.HARL. 
Pylra,  of  whome  Grekes  be  callede  Elenas.    That  is  the  londe      2261. 

callede  Attica,  of  Atthis,  doubter  of  Grains,  lyenge  betwene      

Macedony  and  Achaia^  as  in  the  myddes,  ioynede  to  Arcadia 
in  the  northe :  that  is  yereye  Grece,  of  whom  be  ij.  partes, 
Beotia^  and  Peloponense,  the  chiefe  cite  of  whom  is  Athenas, 
where  study  was  sonune  tyme  multiplicate,  to  whiche  cite 
grete  multitude  of  peple  made  confluence  for  cause  of  eru- 
dicion  from  diuerse  regiones.  AugtcsHnuSy  De  civitate  Dei^ 
libro  octavodecimo.  Somme  Egypciannes  dredenge  Egipte 
to  peresche  in  that  grete  tempeste,  what  tyme  hit  was  gre- 
vede  with  mony  diseases  vnder  the  powere  of  Moises,  wente 
furthe  from  hit.  Wherefore  Cecrops,  goen  ftirthe  to  Grece, 
made  a  cite,  namenge  hit  Athen^  whiche  was  caUede  after 
Athenas.  After  Yarro,  hit  was  made  in  this  manor,  when 
at  that  city  callede  Athen  an  oliue  apperede  sodeialy,  and 
the  water  brake  vp  also  sodenly  in  an  other  place,  Cecrops 

>  EU^na,  MS.,  a.,  Cx. 
®  GramySy  MS.,  a.  ;  Grauiua,  Cx, 
'  Boecia,  MSS.  (as  usual). 
"*  PdopenensiSy  MS. 
^  Athenea,  Ox.,  and  so  below. 
*  lecture^  Cx. 

'  som  JBgipcians  dredde  lest,  a,  j 
somme  Egypeiens  dradde  leste,  Cx. 

*  in  ft)]  to,  Cx. 

•  Sicrops,  MS. ;  Cicrops  and  5^- 
crops  below.  Similarly  the  rest, 

^""Jledde,  Cx. 

"  So  Cx.  5  Pharro,  MS.,  and  o. 

^^  EGanda,  Harl.  MS. 



Cecrops  ApoUinem^  Delplucum  in*^  monte  Pamaaso,  quid 
de  hac  re  foret  accitaxidiim.^  lUe  respondit  quod  oKva 
deam  Minervam  significaret,  unda  vero*  Neptunum.  Et 
quod  esset^  in  civiura  potestate  ex  cujus  nomine  duorum 
deorum  civifcatem  vellent  denominare.^  Hinc  cives 
omnes  utriusque  sexus  conveniunt,  sicut  mos  erat  tunc, 
ita  foeminas  sicut  mares  publicis  consultationibus  inter- 
esse;  mares  igitur  pro  Neptuno,  foeminse''  pro  Minerva 
tulerunt  sententiam.  Et  quia  una  plus  inventa  est 
foeminarum  quam  virorum^  vicit  Minerva,  ita  ut  civitas 
nomine  ejus  vocaretur  Athense.  Nam®  Minerva  Grsece 
dicitur  Athena.^®  Tunc  Neptunus  iratus  terras  Atheni- 
ensium  marinis  fluctibus  operuit,  quod  non  est  difficile 
dsemonibus  facere.  Cujus  ut  iracundia  facilius  placare- 
tur,  foeminse  dupliciter  sunt  afflictse;  ita  ut  nulla 
deinceps  foeminarum  publicis  consultationibus  interesset. 

'  misit  rex  Cecrops  ad  Ap.^  D. 

*  m]  de,  A. 

^  Sic  A.K ;  accidendum,  B. ;  agenr 
dum,  CD. 

*  vero  added  ftom  CD, 
^esset  Biter  potestate  In  B. 

*  Et  quod , . .  denomnare']  In  C. 
thus :  **  Tunc  £icta  est  dissensio  in 

"  civitate  ex  cujus  nomine  duorum 
"  deoriun  civitas  pottus  vocaretur." 
B,  agrees  with  0.  in  the  last  three 
words  only. 

'  B.  adds  vero, 

'  quam  viroruni]  cm.  B. 

•  Nam]  cm.  B, 

**  Nam  .  .  .  Athena"]  om.  CD. 


counsaille  of  Appolyn^  Delphicus,  fat   maumet,  in  pe  hil  Tbevisa. 

mount  ParnassuSy  and  axede  what  pese  ]>mges  schulde  be  to      

menyng  ;^  and  he  answerde  and  seide  J?at  J?e  olyue  bytokened 
pe  Goddes  Minerua^  and  pe  water  by  tokened  Neptunus ; 
and  seide  l)at  it  was  in  power  and  choys  of  pe  citeceyns  after 
whe|)er  of  pe  tweie  goddes  pe  citee  schulde  hote."*  perfore  pe 
citee,^  bo]>e  men  and  wommen  [gadred  hem  to  gyders,  as  it 
was  the  manere  that  tyme  ;  that  bothe  men  -and  wymmen]  ^ 
schulde  come  to  comoun  counsaille  ;  ]>anne  in  pat  counsaii  7 
men  ^af  |>e  dome  for  Neptunus  and  wommen  for  Minerua; 
and  for  fere  was  o  ^  womman  more  9  fan  were  men,  Minerua 
hadde  fe  maistrie,  and  fe  citee  was  i-cleped  by  here  name 
Athene  ;*^  for  Minerua  in  pe  speche  of  Grewe  hatte  Athena, 
pan  was  Neptunus  wood  wroof,"  and  made  fe  flodes  of  pe 
see  arise  *2  and  ouerflowe  and  hele  fe  londes  of  pe  men  of 
fat  citee  Athena, *^  as  deueles  mowe  lijtliche  doo  suche 
chekkes«  pan  for  to  plese  Neptunus  and  for  to  abathe  his 
wref  f  e  and  his  anger  wommen  were  i-punsched  with  double 
payne  ;  fat  oon  was  fat  no  womman  schulde  aftirward  come 

takenge  cownselle    of  Apollo    Delphicus  what  scholde  be  MS.  Harz^. 
doen  in  that  matere,   he  ^afe  an  ansuere  that  the  oliu©      2261. 

signifiede  that  goddesse  Minerua  and  the  water  Neptunus,       

and  that  cause  was  after  the  name  of  whom  of  theyrae  the 
cite  scholde  have  name.  Then  the  citesynnes  of  either 
kynde  were  gedrede  to  gedre  as  the  consuetude  was  in  that 
tyme  women  to  be  at  cownselles  amonge  the  men.  The 
women  ^afe  sentence  for  Minerua^  and  men  for  Neptunus, 
and  for  cause  the  nowmbre  was  moore  in  women  then  in 
men  by  oon  person,  Minerua  hade  the  victory,  in  so  moche 
that  the  cite  scholde  be  namede  aftere  here  Athena^  for 
Minerva  in  Grewe  is  callede  Athena.  Then  Neptunus 
beenge  wrothe,  couerede  the  growndes  of  men  of  Atheynes 
with  waters,  whiche  thyuge  is  not  harde  to  deuelles  to  per* 
forme  and  to  do.  The  women  of  whiche  cite  were  affiicte 
in  ij.  maneres,  that  Neptunus  my^hte  rather  take  pleasure, 
soe  that  a  woman  scholde  not  be  at  cownesailes  afterwarde, 

'  Ininne  . . .  counsaU]  Added  fiY>iu 
*  one,  Cx.  (not  a.) 

*  So  MS.  Trevisa  seems  to  have 
considered  this  the  nominative  of 

*  mene,  a,,  Cx. 

*  Myneruay  MS. ;  but  Mnerua 

*  hootCf  a» 

*  citezeinSf «.,  Cx. 
^  Words  in  brackets  added  fiv)m 

Cx.   They  are  absent  from  o, 

VOL.  1.  If 

•  «too,  o.,  Cx, 

*•  Atthene,  MS.,  and  so  below. 

"  wroth  wodcy  Cx. 

^-  tarise  (i.  e.  to  arise),  Cx. 

"  lowles  of  them  of  Athenes,  Cx. 



et  ut  nuUus  nascentium  matemum  nomen  contraheret.* 
Huic  provinciiB  Helladise  subjacet  Hellespontus,  sinus 
maris  magni,^  sic  dictus  ab  Helle  sorore  Phrixi,  quad 
fugiens  insidias  uovercales  submersa  est  in  illo  mari, 
a  quo  casu  mare  et  terra  adjacens  denominationem 
aocepit.  Juxta  quern  locum  dicit  Yarro  aliquos  esse 
homines  quorum  tactus  et  saliva  medentur  contra  ictus 
serpentum.  Trogu8,  libra  secundo,  Primi  Athenienses 
lanificii,  vini,  et  olei  usum  habuerunt ;  arare,  serere, 
glandibusque^  vesci  docuerunt;  literis,  &cuiidia  civili, 
disciplina  primo  floruerunt.  ,  Cujus  primus  rex  fiiit 
CecropSy  post  quern  Cranus  seu  Cranaus/  cujus  filius 
Atthis  nomen  regioni  dedit.  Post  quem  Amphictyon,* 
cujus  tempore  factum  est  diluvium  in  Thessalia.  Deinde 
successive  regnum  descendit  ad  Ericthonium,  post  quem 
iEgeus,*  post  quem  Theseus  filius  ejus,  deinde  Demo- 

1  traheretf  CD. 

^  maris  magni.']  CD.  end  ihe  sec* 
lion  ]iere>  beginning  the  next  sen- 
tence Tntii,  BcRoUa,  a  bove^  &c.,  and 
omitting  Isidore's  name  &s  ihe 
source  of  the  information. 

^  A.B.  omit  que, 

*  Both  words  are  written  with  a 
G  in  the  MSS.  In  Trevisa  they 
vary.  Here  and  elsewhere  it  is  im- 
possible to  deal  with  proper  names 

in  any  manner  satis&ctorily.  To 
correct  the  orthography  in  snch  au- 
thors an  Higden  and  his  translators 
is  to  re-write  them.  The  MSS.  of 
the  text,  however,  have  been  more 
freely  corrected  than  those  of  the 

'  AmphigiimideSy  A.E.  Alpkigeo^ 
nides^  B. 

®  post  quem  u^geus]  cm.  B. 



to  ^  comjn  counseil,  ]>at  oj^er  payne  was  J^at  no  childe  schulde  Tbeyisa, 

aftirward  bere  his  moder  2  name.     To  ^at  prouince  Helladia      

lye])*  Hellespontus,  fat  greet  mouth  of 4  fe  grete  see,  and 
ha]7  ]>e  name  of  Helle,  Phrixus  ^  his  suster,  ]>at  flei^  ^  "pe 
malice  and  pursuet^  of  here  stepdame,  and  was  adraynt^  in 
]7at  mouth  and  see;  and  for  )>at  hap  ]>e^  see  and  ]>e  lond  aboute 
hatte  after  Helle  Hellespontus.  Varro^^  sei]>  })at  faste  bysides 
])at  place  bee])  men  p&t  helep  smytynge  of  serpentes  wij) 
touche  or  H  wi])  spoteL  y^rogus^  libra  secundo*  Athenienses, 
men  of  Athene,  vsed  first  craft  of  woUe  and^^  of  -^yyn  an^  of 
oylle,  and  tau^te  erye  **  and  sowe  and  ete  achams ;  ^4  j>ei  flo- 
risched  first  in  lore  of  clergie  and  of  lawe.  pe  firste  Kyng  of 
|)at  lond  hi^te  Cecrops,  after  hym  come  Granus  'p&t  heet 
Cranaus  also  ;  ])an  his  sone  Atthis  taf  his  name  to  fe  lond 
and  cleped  it  after  hymself  Atheniensis.  pan  after  Atthis 
regned  Amphigionides.^^  In  his  tyme  was  pe  grete  flood  in 
Thessalia.  panne  aftirwarde  the  kyngdom  discendede  to  Erich- 
thonius.1^  After  hym  regnede  Egeus,  and  after  hym  his  sone 
Theseus- ; .  ])at  Theseus  sone  Demophon,^^  he  halp  ^^  ye  Grees 

and  also  that  theire  childer  scholde  not  take  name  in  eny  MS.  Hasl 

wyse  after  theyme.  Hellespontus,  bosom  of  the  grete  see, 
is  subiecte  to  tiie  prouince  of  Helladia,  iakenge  the  name 
of  hit  of  Helle  sustyr  to  Phrixus,^  whiche  fieenge  the  wacches 
of  here  steppe  moder,  was  drownede  in  that  see,  by  whiche 
chaunce  that  londe  and  see  adiecte  to  hit  toke  hit  name. 
Nye  to  whiche  place  Varro  seythe  there  be  men  the  towche 
or  spatelle  of  whom  is  medicinable  ageyne  serpentes  and 
styngenge  of  theyme.  Tragus,  libra  secundo*  Men  of 
Atheynes  began  firste  the  vse  of  wyne  and  oyle,  techenge  to 
eiere  and  sawe,  and  fioreschenge  fyrste  with  ciuile  discipline, 
the  firste  kynge  of  whona  was  Cecrops,  after  whom  Grains, 
other  Granaus,  Atthis  the  son  of  whom  lafe  name  to  that 
region.  After  whom  Amphigionides,  in  whose  tyme  was  a 
fioode  in  Thessalia.  After  that  the  realme  descendede 
successiuely  to  Ericthonius.  Then  reignede  Egeus.  After 
whom  Theseus  his  sonne.    After  that  the  son  of  Demophon, 

f.  35.  b. 

'  in,  a.,  Cx, 
2  tttoders,  Cx.  (not  a.) 
^  lye]>']  Added  firom  Cx.  (Itfetk). 
*  !Four  words  added  from  a.  and 
«  Ffijsusj  MSS.  of  both  versions, 
^fledde^  Cx. 
^  \>e  pursuyt^  a. 
8  droumedy  Cx. 
»  yaty  a, 
»«  So  Cx. ;  Barro,  MS.,  a. 

"  and,  a*  and  CX 

*=*  and\  om.  a. 

1«  to  eere,  Cx. 

^*  acomes,  Cx. 

1^  So  MSS.  of  both  versions,  for 

"  Euritmius,  MS. ;  Erietonius,  «. 

I'SoCx.;  i>e»to«on,MSS.ofboth 

"  hdpe,  Cx. 

N   2 



phon  ejus  filius,  qui  Grsecis  opem  tuHt  contra  Tro- 

DeBoeotia.  IsidoTUSy  lihro  nonodecimo}  Boeotia  a  bove  denomi- 
nata  est ;  dum  ^  enim  Cadmua  filius  Agenoris  Europam 
sororem  suam  a  Jove  raptam  ex  prsecepto  patris  quae- 
reret,  nee  reperiret;^  patris  iram  formidans  confirmato 
animo  exilium  elegit,*  et  dum  casu  bovis  conspeetae* 
sequeretur  vestigium,  locum  ubi  bos  decubuit  Bceotiam 
nominavit.^  Ubi  et^  postmodum  Thebas  construxit :  in 
qua  olim  bella  civilia  detonuerunt.®  Ibique  nati  sunt 
Apollo  et  Hercules  ille  major  Thebanus.  In  hac  terra 
est  lacus  quidam   furiaUs,  de  quo    qui  biberit  furore 

Fons,  Hbidinis  inardescet.^  Sunt  et  alii  duo  fontes,  quorum 
unus  memoriam,  alter  oblivionem  inducit.  Petrus,  ayvj^, 
Et  nota  quod  a  Thebis  iEgyptiorum  dicuntur  Thebaei,  a 
Thebis  Graecoram  Thebani,  a  Thebis  Judaeorum^^  The- 

•  9,  B. ;  14,  A.,  but  altered  to  18. 
The  true  reference  is  to  lib.  xiv.  c. 
4.  §  10. 

2  dtrni]  cum,  CD. 

'  nee  reperiret"]  om.  A. 

*  petit,  "B. 

^  conspectaJi  conspecti,  CD. 

"  denominaviff  B.D. 

^  ibique^  B. 

B  detenuerunt,  B.D. 

*  inardescit,  D. 

**  Indorum,  B. 



a^enst  pe  Troians.    Beotia,  oxe-lond,  haj>  po  name  of  bos^  pat  Tbbtuia. 

is  an  oxe.     Whan  Cadmus,  Agenores  sone,   at  his   fader  ^      — — 

heste  sou^t  his  suster  Europa,  y^i  lupiter  hadde  i-rauished, 

and  my^te  nou^t  here  fjnde,  he  dradde  his  fader  wrathe, 

and  2  kou]?e  non  oJ?er  reed  but  flei^  3   as   an   outlawe  ;  hit 

happed  4  )>at  he  folwed  fe  fore^  of  an  oxe,  and  fonde  fe 

place  ]?at  ])e  oxe  lay  inne,  and  cleped  it  Beotia,  and  bulde 

fere  fe  citee  Thebe,  in  <»  ]?at  citee  bella  civilia  detonuerunt/ 

And  pQVQ  was  Apollo^  i-bore  and  Hercules,^  in  Jiilke  more  The- 

banus  also.^^  In  fat  lond  is  a  lake  wonderful  and  wood,  for  who 

fat  drynkef  f erof  he  ^^  schal  brenne  in  woodnesse  of  leccherie. 

pere  beej>  also  tweie  welles  in  fat  lond ;  who  fat  drynkef 

of  fat  oon,  he  schal  be  forgetful ;  and  who  fat  drinketh  of 

fat  of er,  he  schal  haue  good  mynde.    Petrus.    Take  hede 

fat  men  of  Thebe,  fat  is  in  Egipt,  hatte  Thebey ;  men  of 

Thebe,  fat  is  in  Grecia,  hat  Thebany  ;  and  f e  men  of  Thebe, 

fat  is  in  ludea^  hatte  Thebite,*^ 

whiche  schewede  helpe  to  Grekes  ageyne  the  Troianes.  MS.  Habl. 
Boetia  toke  name  of  this  worde,  bos.  When  Cadmus,  son  ^^^** 
Agenoris,  sekenge  Europa  his  sustyr,  by  commaundemente 
of  his  fader,  whiche  was  rapte  by  lupiter,  ^^  whiche  not  fynd- 
enge  here,  dredenge  also  the  wrathe  of  his  fader,  chosede 
to  lyve  in  exile,  whiche  folowenge  the  stappes  of  an  ox, 
namede  that  place  Boetia,  where  the  oxe  did  lye  downe  and 
dye,  where  he  made  a  cite  called  Thebas,  in  whom  they 
did  holde  somme  tymes  ciuile  batayles,  where  Apollo  and 
Hercules  were  borne.  In  that  prouince  is  a  water  of  whom 
if  a  man  drynke  he  schaUe  be  inflamed  with  woodenesse  of 
lecchery.  There  be  ofer  ij.  welles  also,  of  whom  oon  in- 
ducethe  memory,  that  other  obliuion. 

^faderSf  Cx.  (who  often  has  simi- 
lar variations). 

^  he  conthe,  a. ;  he  coude,  Cx. 

^fledde,  Cx. 

^  kapnedy  Cx. 

^foote^  Cx. 

*  in]  Added  from  Ox. 

'  detenueruntf  MS.  (not  a.  or  Cx.) 

®  AppoUoy  MS. 

^  Ercules,'MB. 

^^  Probably  in  before  )>t^A<;  should 
be  cancelled  ;  or  Trevisa  may  have 
misimderstood  the  text. 

"  he]  om.  Cx. 

'2  The  sentence  is  slightly  com- 
pressed in  Cx. 

» lubiter,  HaxL  MS. 


Cap.  XXIII. 

De  Italia. 

Italia  IsidoruSy  lih'o  quarto  decvmo?    Legitur  in  historiis 


habet  quod*  Italia,  a  GrsBcis  quondam*  occupata.  Magna 
GrsBcia  dicebatur.  Dicta  ^  est  etiam  Hesperia,  ab  Hes- 
pero®  Stella,  qm  direxit'  Gnecos  illuc®  navigantes. 
Deinde  a  Satumo  earn  incolente  dicta  est  Satumia; 
sed  et^  ab  eodem,  propter  metnm  filii  sui  Jovis 
ibidem  latitante,  dicta  est  Latium,  quasi  a  latebra 
Saturni.*^  Postmodum"  ab  Ausonio'*  filio  UKxis  dicta 
est  Ausonia.  Tandem  ab  Italo  Siculorum  rege  dicta 
est  Italia>  totius  Europse  insignior  provincia,  quas  ab 
aquilone  dauditur  sinu  Adriatico,  ab  ortu  mari  magno," 
ab  euro  Sicilia  et  mare  Tyrrheno,  ab  occasu  Alpium 
jugis,  ex  quibus^^  oriuntur  tria  nobilissima  EuropsD 
flumina,  Rhenus,  Danubius,  Rhodanus.^^    Iddorm,  Wnro 


^Margiual  stunmarytaried^liglii* 
ly  from  A, 

*  nonoy  E.,  wrongly.  See  lib.  xiv* 
C.  iv.  §  18. 

^  Legitur . , ,  quod]  ova.,  CD. 

^  quondam  after  JtaUa  in  B. 

^JEt  dicta,  B. 

«  So  B.  Hespera,  A.C.D.B.  and 
the  versions,  (haTiDg  qu<B  belov). 

'  dttcebat,  CD.  I 

^  ibideniy  B. 
» et]  etiam,  A. 

'^  Deinde  • .  •  Satumi'}  Mucb  ab- 
breviated in  CD. 
"  post  k<BC,  D. 

1^  AusofUo']  Anselmo,  C  (not  D.) 
*5  magno  mari,  B. 
^*  quibtts]  quo,  C 
^'  et  Rhodanus,  B. 



Capitulum  vicesimum  teriium. 
Isidorus,  libro  quarto  decimo* 

We  rede])  in  stories  fat  Grees*  wonede  somtyme  in^ 
Italia,3  an  cleped  ]?e  lond  pe  Grete  Grecia ;  })at  lond  hi^te 
Somtyme  Hesperia,  of  Hespera,  'pe  sterre  pat  ladde  fe  Grees 
wHan  ]>ey  seilled  ]?ider,  and  was  her  loode  sterre,  Hesperai,^ 
fat  is  Venus.  Afterward  fat  lond  hitte  Saturnia  of 
Saturnus  fat  wonede  fere,  for  ^  Satumus  hid  hymself  ^ 
in  fat  lond  for  drede  of  his  owne  sone  lupiter,  and  cleped 
f e  lond  Latiuniy  fat  is  Saturnus  huydels J  After  fat  fat 
lond  hi^te  Ausonia  of  Ausonius,^  Ylixus  sone ;  but  at  fe 
laste  fat  londe  hi^te  Italia  of  Italus,  rege  Siculorum,  kyng 
of  Sicilia,^  and  is  f  e  noblest  prouince  of  al  Europ%  and  is 
i-closed  in  f e  norf  side  vrif  fe  mouf  and  see  |«it  hatte 
AdriaticuS)  in  f e  est  wif  f e  grete  see,  in  fe  souf  wif 
Sicilia,  and  wif  fe  see  Tyrrhenus,  and  in  fe  west  wif  fe 
sides  of  fe  hiUes  fat  hatte  Alpes.^^  Out  of  f Hke  hil[les]  ^^ 
springef  f re  fe  noblest  ryuei'es  of  al  Europa,  fat  beef  i-cleped 
f  e  Ryne,^2  Danubius,  and  Eone.   Isidorus^  libro  tertio  deeimo* 


Capitulum  vicesimum  tertium. 

Htt  is  redde  in  storyes  that  Ytaly  somme  tyme  occupyede  MS.  Exbl. 
of  the  Grekes,  was  callede  the  grete  londe  off  Grece.    Also     2261, 
hit  was  callede  Hespera,  after  a  sterre  callede  Hesper%  whiche      "~"^ 
durecte  the  Grekes   saylenge  to  hit.    After  that  hit  was 
namede   Saturnia   of   Satumus  inhabitenge  hit,  afterwarde 
callede  Latium,  for  the  drede  of  louis  his  son  lyenge  there 
priuely ;  whiche  was  callede  afterwarde  Ausonia,  of  Ausonius 
son  of  Ylixes.    Afterwarde  hit  was  namede  Ytaly  of  Ytalus 
kynge  of  Siculynes,   the    moste  nowble  prouince   of    alle 
Europe,  whiche  is  schutte  on  the  northe  parte  to  hit  with 
the  see  Adriatike,  on  the  este  with  the  grete  see,  of  the 
sowthe  with  SiciUe  and  with  the  see  Tyrone.  From  whom  iij. 
nowble  and  famose  floodes  of  Europe  take  theire  originalle, 
whiche  be  callede  Bonus,  Danubius,  and  Eodanus.     Plinius, 
libro  seeundo,  capitulo  eentesimo  sexto.    In  this  prouince  is 

*  Grekes^  Cx.  (as  usual)* 

*  in]  om.  MS. 

'  So  a,  and  Cx. ;  Hesperian  MS* 

*  Helperay  MS.  (not  a.  or  Cx.) 
^for]  So  Cx. }  but  jpCf  MS.,  ct* 
^  Cx.  adds  there, 

*  hydleSf  Cx. 

^  Eusonia^  JEusonius,  MS.,  a.,  Cx. 
»  SctcUia,  MS.,  Cx. 
^^  The  previous  sentence  is  much 
blundered  in  Cx. 
"  huUes,  a. ;  h^Ues,  Cx. 
**  ryuer,  Cx, 



tertio  decimo.  In  hac  Italia  est  fons  Cithajronis,*  ocu- 
lorum  viilnera  curans.  Est  et  in  ea  Clitorius  lacus,  ex 
quo  bibens^  vini®  taedium  liabebit,  Plinius,  libro 
secundoy  capitulo  centesimo  seocto^  Juxta  Alpes  Appe- 
ninos  fluvius  Novanus^  est,  qui  circa^  solstitium  sestivale 
torret  et  inundat,  circa  brumam  vero  ^  desiccatur. 
Faulus,  libra  secundo.^  Hujus  ItalisB  plures  sunt  pro- 
vincial, quae  sunt^  Calabria,  Apulia,  Campania,  Bene- 
ventana,  Tuscia,  Herulia,  Liguria,  Lombardia.*® 
Be  Apulia.  Apulia  pars  est  Italias  maritima  ad  eiu'um  situata,^^ 
ab  insula  Sicilise  marino  bracbio  separata,  a  Grsecis 
primitus  sedificata,  cujus  metropolis  est  Brundusium, 
sic  dicta  a  brunta,^^  Graece,  quod  est,  caput  cervi,  eo  quod 
formam  capitis  cervini  in  sui  figuratione  teneat;^^  inde 
versus  Terram  Sanctam,  ut  communiter  navigatur. 
Habet  quoque  bsac  terra  fontes  calidos  et  salubres. 

Campania  major  est  regio,  media  inter  Homanum 
territorium  et  Apuliam,  cujus  metropolis  civitas  est 
Capua,  a  capacitate  sufficientise  sic  dicta.  Post  duas 
famosissimas  civitates,  Romam^*  et  Carthaginem,  tertia 

De  Cam- 
pania ma 
jore  et 

^  OthoniSf  B.  ;  Citheroms,  E. ; 
Ciihar,  C,  In  Isidore  (xiii.  13)  we 
haye  Ciceron.  Perhaps  Citharon.  in 
Attica  may  be  intended  by  him  as 
well  as  by  Higden. 

*  bibms]  qui  bibit,  C;  qui  hiberii^ 

'  vix,  B. 

^  Itbro  lo.  c.  108,  B.  ;  li,  2.  C,  96, 
A.    The  text  is  correct. 

*  Novacius,  B.,  and  the  versions, 

*  circa]  citra,  C.  (not  D.) 

'  vero]  om.  CD. 

*primo,  B.,  wrongly.  See  lib.  ii. 
c.  15. 

^  qua  sunt]  scilicet,  D.E. 

^^  Lumbardia,  HSS.,  Latin  and 
English;  Trerisa  once  writes  it 

"  desituata,  A. 

**  The  Messapian  word  was  pro- 
bably fipivSov.  Siee  Smith's  Diet, 
Gr.  and  Rom.  Creogr. y8.Y, 

"  tenet,  A. 

^*  B.  adds  sciUcet, 



In  pis  Italia  is  Cithero  his  welle,  pat  hele]>  wel  sore  ©iten.  Trbvisa. 
pere  is  also  pe  lake  Clitorius  ;  who  pat  drynkep  of  pat  lake,  ^— ^ 
no  wyne  schal  hym  greue.  Plinius,  lihro  secnndOy  capitulo 
decimo,^  Faste  by  pe  hilles  pat  hatte  Alpes  Appennini  is 
pat  welle  Novacius,  pat  wellep  and  springep  in  pe  hote  somer 
and  drye,  and  fordriep  in  colde  wynter  and  wete.  Treuisa. 
Alpes  Appennini  pat  beep  Penitus  his  hilles.  Hanibal  was 
a  grete  duke  and  hi^te  Penitus  also,  and  wente  by  Alpes  to 
Eome  ;  perfore  of  pe  tweie  names  Alpes  and  Penitus  is  pat  oon 
name  schortliche  i-made  Appennini,^  and  so  beep  meny  lettres 
i-left  of  pe  tweyne.  Paulus,  libra  secundo.  In  pis  Italia 
beep  many  prouinces  and  londes,  pat  beep  cleped  Calabria, 
Apulia,  Campania,  Beneuentana,  Tuscia,  Emilia,  Liguria, 
Lombardia.  Apulia  is  a  party  of  Italia,  and  liep  estward 
vppon  pe  see,  and  is  departed  from  pe  ilond  Sicilia  wip  an 
arme  of  pe  see.  Grees  were  pe  firste  pat  bulde  perynne ; 
pe  chief  citee  perof  is  Brundusium,  and  hap  pe  name  of 
pa[t]3  worde  of  Grew  hrunta^  pat  is,  mi  hertes  Jiede^  for  pe 
citee  is  i-schape  as  an  hertes  hede.  Fro  pennes  me  ^  seHlep 
to  pe  Holy  Lend.  In  pis  lond  Apulia  beep  hote  welles 
and  holsom.  pe  more  Campania  is  a  lond  in  pe  myddel 
bitwene  pe  demeynnes  of  Home  and  Apulia ;  pe  cheef  cite 
perof  is  Capua,  and  hap  pe  name  of  Capacitas,  pat  is^ 
ahlenesse  to  fonge  and  to  take.  For  pat  citee  fongep  and 
takep  i-now  of  all  plente,  and  is  acounted^  pe  pridde  citee 

the  welle  of  Cithonis  healenge  the  woundes  of  eien.  MS.  Hxia. 
Isidorus  libro  tertio  decimo.  Also  there  is  a  welle  callede  ^^^^* 
Novacius  nye  to  the  hilles  of  Alpes,  whiche  floethe  ouer  with  """*" 
watere  abowte  the  solstice  of  somer,  and  is  drye  in  wynter, 
PaulttSy  libra  secunda.  There  be  mony  prouinces  of  this 
Ytaly,  whiche  be  Calabria,  Apulia,  Campaniia,  Beneuentana, 
Tuscia,  Emilia,  Liguria,  Lombardia,  Apulia  is  a  coste  of 
the  see  of  Ytaly,  sette  at  the  sowthe  of  hit,  departede  from 
Sicille  by  an  arme  of  the  see,  byldede  and  edifiede  firste  by 
Grekes.  The  chiefe  cite  of  whom  is  callede  Brundusium, 
takenge  the  name  of  hit  of  this  worde  brunda  in  Grewe, 
pat  is  the  Mde  af  an  Jierte^  in  that  hit  holdethe  in  the 
jiguracion  of  hit  the  similitude  of  the  hede  of  an  herte« 
Campania  is  a  moore  region  betwene  the  tenitory  of  Rome 
and  Apulia.  The  chiefe  cite  of  whom  is  callede  Capua, 
namede  so  of  the  capacite  of  suficiaunce,  callede  the  thrydde 

*  octodecimo  (sic),  Cx. 

*  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  Appenttmii,  MS. 
In  many  proper  names  below,  «.,  or 
Cx.,  or  both,  give  the  true  form, 
which  is  edited  without  noticingMS. 

'  Inttf  a» 

*  me]   So  a.  5  nc,  MS.  5  men,  Cx. 
(as  usual). 
'  counted^  Cx. 



nominata.  In  qua  terra  stmt  Neapolis  et  Puteoli'  urbes 
fitmosaB,  ubi  balnea  Virgilii  quondam  in  honorehabe- 
bantur.  Sed  est  aUa*  Campania  Minor  in  Gallia  Se- 
nonensi,^  cujus  metropolis  est  urbs  Trecas,  sen  Trecen- 
sia*  Banulphua,  Haec  autem  Italia  a  variis  vieissim 
possessa  est  gentibus,  utpote  a  Grsecis,  a  Jano,^  a  Sa- 
tumo,  ab  Italo,  ab  ^Enea  et  ejus  posteris.  Post  hsec  a 
Gallis  Senonensibus  sub  duce  Brenno,  deinde  circa 
annum  gratisB  cccc^^^  occupata  est  a  Gothis,  Hums, 
Vandalis/  postremo  a  Longobardis  sub  anno  Domini 
dixviiio,  tempore  Justini  prindpis  per  Narsem  chartu- 
larium  invitatis/  a  quorum  nomine  dterior^  pars  Italian 
ab  Alpibus  pene  *^  usque  ^*  ad  urbem  Romam  adhuc  ** 
Lombardia^^  nominatur.^^  Rcmulphus.  De  Longobar- 
dorum^^  ortu  et  progressu  Faulus  Bomanus  diaconus, 
in  primo  Kbro  historiarum  Longobardorum/®  refert  in 
huno  modum. 

t  Puteolus,  B. 

^  Sed  est  alia]  omitted  in  £. 

^  Senonensi]  om.  A. 

^  C  J),  omit  the  whole  of  the  para* 
graph  relating  to  Apulia  and  Cala^ 
bria ;  ie.  ftom  JpuUa  pars  est,,, 
Treccu,  seu  Trecensis.  For  Trecas 
Higden  should  rather  have  written 
Tricassium,  See  Smith,  Diet  Gr. 
and  Bom^  Geogr.,  s.  v,  Trkasses, 

^Por  a  Jam,  0.  (not  B.)  has 

^  circa  annum  Domini  100,  C. 

^  a  GoikiSf  deinde  a  WandaliSfC^ 
Hnnis  et  Wandalis,  D. 

'  invitatts"]  teritatis  (fiic  I),  C.D< 

•  exterior,  B. 

^^pene"]  onL  CD, 

"  usque']  orrL  B^ 

'^  adhuc]  om.  B. 

13  Lumhardia,  MSS. 

^Knominatur^  dicitor,  C. 

^^  D.  adds  aiitem, 

^'  C.  adds  dutem  after  Lmgobdr- 



after  ]>e  most  famous  citees  Borne  and  Carthago.  In  Tbbtisa. 
fat  lond  beef  noble  citees  and  famous  Neopolis  and  — - 
Futeoli.*  pere  beej?  Virgiles  bathas^  Jiat  were  somtyme 
in  greet  worschippe*  But  pere  is  ano]>er  lasse  Campania 
in  Gallia  Senonensi,'  |>at  is  Frauns,  }>e  chief  citee  of 
]>at  Campania  hatte  Trecas  and  Trecensis  aLso^  ]>at  is 
Troys  4  in  Champayn.  B»^  In  J>is  Italia  were  somtyme 
dyuers  lordes  euerich  after  ofer  fat  were  Grees,  lanus, 
Satumus,  Italus,  Eneas  and  his  ospringe.^  And  after- 
ward Galli  Senonenses,  fat  beef  fVensche  men,  ynder 
duke  Brennus*  pan  aftirward,  aboute  f  e  ^ere  of  grace 
fyue  hondred  fre  score  and  ei^te,  in  to  fe^  princes  tyme 
lustinus,  Narsen^  Cartularius  prayed  Longobardy  for  to  come 
in  to  Italia ;  and  of  fe  Longobardy,  for  to  come  in  to®  fis 
day,  f  e  hider  side  of  Italia  from  Alpes  wel  nygh  to  Borne 
hatte  Lombardia.*^  How  Longobardy  come  a  place^^  Paulus  '* 
Bomanus  diaconus  in  prime  libro  historiae  Longobardorum  *^ 

^pM»|1Wl^M^— I^^^^WW   Hill  ■■»^H  ■  ■         ■  ■— ^^^^^^  ■  ■  ■        — P%.......  ■■■■■■ y^^»^^ 

nowble  cite  to  Borne  and  to  Carthago.  In  whiche  londe  be  MS.  Habl, 
cites  callede  Neapolis  and  Puteoli,  where  the  bathes  of  2261. 
Virgflle  were  hade  somme  tyme  in  worschippe.  There  is  *""^ 
also  an  of  er  Campania  more  litel,  the  chiefe  cite  of  whom 
i»  callede  Cretas  or  the  cite  Cretense.^^  ]^.  That  cuntre  of 
Ytaly  hathe  be  possessede  of  diuerse  peple  and  naciones,  as 
of  Grekes,  of  lano,  [of]  Saturno,  of  Ytalo,  and  of  Enea.  After 
that  of  Frenche  men  Senonense  vnder  Duke  iprennus. 
Also  hit  was  occupiede  of  Gothis,  Hunes,  and  Wandalynges 
abowte  the  yere  of  our  Lorde  cccc.  and  laste  occupyede 
off  Longobardes,  abowte  the  year  of  oure  Lorde  ycixviij., 
in  the  tyme  of  lustinian  prynce,  of  the  name  of  whom 
the  forther  parte  of  Ytaly  from  Alpes  alle  moste  to  the 
cite  of  Bome  is  named  ^itte  Lumbardy.  Of  the  begyimenge 
of  Longobardes,  and  of  the  progresse  of  theym,  Paulus 
Diacon  of  Borne  rehersethe  in  his  firste  boke  of  the  story  of 

»  Puteolis,  MSS.  of  both  versions» 


*  bajfeSf  a,,  C%, 

»  Senocencif  MS.  and  a. ;  but  cor- 
rectly below. 

*  So  Cx.  J  Tro8,  MS.,  a. 
^  Added  from  a.  and  Cx« 

*  offspn/ngcy  Cx. 



» Narsen]  This  is  not  a  clerical 
error,  but  one  of  many  proo&  of  the 
sloyenliness  of  Trevisa,  who  did  not 
care  to  discover  the  nominative  of 
the  word.    Below,  where  the  text 

has  the  nominative^  he  has  written 
it  correctly* 

^for  to  come  in  to^  yet  to,  CaL 

1®  The  precedmg  sentence  is  mueh 
blundered  in  Cx 

*^  d  place]  to  that  name,  CiL 

^-  Poidus,  MS.  (not  o.) 

^^ Lmgobardiy  MS.;   abbreviated 

m  a. 

^^  The  fiimilarity  of  c  and  t  in 
MSS.  has  misled  the  translator,  who 
probably  had  no  notion  where  the 
place  was. 





Wynnuli,*  qui  et  Longobardi,  a  longis  barbis  quas 
fovebant  sic  dicti,  de  aquilonali  *  insula  Germanise  Scan- 
dinavia sorte  primitus  sunt  egressi  sub  ducibus  Ibor® 
et  Ajone*  cum  matre  eorum  Gambara  prudentissima. 
Hgec  autem  Scandinavia  dicta  est  insula  non  quod  in 
mari  sit,^  sed  quia  in  planitie  marginum*  undis  jugiter 
circumlambitur/  Inde  WinnuH  ®  Scoringam  regionem  * 
sunt  aggressi,  ubi  et  Wandalos  devicerunt.  Mortuis  ^^ 
autem  Ibor  et  Ajone,  constituerunt  sibi  regem  "  Agel- 
mundum/^  filium  Ajonis,  qui^^  regnavit  super  eos  triginta 
tribus  annis,  cujus  diebus  meretrix  qadsdam  enixa  est 
unico  partu  septem  liberos,  sicut  inferius  ^^  dicetur ;  quo- 
rum unus,  Lamissio'*  nomine,  postquam  Agelmundus  rex 
nimia  securitate*®  torpens  a  Bulgaris  nocte  fuerat*' 
occisus,  regnum^*  super  Longobardos  secundus  tenuit. 
Post  quern  tertius  Lethen  quadraginta*®  annis^®  regnavit. 
Post  quern  quartus  Hildehok,^*  Post  quem  quintus 
Gudehok^^  tempore  Odoacris  ItaUci^^  regnavit,  qui  gen- 
tem  suam**  ad  terram  Rugorum  duxit.  Post  quem 
sextus  Claflfo.^  Post  quem  septimus  Cato,  quem^ 
Waco^''  filius  germani  sui  occidit,  filiumque  Catonis^^ 

*  Wi/nnuli]  Winuli,  A.D. ;  Win- 
tili,  C,  which  adds  igitur,  as  doesD. 

^  aquihnarif  CD. 

8  Ibo,  B.E.  ;  Ybor,  C.  (not  D.) 

*  ArionCf  E. 

*  sita,  D. 

^  marinis,  B, 

^  circumlamhitur']     circumlabitttry 

*  Winnult]  om.  CD. 

*  regionem]  provinciam,  C 
"  Mortuo,  D. 

'^  B.CD.  Addprimum» 
"  Agilmundum,  A.,  and  so  below. 
»3  qtiq  €t,  CD. 
"  infra,  D, 

"  Lassimio,  D.   The  text  is  right. 
See  Paul.  Hist,  Long,^  lib.  i.  c.  1 7. 

"  satie(ate,  C  (not  D.) 

"/wcraf]  est,  CD.j  a  Vulgaris 
voce  fuerat,  B. 

*®  regnum]  qui  regnum,  C  (not 

"  quatuordecim,  CD. 

2"  The  sense  requires  annos.  But 
here  and  twice  below  all  the  MSS. 
have  annis» 

«^>  Hildekoc,  B.C. 

22  Gudehoc,  C ;  Undehoc,  B. 

^^Jtalict]  om.  CD. 

2*  suani]  om.  C  (not  D.) 

2»  Classo,  C 

^^  quem]  post  quem,  E. 

2'  Wacho,  A. 

^  Cat4mis]  ejus  Catonis,  CD. 



seip  in  ])is  manere  :  Winuli^  fskt  hatte  Longobardi  also,  and  Tseyisa. 

haa&p  the  name  of  her  longe  berdes,  went  wi]?  tweie  dukes,      

Ibor  and  Aion,  and  here  moder  Gambara,  J>at  was  fal  redy 
and  wys,  out  of  Scandinauia,  an  ylond  of^  Germania  in  ])e 
nor}>  side,  pis  Scandinauia  is  i-cleped  an  ilond,  not  for 
he  is  in  ]>e  see,  but  for  in  ]>e  pleyn  of  ye  brinkes  he  is 
alwey  i-wasche  wij?  wawes.  Out  )>ereof  went  WinuH  and 
werred  in  Scorunga  ^  and  ouer  com  J>e  Wandales ;  ]>an 
deied  pe  Wandales,  Iborn  and  Aion,  and  J>ei  made  hem  a 
kyng  Agelmundus,  Aions  sone,  fe  whiche  reigned  ouer 
hem  ]?ritty  ^ere  and  J>re.  In  his  tyme  an  hore^  hadde 
seuene  children  at  oon  birfen,  as  it  is  ynner  more  clere- 
liche  i-schewed.  Oon  of  hem,  fat  hi^te  Lauissius  was  pe 
secounde  kyng  of  Longobardes,  and  regned  after  Agelmundus, 
whanne  ^  Agelmundus  pe  kyng  was  to  bolde  on  his  trist,^  and 
fe  Bulgaris  com  vppon  hym  in  a  ny^t  and  slowe  hym  stan 
deed.5  After  hym  Lethen  regned  and  was  [l?e  Jjridde]  ^  kyng 
of  Longobardes  ^  and  was^  regnynge  fourty  ^ere.  After  hym 
Hildehoc^  regned,!^  after  hym  fe  fifte^^  Godehoc  regnede 
in  Odoacres  tyme,  ]>at  was  Italicus,  and  ladde  his  men  to  pe 
loud  of  Eugorum.  After  hym  pe  sixte  Clafib.  After  hym 
pe  8euen]>e  Cato.  pan  ^^  Wacho  slow  Cato  and  outlawed  his 
sone  [for  evere  more ;  Wacho  was  Cato  his  brof  er  sonne].^^ 

Longobardes,  in  this  maner,  Winuli  or  Longobardes  takenge  MS.  Hasi.. 
that  name  of  the  longe  berdes  whom  thei  noryschede,  went<j      2261. 

furthe  from  the  northe  partes  of  Allemeyne  under  Ibor  and      

Aione  the  gouemoures  of  theyme,  with  prudente  Gambara 
moder  to  theyme,  from  Scandinauia,  14  This  Scandinauia  ^^  is 
callede  an  yle  not  in  that  hit  is  in  the  see,  but  for  cause 
that  is  compassede  abowte  with  waters  in  the  pleynes  of  the 
brynkes  of  hit.  Winuli  goenge  furthe  entrede  a  region  f.  37.  b. 
namede  Scoringa,  where  the  Wandalynges  were  devicte. 
Ibor  and  Alone,  the  dukes  and  gouernoures  of  theym  dedde, 
they  made  Agelmundus  kynge,  son  of  Aio,  xxxiij.  yere 
hauenge  his  gouernaile  and  reigne  ouer  theyme.  In  the 
tyme  of  whom  a  woman  hade  vij.  childer  at  oon  childenge* 
After  whom  Lethen  reignede  xl^  yere,  after  hym  Hildegog. 
After  whom  Gloffo,   after  hym  Cato,    After  whom,  Waco 

'  Scormt^ga,  Cx* 
'  hore]  comyn  woman,  Cx. 
^  AgelmunduSy    wfianne]     Added 
from  a.  and  Cx. 

*  owen  truste^  Cx. 

*  standyng,  Cx. 
»  Added  from  a. 

» the  L,,  Cx. 

"  regnede^  a.,  Cx. 

®  Hildecoct  Cx. 

***  a.  and  Cx.  om.  regnede^ 

"  So  a.,  Cx. ;  firstCyUS, 

"  that,  Cx. 

"  Added  from  o.  and  Cx. 

'*  Scandimauia,  Harl.  MS.  twice. 


perpetuo  exiKo  damnavit.  Idcirco  mortuo  Wachone, 
Waltharicus^  filiua  ejus  super  Longobardos  octavus  re* 
gnavit  vij.  annis.*  Post  quern  nonus  Audoenus,*  qui 
Longobardos  primus*  in  Pannoniam  adduxit.  Post 
quein  Albuinus  Alius  ejus  super  Longobardos  regnavit 
decimus,*  quem  cum  sua  gente  invitavit  Narses  patricius 
ad  possidendani^  Italiam  tempore  Justini  imperatoris, 
anno  Domini  quingentesimo  sexagesimo^  octavo,  post- 
quam  Longobardi  quadraglnta  duobus  annis^  in  Pan- 
nonia  fuissent  demorati.^  Banulphus,  De  conqudBstu 
htgus*^  Albuini  et  exitu  mirabili  quaere  infra  loco  suo, 
circa  annum  Domini  quingentesimum  septuagesimum." 

Cap.  XXV. 

De  Urbe  Roma, 

Ranulphus.   Auctores  tradunt  quod  in  Tuscia,  quse 

pars  est**  Italise,  situata  est  urbs  Romana,  de  cujus*^  fun- 

datione  et  regimine  multa  et^*  varia  scripserunt  auctores, 

potissime  tamen  fiater  Martinus  de  conditione  ejus,  ma- 

gister  vero  Gregorius  de  urbis  mirabilibus  perstrinxit  *^ 

1  Wdttaneus^  A.C.D.  |      *  demorassenf,  D. 

2  annis^  So  A.B.C.D.E.  j      "  hujus]  om.  A. 
^  AudenuSy  B« 

*  primus  before  adduxit  in  C.I)« 
^So  A.B.C.D. ;    deemus   before 

regnavit  in  E. 
^  possidendum,  E. 

*  sexageHmo]  xl.,  B. 
»  annts]  So  A.B.C.D.E. 

^^  C.  andl).  omit  this  extract  from 
"  est  parSf  A. 
"ctt/u*]  ciyitatis,  B. 
^*  et]  om.  A. 
perstrinxit^  perstrinxerant,  C. 



And  so  whan  Wacho  was  ded,  his  sone  Waltaricus  was  pe  Tbevisa. 

ei^te  kyng  of  Longobardy,^  and  regned  seuen  ^ere.     After      

hym  |>e  njape  Andoenns,  ])at  ladde  firste  pQ  Longobardes 
in  to  Pannonia.  After  hym  his  sone  Albuinns  was  ]>e  ten]>e 
kyng  of  Longobardy.^  Isarses^  patricius  prayed  pis  kyng 
Albuinus  to  come  "wip  his  men  and  haue  ^  Italia,  ]>at  was  in 
lustinis  tyme  pe  Emperour,^  ]>e  ^ere  of  our  Lorde  fyue 
hondred  J^re  score  and  ei^te,  and  fat  was  after  ]>at  Longo- 
bardis  hadde  i-woned  in  Pannonia  two  and  fourty  ^ere. 
Of  pis  Albuinus  conquest  and  of  his  wonder^  ende  seche 
wipyime^  in  his  place,  aboute  J>e  lere  of  oure  Lord  fyue 
hondred  pre  score  and  ten. 

De  vrbe  Romana^     Capitulum  vicesimum  quartum. 

Atctoubs  tellep  and  writep^  pat  pe  citee  of  Eome  is  i- 
bulde  in  Tuscia,  pat  is  a  party  of  Italia,  Of  pe  fundacioun 
perof  and  gouemynge  auctoures  writep®  meny  d3ruers 
doynges  ;  and  specialliche  Frater  Martinus  de  conditione 
ejus  ;  Magister  ^^  vero  Gregorius  of  pe  wondres  of  pe  citee 

destroyede,  Walcarius  his  son  reignede  on  the  Longobardes  MS.  Hasl. 
vij.  yere.    After  whom  Audoenus  reignede,  whiche  ledde     2261. 

the  Longobardes  firste  in  to  Pannony.*^    After  whom  Albinus      

his  son  reignede,  whiche  desirede  Narses  Patricius  to  inhabite 
Ytaly,  in  the  tyme  of  lustinus  themperoure,  the  yere  of 
oure  Lorde  Y*^xlviij*^%  after  that  Longobardes  hade  taryede 
in  Pannony  by  xlij*^  yere.  Of  the  conqueste  of  Albinus,  and 
of  his  meruellous  goenge  furthe,  hit  schalle  be  expressede 
abowte  the  yere  of  grace  v<^  and  Ixx^. 

Of  the  Cite  of  Rome.    Capitulum  vicesimum  quartum^ 

At7CTOBES  expresse  that  the  cite  of  Rome  is  sette  in 
Tuscia^  whiche  is  a  parte  of  Ytaly,  of  pe  fundacion  and 
gouernaile  of  whom  auctores  wryte  tfiuerse  thynges,  specially 
Martinus,  of  the    makenge    of  hit,    but  Maister  G-regory 

'  Longohardys,  Cx. 
^  (he  Longobardesy  Cx. 
3  So  Cx. ;  Narces^  MS. 

*  take,  Cx. 

•  in  Justinus  themperonrs  timCf  Cx, 
^  wonderful,  Cx. 

"^  ioithin  forth,  Cx. 


ivnteji»  andteUeh  a, ;  wry  ten  and 
teUen,  Cx. 

^  Cx.  here,  contrary  to  Ms  cus- 
toniy  has  loryte, 

"  rfe  . . .  Magister']  Added  from  a. 

"  Ytaly  Pannony,  MS.,  but  Ytaly 



digna  memoratu/  Mavivn/m.  Circa  locum  Eomse  plures 
leguntur  regnasse.  Nam  secundum  Estodium,^  post 
turrim  confusionis  constructam,^  Noe  cum  aliquibus 
ratem  ingressus  Italiam  venit ;  sedificataque  urbe  nomine* 
sui,  ibi*  vitsB  terminum  dedit.®  Janus  vero  cum  Jano 
filio  Japhet  nepote  suo  trans  Tiberim  Janiculum  con- 
didit,  ubi''  modo  est  ecclesia  Sancti  Johannis  ad  Janicu- 
lum.® Circa  illud^  tempus  Nemproth,  qui  et  Saturnus, 
a  Jove  filio  suo  eunuchatus,  ad  praBdicti.  Jani  regnum 
veniens,  urbem,  ubi  nimc   est    Capitolium,  construxit. 

Illis  quoque  diebus  rex  Italus  cum  Siculis  ad  veniens  ^^ 
ad  Janum  et  Saturnum  urbem  juxta  Albulam  fluvium, 
qui  posfcmodum  dicfcus  est  Tiber  is/*  construxit.  Her- 
cules quoque,  films  Itali,  fecit  urbem  *^  Galeriam  sub 
Capitolio.  Post  hsec  rex  Tiberis  de  oriente  et  rex*^ 
Evander  de  Arcadia  venerunt  et  urbes  fecerunt,  unde 
Virgilius : 

Tunc  pater  Evander,  Eomanse  conditor  arcis,** 

Quorum    omnium    urbes    Romulus    postmodum    in 

*  This  extract  from  Ranulphus  is 
likewise  partly  omitted  in  CD., 
^hich  commence  the  chapter  thus : 
In  hoc  insula  (sic)  inprincipio  «- 
tuatur  urbs  Rama,  de  cujus  fwnda." 
tione  et  regiminef  &c.,  down  to  memo^ 
rata»  For  memoratti  B.  has  ntemo- 

2  Eustodliim,  C.  (not  D.)  See 
rabric.  BibL  Med,  et  In/.  LaU,  s.v. 

^  constructani\  sediflcatam,  C*T>. 

*  nomine'\  nominis,  B.C.D. 

*  iht]  om.  B. 

"  dedit'\  snscepit,  CD. 

'  ubi  .  .  .  Janiculum']  om.  K 

^  C  and  D.  have  ubi  mons  est 
etiam  Sancti  Johannis  ad  Janiculum, 

^iHud]  idem,B.CD. 

"  adveniens']  veniens,  B.C 

"  qui,,  ,  Tiberis]  After  construxit 
in  C  (not  in  D.) 

'*  urbem]  civitatem,  CD. 

"  rex]  om.  B. 

"  Virg.  JEn.,  viii.  313,  where, 
however,  Turn  rex  Evandrus  is  the 
common  reading. 


writej>   schortliche   meny  J>inges  ])at  bee]>  worpj  to  be  kept  Tbevisa. 

in  mjnde.    Martinus,    It  is  i- write  fat  many  kynges  regned      

aboute  ]>6  place  of  Rome.  For  Eustodius  sei]>  ]>at  after  ]>at 
tour  Babel  was  i-bulde  and  men  bygonne  to  speke  dyuerse 
langage  and  tonges,^  Noe  wi|>  certeyne  men  took  a  schip 
and  seillede  into  Italia,  and  bulde  a  citee  of  his  name  and 
ended  ]>ere  his  lyf.  pan  lanus,  laphet  his  sone,  ]>at  was 
Noes  sone,  bulde  laniculum  by  ^onde  }>e  ryuer  Tiberis ;  ]>ere 
is  now  a  cherche  of  Seynt  lohan,  fat  hatte  Seint  lones 
chirche  ad  laniculum.  Aboute  pat  tyme  Nemprot,  fat  hi^t 
Saturnus  also,  i-gilded  ^  of  his  owne  sone  loue,^  come  to  the 
forsaide  lanus  kyngdom,  and  bulde  a  citee ;  fere  f e  Capytal 
is  now.  Also  fat  tyme  Italus  f e  kyng  wif  Siculis  4 
men  of  Sicilia  come  to  lanus  and  to  Saturnus,  and 
bulde  a  citee  faste  by  f e  ryuer  Albula  ;  fat  ryuer  hijte 
afterward  and  now  hatte  Tyber,  and  is  a  ryuer  of 
Eome.  Also  Hercules,  Italus  his  sone,  bulde  a  citee 
Galeria  by  nefe  fe  Capitol.  After  fat  Tiberi[n]us*  fe 
kyng  com  out  of  f e  est,  and  Euander  f e  k}Tig  out  of 
Arcadia,  and  bulde  citees.  Virgilius  accordef  and  self : 
j)anne  fe  fader  Euander  at  Borne  was  maker  of  toures. 
panne  afterwarde  come   Romulus  and  closed  wif  ynne  oon 

towchethe  mony  thynges  worthy  to  be  hade  in  remem-  MS.  Hael. 
braunce  of  the  meruayles  of  that  cyte.  Marfintes,  Mony  2261, 
men  be  redde  to  haue  reignede  in  the  cyte  of  Bome.  For  '*~~" 
after  Estodius,  after  the  towre  of  confusion  made,  Noe 
takenge  a  schippe  with  other  men  come  to  Ytaly,  whiche 
makengc  a  cite  there  endede  his  lyfe  in  hit.  lanus  with  lano 
the  son  of  lapheth  made  a  cite  callede  laniculus  ouer  the 
water  of  Tiber,  where  a  chirche  is  nowe  callede  Sti.  lohannis 
ad  laniculum.  Abowte  that  tyme  Nemproth,  of  er  wise  callede 
Saturnus,  expulsede  of  lupiter  his  son,  commenge  to  the 
realme  of  lanus,  made  a  cite  where  the  chiefe  place  of  the 
cite  is  now.  In  those  dayes  kynge  Ytalus  commenge  with 
Siculynes  to  lanus  and  Saturnus  made  a  cite  nye  the  floode 
callede  Albula,  whiche  was  namede  afterwarde  Tiber.  After 
that  Hercules,  the  son  of  Italus,  made  a  cite  of  Galerius 
vnder  the  Capitoly.  After  that  kynge  Tiberis  and  Euander 
commenge  from  Arcadia  made  that  cite  of  Borne.  After 
that  Bomulus  redacte  alio  the  cites  in  to  oon  cau&enge  the 

*  So  a.  and  Cx.  ;  Stculust  MS. 

*  TiberiSf  Cx. ;  Tj^beris,  a.  j  Ti/' 
berius,  MS. 

VOL.   I.  0 

^  tonges  and  langages^  Cx. 
^  whiche  was  gelded,  Cx. 
fter,  Cx. 


imam  civitatem  muratam  redegit,^  ac  nobiliores  de 
Italia  cum  uxoribus  suis  inhabitare  fecit.  Titus  Livvus,^ 
Qua  urbe  tempore  paupertatis  suae  nullus  locus  sane- 
tior  nee  bonis  exemplis  ditior ;  sed  postmodum  diviti89 
avaritiam  et  luxuriam  auxerunt.  Martinus?  Boma 
igitur  condita  est  in  monte  Palatino  a  gemellis  fratri- 
bus  Kemo  et  Bomulo  xj,  kalend.  Maii,  Olympiade  vij* 
incipiente^  quarto  anno  Achaz  regis  Juda,^  post  Trojam 
captam  anno  cccc^iiijo,  Ra/nulpkusJ'  Sed  verius 
secundum  Solinum  cccc^xxxiiijo.  Martimis,^  Quae  urbs 
processu  temporis  muris,  turribus,  portis,  templis,  palatiis, 
artificiis "  mirabiliter  insignita.^  Habidt  turres  murorum 
ccclxj.,  in  cujus  circuitu  sunt  milliaria  viginti  duo, 
praeter  trans  Tiberim  et  urbem  Leoninam,  cum  quibus 
dicitur   habere   in  circuitu  milliaria  quadraginta  duo. 

^  muratam  after  redegit  in  B. 
^  Title  of  both  extracts  omitted  in 

®  So  C. ;  JudacBy  B. ;  Jude,  D.B. 

*  Hanulphus]  om.  CD. 

^  Beference  added  from  A.B. 

^  ariificies,  C. 

'  insit/nitttr,  O.  ;  insignitus,  D. 


wal  alle  pilke  citees  ^  aboute,  and  made  oon  grete  citee  of  Tbeviba, 

alle  i-closed  in  oon:  and  brou^te  gentil  men  and  noble  ont      

of  Italia  wip  here  wifes  for  to  wone  perytme.  TituSy  lihro 
secundo.  While  fat  citee  was  pore,  was  no  place  more 
holy  noJ?er  richere  of  good  ensample  ;  but  afterward  rich- 
esse  gadered  and  eched  to  gidres  cou^tise  and  leccherie.^ 
Marcus.  Tweie  brepren  ]>at  were  twynnes,^  Remus  and 
Romulus,  bulde  Rome  in  ]>e  hul  Palatinus,  and  was  i-bulde 
in  pe  enleuen]>e'*  kalandes  of  Maij  :  ]>o  bigan  ]>e  seuen]>e 
Olimpiades,^  fat  is  fe  seuenfe  tyme  of  iustes  and  torne- 
mentes  fat  Grees  made  at  fe  foot  of  mont  Olympus,  fo*^ 
was  J>e  fu*ste  ^ere  of  Achaz  kyng  of  luda  and  foure 
hondred  ^ere  and  foure  and  fifty  after  f e  takyng  of  Troye. 
But  more  vereiliche,  as  Solinus  seif,  foure  hondred  and'^ 
foure  and  fritti  ^ere  after  fe  takynge  of  Troye.  pe® 
whiche  citee  of  ^  Rome  was  afterward  wonderliche  i-hi^t 
wif  waUes,  wif  toures,  wif  ^ates,  wif  templis,  wif  paleys, 
and'wif  diners  and  wonderful  werkes ;  and  hadde  on  fe 
walles  f re  hondred  toures  ^®  and  ^*  fre  score  and  oon,  and 
conteynef)  aboute  two  and  twenty  myle,  wif oute  pat  fat  ^^  is 
by^onde  Tybre  and  f  e  citee  Leonina.  But,  as  me  seif ,  f  er 
wif  he*3   conteynef  al  aboute   two   and  fourty  myle,    and 

nowble  men  of  Ytaly  to  inhabite  hyt  with  theire  wyfes.    Titus  MS.  Hasl. 
Livius.    Whiche  cite  beenge  in  pouerte  was  noo  cite  moore      2261, 

holy  neif  er  more  ryche  in  goode  exemples,  but  afterwarde      

rychesse  enereasede  lecchery  and  auarice.     Martinus.    Rome  *'  ^^'  *" 
was  made  of  ij.  brefer,  Remus  and  Romulus,  in  the  mownte  Of  J?e 
Palatyne  fe  xj.  kalendes  of  Maij,  in  the  vij^i^e  Olimpias,  the  ^^^^ome' 
iiijthe  jQYQ  of  the  reigne    of  Achaz  kynge  of  the  lewery 
begynnenge,  in  the  iiij^  yere  liiij.  after  the  takenge  of  the 
cite  of  Troye.     ^.    But  after  Solinus  cccc.  and  xxxiiij**  yere. 
Martinus,   WTiiche  cite  made  nowble  in  processe  with  towres, 
walles,  temples,  ^ates,   and  palice,  hauenge  towres   of  the 
walles  ccc.lxj.  within  the  circuite  of  whom  be  myles  xxij*», 
excepte  the  edifienge  ouer  Tiber  and  the  cite  Leonine,  with 
whom  hit  is  seyde  to  conteyne  in  circuite  xlij*»  myles.    In 

'  citetesy  MS.  $  tzt,  Ox. 

^gcidred  and  encreased,  and  stfn 
they  haue  hen  cotteytous  and  hcherws, 

'  born  at  one  bttrthon,  Cx. 

*  MS.  adds  yere  (not «.  or  Cx.) 

^  OUmpuSf  Ox.,  irho  omits  the 
remainder  of  the  sentence. 

^  tliatfCx,  (not  a.) 

'  a.  om.  and. 

'  ^  Cx.  prefixes  Marcus ;  a,  has 
in  mar^n  Marcus  or  Mariinua 

•  of'\  om.  a. 

"  MS.  has  some  repetitions  hero. 

"  and]  om.  a. 

'^  The  second  \>at  added  from  a.  ; 
absent  from  MS.  and  Ox. 

"  men  seyn  it,  Ox. 

O   2 



Habuit  etiam  portas  principales  sexdecim  in  universo, 
videlicet  citra  Tiberim  decern :  portam  Capenam/  portam 
Appiam,  portam  Latiaam,  portam  Asinariatn,  portam 
Metronii,  portam  Lavicanam^  portam  NumeBtanam^  por- 
tam Salariam,^  portam  Princianam,  portam  Collinam.^ 
Item  trans  Tiberim  portas  tres,  et  in  urbe  Leonina 
portas  tres.  Oregorvas,  Inter  urbis*  hujns  mirabilia» 
arte  magica  sen*  opere  humane^  constructa,  quorum 
adhuc  restant  vestigia  miranda,  sunt  tot  promunctoria 
turrium,  tot  sadificia  palatiorum.  ''Itanulphus,  Etiam 
nunc  veri  sint  versus  illi  Hildeberti  Cenomannensis 
episcopi,  quos  ponit  Willielmus  Mabnesburiensis  in  libro 
suo  de  regibus. 

Versus  de       Par  tibi  Roma  nihil,  cum  sis  fere  ®  tota  ruina ; 


Fracta  docere  potes,  integra  quanta  fores. 

i>e  paiatiis  Gfrego^'iua.  Fuerunt  et  ®  palatia  egregia  in  ^^  honorem 
imperatorum  aUorumque  iUustrium  virorum  constructa, 
inter  quse^^    erat  palatium  majus    in  medio  urbis  in 

^  Capuana,  B.O.D.;  Capuenay 
A.E.  (See  versions.)  Th^se  gates 
are  all  accusatives  in  B. ;  in  other 
MSS.  they  are  in  the  nominatiye. 
The  reader  must  take  the  ortho- 
graphy of  the  Tersions  taliter  qttali- 
ter.  In  the  text  Lavicana  stands  for 
Zabicana  ;  and  Princiajia  £>r  Pen- 
ciana;  Metronii  is  more  correctly 
written  Metronis,  See  Smith's  Diet. 
Gr.  and  Rom.  Geogr.,  s.  v.  Roma, 

^portam  Salariam]  om.  C.  (not 

*  Collania,  C. 

*  urhis]  om.  C.  (not  D.) 

^  sive,  B. 

^  humano'\  om.  CD. 

^  J7a».  to  Versus  de  Boma,  ahhre- 
viated  in  C.  and  D.  thus :  ut  jam 
verum  sit,  Par  tibi,  ^e,  B.  omits 
the  two  lines  following  Hildeberti, 
and  grievously  corrupts  hoth  the 

^pene,  MSS. 

'  que,'B.',  ibi,  C.  ;  etiam,Xy, 

'» ad,  B. 

"  de  quibus,  C.D. ;  in  qua,  At 



had  ia   all  sixtene  principal  ^ates  ; '    ten  on  J?is  half  Tiber,  Thevisa. 

fat  were  i-cleped  port  Capuena,  port  Apia,  port  Latina,  port      

Asinaria,  port  Matronii,  port  Levicana,^  port  Numentana, 
port  Salaria,  port  Princiana,  port  Colina.  Also  by^onde 
Tyberis  beef  fre  ^ates,  and  j?re  in  fe  citee  Leonina.  Gre- 
gorius.  Among  fe  wondres  of  pis  citee  fat  ^it  beef  ii-sene, 
it  is  greet  ^  wonder  of  so  many  defensable  tonres  and  so 
many  buldynge  of  palays,  where  ^  it  were  i-doo  ^  by  wyche- 
craft  ofer  by  manis  dede.  So  fat  now  beef  ferified^  fe 
vers  fat  Hildebertus^  Episcopus  Cenomannensis  made,  and 
Willielmus  Malmesburiensis  puttef  hem  in  his  book  of 

Eome,  no  f  ing  is  pere  to  f  e, 

peyt  f ou  nygh  all  fallynge  be  ; 

On  alle^  fou  schewest  fy  bounde. 

How  grete  fou  were,^^  when  f ow  were  ^^  sounde. 

pere  were  meny  paleys  real*^   and  noble  i-bulde  in  Eome  De  palatiis 
in  worschippe  of  emperours  and  of  of  ere  noble  men  also.  Roma;. 
Among  f e  whiche  f e  gretteste  and  most  palys  of  alle  >v^as 
in  f  e  myddel  of  f  e  citee^  in  tokene  of  oon  principalte  of 

that  cite  were  xyj.  principalle  ^ates,  x.  abowte  Tiber,  Porta  MS.  Habl. 
Capuana,  Porta  Apia,  Porta  Latina,  Porta  Asinaria,  Porta      2261. 
Metronii,  Porta  Lauicana,  Porta  Numentana,  Porta  Salaria, 
Porta  Prinopana,  Porta  CoUina.     Also  there  were  iij.  ^ates 
ouer  Tiber  and  iij.  in  the  Cite  Leonine.     Gregorius,     Vn 
to  this  tyme  presente  remayne  mony  signes  in  hit  to  be 
meruayles  as  edifienges  and  palice,  that  the  versus  of  Hilde» 
berte,  bischop  Cenomacense  may  be  verifiede  of  hit  whom 
William  Malmesbnry  puttethe  in  his  boke  of  kynges  seyenge 
in  this  wyse  :  O  Eome,  f er  is  noon  ofer  cite  egalle  to  the 
nowe  beenge  in  ruyne.    Thou  may  teche  nowe  in  confusion 
howe   nowble  thow  was   a  fore.      De  Palatiis,      In   that  Of  fe 
cite  were  nowble  palice  made  in  honor  of  emperoures,  and  palices.  . 
of  other  nowble  men   amonge  whom  oon  palice  was  made 
in  the  myddes  of  the  cite  in  the  signe  of  the  monarchy  of 

'  yates^  Cx. 

'^  So  a.  andCx.;  JEluicana,  MS. 

®  a  grete,  Cx« 

*  towres  of  so  many  buyldynges  of 
palayceSf  whether,  Cx. 

*  t-rfoo]  om.  Cx. 

®  So  MS.  and  a. 

^  So  Cx. ;  Hidebertus,  MS. 

*  as  Iterefoloweth,  Cx, 

^  So  Cx.  *t  anaiitef  MS. ;  anaUe,  a* 

1«  So  MS.  and  a.    SeeHarl.  MS. 

"  ryalf  Cx. 


signum  monarchiaB  orbis ;  item  ^  palatium  Pacis,  ubi 
Romulus  posuit  statuam  suam  auream,  dicens,  "  Non 
*'  cadet,*  donee  virgo  pariat;"  quod  et*  cecidit  Ohristo 
nascente.*  Palatium  Diocletiani  columnas  habet  ad 
jactum  lapilli  tarn  altas^  et  tam^  magnas  quod  a  cen- 
tum viris  per  totum  annum  operantibus  vix  una  earum 
secari  possit.  Item  fait  ibi  quoddam  palatium  sexa- 
ginta  imperatorum,  cujus  hodie  partem  residuam  tota 
Roma  destruere  non  potest 
Detemplis      Apud  templum  Pantheon,  quod  fuit^  omnium  deorum/ 


modo  est  ecclesia  omnium  sanctorum,  et  autonomastice  ® 
dicitur  Sanota  Maria  Rotunda,  et  habet  in  latitudine 
spatium  ducentorum  sexaginta  pedum.  Prope  iUud 
templum  est  arcus  triumphalis  August!  Caesaris  mar- 
moreus,  in  quo  gesta  ipsius  describuntur,^  Ibi  quoque*® 
est  arcus  Scipionis,  qui  devicit  Hannibalem.  Item  ad 
Sanctum  Stephtoum  in  piscina"  fuit  templum  ^^  holo- 
vitreum,  totum  de  crystallo  et  auro  factum,  ubi  erat 
astronomia  insculpta  cum  signis  coeli  et  stellis,  quod 

®  D.  adds  h^Bc, 

*  ef]  tamen,  B. 

^  quod . . .  tULScente']  oin*  CD. 

*  tarn]  om.  C.  (not  D.) 
®  A.  adds  ecclesia, 

^  dtBmoniorum,  B. 

3  scribuntftr,  A.\  conscribuntUTf'B. 
^«  Etjuxta  id,  C«D.  (which  latter 
has  Ultid,) 
"  pasonia,  B. 
^-  tempium]  om.  CD* 


all   J)e   world   wide.     Also    J?e    paleys    of   pees ;    perynne  Tbbvisa. 

Romulus  dede  *  his  owne  ymage  of  golde,   and  seide  :  "  It 

"  schal  neuere  falle,  or  2  a  mayde  bare  a  childe  5 "  and  J?at 

ymage  feP  whan  Crist  was  i-bore.     Diocletianus^  paleys 

ha]7  pilers  as  hi^  as  a  stones  ^  cast,  and  so  grete  abonte  pat 

an    hondred    men   al    a  Jere    worchynge    schulde    vimeje 

hewe   oon   of  filke  pylers.    Also  pere   was    a   paleys    of 

sixty    emperours,    and  ^it    stondej)   a   party «  ferof  p&t  al 

Eome  may  nou^t  destroye  it.    pere,  as  ^  Pantheon  pe  temple  Be  templis. 

of*  ail  mawmetrie  was,  is  now  a  chirche  of  al  halwen,*  and 

for  9  cure  Lady  is  after  Crist  cheef  halwe^^of  al  mankynde, 

]>at  chirche  ha}»  pe  name  of  oure  Lady,  and  hatte  Sancta 

Maria  Rotunda,  fat  is  pe  Roimde  Chirche  of  oure  Lady, 

and  ha}>    in    brede    pe   space   of    two    hondred    feet    and 

sixty.    Fast  by  fat  temple  is  an  arche  of  marbel,  and  is 

pe  arche  of  Augustus  Cesar  his  victories  and  grete  dedes» 

In  fat  arche  beef  al  Augustus  Cesar  his  dedes  ^*  descry ued. 

pere  is  also  Scipions  arche ;  he  ouercom  Hanibal.    At  Seint 

Steuene  in  Piscina  was  f e  temple  Olouitreum,  fat  was  made 

al  ^2  of  cristal  and  of  golde ;  fere  was  astronomic  i-graued 

and  i-peyntwif  sterres  and  signes  of  heuen.    Seint  Sebastian  ^^ 

the  worlde.  Also  thei  made  a  palice  of  peace,  where  in  MS.  Haul. 
Romulus  put  an  ymage  of  golde,  seyenge,  this  ymage  schalle  2261. 
not  falle  tylle  that  a  mayde  haue  a  childe,  whiche  ymage  "" 
felle  down  in  the  natiuite  off  Criste.  The  palice  of  Dioclitian 
hathe  pjUers  soe  hie  as  a  man  may  caste  with  a  stonne,  and 
soe  grete  that  vnnethe  oon  off  theyme  may  be  kytte  and 
putte  down  by  a  c.  men  laborenge  dayly  in  hyt  by  a  yere. 
Also  f  er  was  a  palice  of  Ix.  emperoures  the  residu  of 
whom  alle  Rome  can  not  destroye.  Of  pe  temples.  Now 
the  chirche  of  alle  Seyntes  is  in  Rome,  where  the  temple 
of  alle  goddes  was  before,  namede  Panteon,  hauenge  in 
latitude  the  space  of  ij^.  and  Ix.  foote,  nye  to  whom  is  an 
arche  made  of  marbole,  in  whom  the  gestes  of  Augustus 
Cesar  be  wryten.  Also  fer  is  an  arche  of  Scipio  whiche 
ouercome  Hanibal.  Also  there  was  a  temple  made  of 
cristalle  and  golde,  where  in  astronomy  was  graven  with 
the   signes   of  heuyn  and  sterres,  whom   Seynte   Sebastian 

*  dyde  do,  Cx. 
« tely  Cx. 
^fyUe^  Cx. 

*  thfocltdaniiSy  MS* 
^  astoon,  a. 

'  a  party  Cx.  ;  another  party ^  MS. 
^  as'\  Added  from  Cx.  (not  in  o.) 

^  hahwen,  Cx.  \  hakwetif  a. 

®  bff  cause,  Cx. 

'*  chyef  and  holyesti  Cx. 

^^  ben  alle  his  grete  acteSf  Cx. 

«  at]  om.  Cx. 

*'  Sebestian^  MS.  (not  Cx.) 



Sanctus  Sebastianus  destruxit.^  Item  in  Capitolio,  quod 
erat  altis  muris  vitro  et  auro  coopertis,  quasi  speculum 
mundi  sublimiter  «rectum,  ubi  consides®  et  senatores 
muudum  regebant,  erat  templum  Jovis  in  quo  statua 
Jovis  aurea  in  throno  aureo  erat  sedens.^  BxmuVphvs.^ 
Hie  advertendum  est  quod  in  Eoma  tria  tantum  templa 
fiierunt  quae  fiamines  habuerunt,  id  est,  pontifices  ido- 
lorum,  sic  dicti  quasi  filamines  a,  Jilo  quod®  Ugabant 
sibi  in  capite,  quando  non  poterant  prse  calvitate  diebus 
festivis  pileum  deferre.  Nam  in  templo  Jovis  minis- 
trabat  flamen  dialis,  quia  Jupiter  vocabatur  Diespiter, 
id  est,  diei  pater.  Item  in  templo  fuit  flamen  Martialis, 
in  templo  Romuli  flamen  Quirinalis,  nam  Romulus  dice- 
batur  Quirinus.* 

pedomi-        EomsB   fuit   domus   qudedam    consecrata  pene^   tota 

DusBomae.  * 

aurea  lapidibus  pretiosis  omata,  qusB  dicebatur  valere 
pene  tertiam  partem  mundi,  cujus  cryptse^  parietum 
adhuc  apparent  horrend©  et  inaccessibiles ;  in  qua 
etiam'  domo  statuae  omnium  provinciarum  ®  poneban- 

^  astronomia ...  de&truxit\  Slightly 
different  in  C.  and  D. 


^  ad.  consulendumj  C« 

^  The  latter  part  of  the  sentence 
slightly  ahbreviated  in  CD. 

*  Kan.  to  Quirinus]  6m.  in  A.B. 

^  quenif  E.    The  solecism  is  pro'* 
bably  dne  to  the  scribe. 
^  pene  . .  •  cr^tai]  Abbreviated 

in  A.B»C.D. 

'  etiam]  Added  from  CD. 

^  RoniiB  suhjeciarwit  ai^er  provin^ 
ciarumm  D. ;  statute  9£tst  provinci^ 
arum  in  B. 



destroyed  ]>at  temple.    Also*  l?e   Capitol  was  anayed*  wij>  Tbevisa. 

lii^e  walles  i-heled  vrip   glas  and  wi|>   gold,  as  it  were  fe      

mirrour  of  al  fe  world  aboute.  pere  consuls  ^  and  senatours 
gouernede  and  rulede  aH  Jye  world,  as  moche  as  was  in  here 
power;  and  fere  was  lupiters^  teiiQple,  and  in  ])e  temple 
was  lupiters  ymage  of  golde,^  sittynge  in  a  trone.  J^J 
Here  take  hede  ]>at  onliche  ]>re  temples  were  somtyme  in 
Kome  fat  hadde  famines,  [fat  were  bisshops  to  serve  false 
goddis  and  mawmetrie,  and  heet  flamines,]  ^  as  it  were  ^te- 
mities,  of  ^/o,  fat  is  a  prede,  fat  fey  bonde  aboute  hire 
heed,  whan  f ei  my^te  nou^t  in  f e  holy  day  suffre  on  hire 
piliouns  and  here  cappes  for  hete.  In  lupiter  his  temple 
seruede  flamen  dialis,  fat  is,  f e  day  bisshop ;  for  lupiter 
was  i-cleped  Diespiter,  fat  is,  fe  fader  of  f c  day :  also  in 
Mars  his  temple  was  famen  Martialis,  fat  is.  Mars  is® 
bisshop,  and  in  Romulus  temple  was  flamen  Quirinalis,  fat 
is,  Quii*inus  i^  bisshop ;  for  Romulus  was  i-cleped  Quirinus 

In  Rome  was  an  hous   i-made  wel    nyh    al   of  gold   and  De  domi- 
i-hi^t^*  wif  precious  stones;   me  seide  fat  hous  was  worf  ^^* 
wel   iiy}   fe   fridde  deeP*  of  all  fe  world.      In  fat  hous 
eueriche   londe   and   prouince   hadde   an  ymage   i-sette  by 

destroyede.    I^    Hyt  is   to   be   aduertisede  that  in  Rome  MS.  Habl. 
were  oonly  thre   temples   whom   the   byschoppes  of  ydoles     2261. 

hade  in  possession  callede  flamines,  as  filamines,  of  threde      

whom  thei  bounde  in  theire  hedes  when  thei  my^hte  not 
were  a  cappe  in  holy  dayes  for  hete.  The  byschop  Dialle  ^^ 
ministrede  in  the  temple  of  lupiter,  for  he  was  callede 
Diespiter,  that  is  to  say,  fader  of  f  e  day.  .  The  byschop 
Martialle  was  in  the  temple  c^  Mars.  And  the  byschoppe 
Quirinalle  in  the  temple  of  Romulus,  for  Romulus  was 
callede  Quirinus.  Of  howses.  In  Rome  was  an  howse 
consecrate  onornede  allemoste  alle  with  golde  and  precious 
stones,  whiche  was  seyde  to  be  worthe  the  thrydde  parte 
of  the  worlde,  whiche  place  apperethe  ^itte  as  ferefulle 
and  inaccessible,  in  whiche  place  the  ymages  of  alle  pro- 

^  MS.  and  a.  (not  Ox.)  add  in. 
3  Cx.   omits  the  four  following 
^  the  consuls,  Cx. 
*  of  al, «. 

^  luhiters,  MS.,  and  so  below. 
'^fyn  golde^  Cx. 
'  R]  Added  from  a.  and  Cx. 

^  The  words  in  brackets  added 
from  a. 

'  Cx.  here  and  above  prints  only 

1^  hisy  added  in  a.,  which  has  ofren 
similar  variations. 

"  besette,  Cx. 

^^partf  Cx. 

wZ)««t,  Harl.  MS.;  sunilarly 
Martial  below. 


tur  arte  magica,*  quarum  quselibet  nomen  provinci» 
suae  in  se^  gerebat  scriptum  in  pectore,  et  nolam  ar- 
genteam  circa  coUum ;  quae,  si  qua  gens  contra  Bomam 
insurgeret,®  statirn  imago  *  illius  vertebat  dorsum  ad 
imaginem  Romse,  et  tintinnabulum  illius  imaginis 
insonabat.  *  Unde  et  sacerdotes  Gentiles  domum  illam 
alternis  vicibus  custodientes  nomen  imagiois  illius 
principibus  nunciabant.^  Erat  etiam^  in  tecto  domus 
illius  eques  quidam  aeneus  concordans  mobiliter  motui 
illius  imaginis/  lanceamque  contra  gentem  illam  sic  in- 
surgentem®  dirigebat.  Unde  et  Romani®  facile  hostes 
suos  inpraemeditatos  occupabant.  In  qua  etiam  domo 
tradunt  ignem  fuisse  inextinguibilem,  cujus  artifex  requi- 
situs  quamdiu  duraret,  respondit,  "  Donee  virgo  pariat/' 
Unde  divulgatum  est  quod  ^^  nocte  DominicaB  nativitatis 
eques  ille  cum  domo  comdt,  et  ignis  ille  extinctus."  Item 
Beaneus'^  Apollo   confectionem  **  quandam  stilplmris^* 

*  Slightly  transposed  ift  CD.  « sk  tttsurgentem]  ohL  G.Dj 

» Bomay  C.  (not  J>.) 

2  in  se\  om.  C. 

'  insurgere  proponerety  CiD* 

*  imago  ....  insonabaf\  Abbte* 
viated  to  sonum  dabatinCJ).}  A«!B« 
have  only^to^'f»  sonctbat,  after  in- 
surgeret  (A.  reads  sonaref)  Both 
versions  agree  vith  the  text 

^  The  senten<ie  transposed  and 
ahbteviated  in  CJ>i 

« et,  B. 

'  ipsitis  imaginis,  A«  i  imaginis 
illius,  B. 

^'^quod]  om.E. 

^^  In  qua  .  .  .  extinciusl  l^'alis- 
posed  and  ahhreviated  in  C.  $  B.  has 
est  after  extinctus. 

*^  Bancus,  A.  It  is  possible  that 
Higden  intends  ApoUonins  Tya-^ 
nasns ;  bnt»  if  so,  the  story  seems 
not  to  be  found  in  Fhilostratns* 

"  confossionem,  C.  (not  D.) 

"  sulpkure,  A. 



wicche  craft  ;^  eueriche  of  pilke  ymages  bare  his  owne  Tbevisa. 
lordes  name  i-write  on  2  his  brest  and  a  cokebelle?  of  — 
siluei'  i-honged  aboute  his  nekke;  so  ^at^  ^if  eny  londe 
arise  a^en  Borne,  anon  f e  ymage  of  fat  londe  tomed  his 
bak  toward  "pe  ymage  of  Home,  and  ]>e  belle  aboute  his 
nekke  anon  schulde  rynge,  and  ^e  preostes  pat  kepte  J>at 
hous  euerich  by  his  cours  wamede  pe  princes  of  pat  doynge, 
pere  was  also  an  horsman  of  bras  an^  hite  on  pe  cop  of 
pat  hous,  and  moued^  also  wip  a  spere  in  his  hond,  and 
torned  pe  poynt  of  his  spere  to  ward  pat  londe  pat  so  wolde 
arise ;  and  so  pe  Eomayns  myjte  li^tliche  come  vppon  here 
enemyes  vnwamedJ  Li  pat  hous  also  was  a  fuyre  pat  no 
man  my^te  aquenche,^  and  men  askede^  of  pe  craitesman 
pat  it  made  how  longe  it  schulde  dure,i^  and  he  answerde 
and  seide :  pat^^  it  schulde  dure  for  euermore  for  to^^  j,at 
a  mayde  here  a  childe.  And  in^^  pe  same  ny^t  pat  Crist 
was  i-bore  pat  hous  fil  doun,  and  pe  fuyre  was  aqueynt 
also  pe  same^'^  ny^t  and  tyme.    Also  Beaneus   ApoUo  pat 

uinces  were  putte  by  wycche  crafte,  euery  ymage  hauetige  Mg^jj^j,, 
writen  in  the  breste  of  hit  the  name  of  the  prouince,  and  226I. 
a  belle  of  golde  abowte  the  necke  of  hit.  And  if  eny  — 
peple  made  insureccion  ageyne  thempire  of  Some,  the 
ymage  of  that  prouincfe  tumede  the  backe  of  hit  to  the 
ymage  of  Eome,  and  ronge  his  belief  the  gentile  pristes 
hauenge  kepenge  of  the  ymages  schewede  those  thynges 
to  the  princes  of  thempire.  In  the  hier  partes  of  whiche 
place  was  an  horse  man  made  of  brasse  corespondente  to 
the  ymage  of  that  prouince,  hauenge  a  spere  directe  towarde 
the  peple  makenge  pat  insurreccion.  Where  fore  the  Bomanes 
hade  victory  of  theier  enmyes,  takenge  theyme  as  sodenly. 
In  whiche  place  men  aifermede  fire  to  haue  bene  inextin^ 
guible  ;  pe  maker  of  hit  requirede  how  longe  hit  scholde 
dure,  answerede  and  seyde,  tyl  a  mayde  scholde  be  delyue- 
rede  of  a  childe.  Wherefore  hit  was  expressede  that  the 
man  made  of  brasse  felle  down  with  the  howse  in  the 
natiuite  of  Criste,  and  that  fyre  was  extincte.     Of  Craftes 

*  nigromaneiey  Cx, 

'•^  and  on,  Cx.  (typ.  error?) 

*  cockerbelle,  Cx» 

*  So  the  MS.  ;  but  seemingly  a 
mere  clerical  error  ;  a.  has  ]>at 

*  andf  a. ;  on,  Cx, 

*  meouede,  a,  j  tneued,  Cx. 
'  on  ware,  Cx, 

•  quenche,  Cx. 

®  axed,  Cx. 

*•  endure.  Ox,,  and  so  belov. 

"  Cx.  omits  Pat 

^^for  to]  vnto,  Cx. 

"a.  andCx.  omittn. 

"  quenchyd  that  same,  Cx. 




et  nigri  salis  inclusit  in  vase  seneo,  quam  candela  con- 
secrata  inceudit,  et  balneum  ibi  ^  fecit  cum  thermis 
perpetuo^  calentibus.®  Erat  quoque*  in  domo  quadam® 
ferreum  simulacrum  Bellerophontis  pondere  quindecim 
millia^  librarum,  in  aere  cum  equo  suo  suspensum, 
nuUa  catena  superius  aut  stipite  inferius  sustentatum; 
sed  lapides  magnetes  in  arcubus^  testudinum  sive 
fornicibus  ®  arcuatis  circumquaque  ponebantur,  et  hinc^ 
inde  proportionali  ^"  attractione  simulacrum  in  medio 
servabant,  ita  ut  nullicubi "  posset  dissilire.*^ 
Beartificiis  Est  ibi  theatrum  in  Heraclea  de  ipso  monte  mar- 
moreo  ita  ^®  seulptum,  ut  cellulse  mansionum  et  sedilia 
per  gyrum/*  exitus,  et  antra  ^^  ex  uno  solido  lapide 
sint  ^^  sculpta,  poniturque  hoc  totum  ^'^  opus  super  sex 
cancros  ex  ipso  etiam  monte  sculptos,  ubi  nuUus  tarn 
secrete  aut  ^*  secum  aut  cum  alio  loqui  poterit  ^^  quin 
in  circuitu  audiatur.^  Item  ^^  juxta  palatium  Augusti 
est  murus  coctiKs  descendens  per  portam  Asinariam  a 
summis  montibus,  qui  immensis  fornicibus  aquseductum 
sustentat;  per  quem  amnis  a^^  montanis  fontibus  per 
spatium  unius  diaetsB  urbi  illabitur,  qui  sereis  fistulis 
postmodum  divisus^*  universis  palatiis  Komse  ^  quondam 
influebat.     Fluvius  namque  Tiberis  equis  est  salubris,^^ 

^  ibidem,  B, 

2  in  perpetuOf  A. 

^  Et  balneum  ....  cakntibus] 
Varies  verbally  in  CD. 

*  etiam,  CD. 

^  ibi  quoddam,  C  ;  ibi  quadam, 
D.  ;  domo  quodam,  B. 

*  milium,  CD. 
^fornicibus,  CD. 

'  sive  fornicibus']  pm.  CD. ;  in 
fornicibus,  A.E. 

" D.  adds  et 

10  proportionabili,  B. 

^'  nuUibi,  B. 

12  desilire,  B.  The  sentence  ends 
thus  in  CD,  after  attractione  :  con- 

sistens  quasi  sub  equilihrata  mensura 
sic  manebat 

1'  quasi,  C.  (not  D.) 

1^  C.  and  D.  add  et ;  B.  adds  man" 
sionum  after  gyrum, 

"  aura,  C. 

»«  sic,  C 

^'  iotumi  om.  A.B. 

'*  auti  om.  CD. 

^*  poterat,  D. 

^  quin  omnes  qui  in  circuilu  erant 
audirent,  CD* 

"  Item']  om.  CD. 

22  et,  E.  (clerical  error.) 

^^  divisis,  B. 

2»  Somce]  om.  CD. 

25  utilis,  CD. 



man  closede  a  confeccioun  of  brymston  and  of  blak  salt  in  Tbevisa, 

a  vessel  of  bras,  and  sette  hit  on  fe  fire  i  wi]>  a  candel  fat      

he  hadde  made  on  his  manere,^  and  made  ]>ere  a  bath  wi]? 
ba]>inge  places  fat  all  wey  were  hote.  pere  was  also  on^ 
an  hous  an  ymage  of  yren,  and  was  [namyd]  ^  Bellefrontes 
ymage,  and  ^  weyed  xv.  f owsand  pound  wij)  his  hors  fat 
he  satte  on,  and  hyng^  in  fe  ayer  wif  no  post  ne  pyler 
bynefe  vnder  sette,  nofere  ^  i-holde  wif  chayne  aboue ;  but 
adamant  stones  fat  were  in  f e  fot  ^  and  in  f e  arches  aboute 
drowe  euen  f e  yren  eueriche  to  his  side,  so  fat  f e  yren 
ymage  mytt  nou^t  dounward  nofer  vpward  ne  toward 
neyther  side,*  but  hyng  alwey  euene  amydde. 

J)ere  is  a  place  at  Rome  in  Heraclea  and  hatte  theatrum  ;  De  arti- 
fat  is  a  place  to  stonde  ofer  sitte  ynne  for  to  loke  welfici»»» 
aboute.  perynne  is  wonderliche  i-graue  cabans  and  dennes, 
dyuers  oute  goynges,  benches,  and  seges  all  aboute,  and  is 
hool  and  sound,  al  oon  marbel  ston :  [and  f  is  work  is 
i*sett  uppon  sixe  crabbes  i-hewe  of  hard  marbilston]  ;  i^ 
in  fat  place  may  no  man  so  priuely  speke,  nofer  by  ^^  hem- 
self  nofer  by  i*  anof er  man,  but  al  fat  he  seif  be  herde 
al  aboute.  Faste  by  Augustus  Cesar  his  place  ^^  is  a  wal 
i-made  of  b[r]ent  i^  tile  and  strecchef  dounward  oute  of  f  e 
hite  huUes  by  fe  ^ate,  port  Asinaria.  pat  wal  is  i-made 
vppon  grete  arches  and  heug ;  fat  wal  strecchef  a  dayes 
iornay  from  Rome  yn  a  greet  condyt ;  vppon  fat  wal  fe 
wateres  and  f  e  ^*  stremes  of  f  e  ^^  welles  of  f  e  mounteyns 
rennef  ynto  Rome  ;  and  fan  is  ^^  departed  in  dyuers  condites 
and  pipes  of  bras,  and  so  ran  somtyme  in  to  euery  paleys 
of  Rome  :  for  f e  water  [of]  ^^  Tyber  is  holsom  and  good  for 

and  Edifienges.    There  is  a  place  made  in  Heraclea  graven  MS.  Habl. 
so  of  marbole  in  that  hille,  that  the  mansiones  of  hit  and     2261. 

setes  of  hit  were  graven  of  oon  ston,  where  a  man  can  not      

speke  so  secretely  with  hymselfe  or  with  eny  other,  but  hit 
schal  be  herde  in  alle  the  circuite.    The  water  of  Tiber  is 

*  it  afyre,  Cx. ;  hit  on  fire^,  a, 
^  i'halewed  in  his  manere,  a.,  Cx. 



►,  a., 

^  Added  from  Cx.* 
^  whiche.  Ox. 

^  heng,  a.  and  Ox.,  and  so  Cx.  (not 
a.)  below. 
^  nCf  Cx. 
*  vawte,  Cx. 
**  So  Cx. ;  neuere  aside,  MS.,  a. 

"  The  words  in  brackets  added 
from  a.  and  Cx. 

"  to,  Cx.  (twice). 

*2  palaysy  Cx.  (not  o.) 

^'  vodk  i'made  ofbrend,  a.  ;  waJle 
made  of  brente,  Cx. 

^*  a,  and  Cx.  omit  \>e, 

1^  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  j>at,  MS. 

"  it  is,  Cx. 

"  Added  from  Cx.  (not  in  a.) 



De  Pal- 



sed  hominibus   noxius ;  *  qtiamobrem  a   quatuor  urbis 
partibus  per  artificiosos  meatus  Bomani  veteres  aquas 
reeentes    venire    fecerunt;    quibus,    dum    res    publica 
floruit,    quicquid^    libuit    eonsummare    licuit     Juxta 
hunc  murum  aqu89ducfcus  ^    est  illud  *  balneum  Beanei, 
de  quo  supra  dicitur.     In  albisterio,  quod  dicitur  muta- 
torium  Caesaris,  ubi  fiebant   albas  stolsB  imperatorum, 
fuit  ^  candelabrum  factum  de   lapide  albeste,  qui  semel 
accensus  et  sub  divo  positus  nulla  arte  potuit  extingui,^ 
RanuVphus.   Juxta  hunc  modum  potuit  contingere  quod 
de  Pallante  gigante  legitur  infra  circa  annum  domini 
millesimum   quadragesimum,    quo    anno  repertum    est 
Eomse  corpus  gigantere  staturse  tumulatum  et  ^  incorrup- 
tum,  cujus  vulneris  hiatus  quatuor  pedes  longitudinis  ® 
et   semis   continebat     Longitudo   corporis   altitudinem 
muri  vincebat;  lucerna  continue  ardens  ad  caput  ejus 
reperta^  est,  quse  nee  flatu  nee  humore  extingui  poteratj 

*  e8t  noafim,  D. 

^  after  Jloruity  tbus  :  aquaducius 
fiebant  ut  libuit  et  licuit,  G. ;  quic- 
quid  libuit,  Ucuit,  D. 

^  aquaducius]  om*  0.  (not  D.) 

*  iUud]  om.  D. 

*  ibi  fuitf  B. 

*  C.  and  D.  omitted  from  Juxta 
hunc  jfc.  down  to  jaeet  hie, 

^  ef]  om.  B. 

^  So  B.  ;  pedum  longitudinis,  A. ; 
pedum  longitudine,  E. 

*  inventa,  A. 



hors,  and  for  men  yueP  and  vnholsom.^    perfore  fe  olde  Tbetisa 

Bomaynes  made  fresche  water  come   oute   of  foure   parties      

of  ]>e  citee  by  weies  craftliche  i-made,  and  ferof  men  my^te 
take  al  fat  fey  wolde,  [whyle]^  fe  comynge  ^  of  Eome  were 
in  her  floures.  By  fat  wall  is  f e  bath  Byaneus  made,  of  f e 
whiche  baf  was  rafer  a  speche.^  In  Albiet[e]rio  ^  a  place 
pat  heet  also  Mutatorium  Cesaris  were  i-made  white  stolis 
for  emperours.  Also  fere  was  a  candelstikke  i*made  of  a 
stoon  fat  hatte  Albeston ;  whan  it  was  ones  i-tend  ^  and 
i-sette  per  oute,^  fere  couf e  no  man  it  aquenche  ^  wif  no 
craft  fat  me  kouf e  deuise,  [^.]^°  In  f is  manere  hit  mi^te 
be  of-^i  fe  geaunt  Pallas  aboute  fe  ^ere  of  oure  Lord  a 
f owsand  and  foarty ;  fat  ^ere  was  i-founde  in  Borne  a  geantis 
body  i-bm'ied  all  ^^  hool  and  sounde  ;  f  e  chene  ^^  of  his 
wounde  was  foure  foot  longe  and  an  half ;  pe  lengf  e  of  his 
body  passed  the  hei^te  of  f  e  waUes  ;  at  his  heed  was  founde 
a  lanterne  bi-ennynge  alway,  fat  no  man  couthe  quenche  wif 
blast  nof er  i4  wif  water  nof er  ^^  wif  of er  craft,  or*^  fere  were 

wholsom  for  horses,  but  not  for  men,  wherefore  the  Bomanes  jjg  uxrl 
made  labor  that  fresche  waters  my^te  comme  in  to  the  cite      226I. 

in   iiij.  partes    of  hit.     In  Albisterio   was   a  candellesticke      

where  the  emperoures  were  wonte  to  be  chaungede,  where 
the  white  stoles  of  emp6roures  were  made  also,  whiche  was 
made  of  a  precious  ston  callede  Albestes,  whiche  accendede 
and  pntte  furthe  in  the  aiere  wylle  not  be  extincte  by  eny 
crafte»  ^,  In  lyke  wyse  that  thyuge  my^hte  happe  that 
is  redde  of  Pallas,  f  e  gigante  abowte  the  yere  of  our  Lorde 
God  mxl*^,  in  which  yere  a  body  w:as  founde  of  f  e  stature 
of  a  gigante  beryede  at  Borne  and  incorrupte,  the  wounde 
of  whom  conteynede  in  longitude  iiij.  foote  and  a  halfe.  The 
longitude  of  that  body  excedede  the  altitude  of  the  walles 
of  that  cite :  fyndenge  also  a  lampe  brennenge  at  the  feete  off 
hit  continually,  whiche  cowthe  not  be  extincte  fro  blawenge 

^  euel,  a. 

'  and  vnholsome  and  euyl  for  men^ 

*  Added  from  Gx,  (not  in  o») 

*  comins,  Cx. 

*  wa^  spoken  iofore^  Cx. 

*  AlbisteriOf  ft.,  Cx. 

'  yteynedy  Cx.,  who  adds  and  sette 
a  fyre. 

^  without,  Cx. 

^  quenche  it^  Cx. ;  hit  quenche,  a. 
^»  ]^.]  Beference  added  from  a. 
and  Cx. 
"  0/2  that,  Cx. 
«  aU]  om  Cx. 
^*  space,  Cx. 
"  ne,  Cx.,  twice;  (as  frequently.) 


ar,  a. 




donee  subtili  foramine  subter^  flammam^  facto  aer  forefc 
introductus.  Hunc  Pallantem  Turnus  dicitur  occidisse, 
quando  «  pugnavit  pro  Lavinia.  Hujus  ^  gigantis  tale 
erat  epitaphium. 

Filius  Evandri  Pallas,  quern  lancea  Turni 
Militis  oceidit  more  suo,  jacet  hie. 

Be  Btatuis 
et  signis 

Fuit  apud®  Romam  tauruB  seneus  in  speeiem® 
Jovis  transformati,  qui  mugienti  et  gesticulanti '^  simil- 
limus  videbatur.  Puit^  et  imago  Veneris  eo  modo® 
quo  quondam  nudo  corpore  Paridi  se  ostendebat,  ita 
artificiose  composita  ut  in  niveo  imaginis  ore  sanguis 
recens*^  natare  videretur.  Est  etiam'^  ibi^^  pyramis 
Romuli,  ubi  speliebatur  juxta  ^^  ecclesiam  beati  Petri ; 
quam  peregrini,  qui  semper^*  frivolis'^  abundant,  dieunt 
fiiisse  acervum  segetis  beati  Petri,  quern  cum  Nero 
rapuisset  in  lapideum  collem  pristine  quantitatis  fe- 
runt  fiiisse^^  conversum.     Inter  onmes  pyramides  mira- 

*  super,  B. 

^Jlammaf  A.  (but  looks  more  like 

'  A.  adds  JSneas. 

*  Cujus,  B. 

*  in  Roma,  CD, 

*  specie,  C  J). 

'  tubanti,  B.  ;  moventi,  CD. 
» Item  fuit,  CD. 

•  eo  ffiodo]  om.  CD.,  which  have 
qtus  following. 
1«  recens"]  om.  B. 
"  etiam]  om.  CD. 
*•  ibidem,  B. 
"  prope,  CD. 

^*frivolis  semper  kabundantes,CX>. 
**  suis  frivolis,  B. 
^^fuisse"]  fore,  A.E. 



i-made  an  hole*  vnder  fe  Ij^t  hj  ne})e,  |>afc  fe  ayer  my^te  Tkevisa. 

entre.     Me  seij)  fat  Tumus  slow  ]>is  geaunt  Pallas,  wban      

Eneas  fau^te  for  Lauin[i]a  J>at  was  Eneas  his  wjrf.  J)is2 
geauntes  epitaphium,^  fat  is,^  fe  writynge  of  mynde  of  bym 
fat  lay  fere,  was  suche  :  ^ 

Pallas  Euander  his  sone  lief  here : 
Hym  Tnmus  fe  kny^t  wij,  his  spere 
Slowe  in  his  manere* 

De  statuis  et  signis.  pere  was  at  Borne  a  bole^  of  bras 
in  fe  schap  of  lupiter  ouercast  and  schape  to  men  fat  loked 
f  eron  ;  fat  boole  semed  lowynge  and  startlinge*  pere  was 
also  f  e  ymage  of  Venus  al  naked  in  f  e  same  maaere  as  Venus 
schewed  hir  self  to  fat  man  Parish  somtyme,^  and  was  so 
craftliche  made  fat  in  f e  moufe  and  lippes,  fat  were  as 
white  as  eny»  snow,  semede  fresche  blood  and  newe.  pere 
is  also  at  Borne  a  wonder  copped  pilour,  and  is  Bomulus  pyler. 
pere  Bomulus  was  i-buried  faste  by  Seynt  Petres  chirche, 
pat  piler  pilgrims  and  palmers,  fat  faste  con  ^^  li^e,  clepef  it  *i 
seint  Petris  corn  hepe,^^  and  self  fat  whan  Kero  fe  emperour 
hadde  i-rauisched  it,  it  i^  turned  into  an  hil  of  stoon '  as  grete 
as  it  was  rafer,  whiles  it  was  corn.^*     Among  fe*^  pilers 

or  eny  other  humor,  tylle  they  made  a  subtile  hoole  ynder  MS.  ILlrl. 
hit  with  a  nelde,!®  where  thro  the  aier  commenge  thro  hyt     2261. 

causede  hit  to  be  extincte :  whom  a  knyihte  callede  Tumus      

did  flee,  when  Eneas  did  fi^hte  for  Lauin[i]a«  OftheYmages 
at  Bome^  There  was  an  ymage  of  Venus  made  in  Borne,  in 
that  similitude  as  sche  apperede  to  Parides,  whiche  was  made 
so  subtily  that  a  man  my^hte  see  in  that  ymage  as  bloode 
decurrente.  Also  another  off  brasse  transformede  in  to 
the  similitude  of  lupiter.  Also  there  is  the  grave  of 
Bomulus,  where  he  was  beryede,  nye  to  f  e  chirche  of  Seynte 
Petre,  whom  the  commune  peple  calle  the  hope  of  come 
of  Seynte  Petre,  whom  Nero  takenge  aweye  was  restorede 
in  to  the  state  of  hit  a  fore*    Amonge  the  beryalles  of  whom 

^  vfUo  the  fyme  that  ihere  was  made 
a  fyiil  hoole,  Cx. 

*  So  Cx.  (This)  ;  [)e»c,  MS.,  «. 

'  ^iftaphiumy   Cx.  $    ephitafiusny 
-MS.,  a. 

*  is  this,  Cx.  (withoat  sense). 
'^  suche']  this,  Cx. 

«&tt2Z?,  Cx. 

'  So  Cx. ;  Pcvres,  MS.,  o. 

« Cx.  adds  of  Troye, 

VOL,  I. 

*  ony,  Cx. 

w  can,  Cx. 

"  a  (not  Cx.)  oiaits  tV. 

"  com  huppie,  CJx. 

>*  tf]  hit,  C&.  (perhaps  consideiing 
the  aspirated  Ibrm  die  stronger). 

1«  as  grete  €ts  it  ilbas  b^ore  of 
come,  Cx. 

*'  aJle,  a.,  Cx. 

«  So  Harl.  MS. 




bilior  est  pyramis  Julii  CaBsaiis,  habens  in  altitudine  * 
ducentos  quiaquaginta  pedeis,  in  cujus  smnmo  fuit* 
spbsBra  a&nea  cineres  et  ossa  Julii  contiuens,^  De  quo 
colosseo  ^  quidam  metricus  ^  sic  ait : 

Si  lapis  est  unus,  die  qua  fuit  arte  levatus: 
Si  lapides  plures^  die  ubi  contigui. 

Hanc  autem  pyramidem  super  quatuor  leones®  fun- 
datam  peregrini  mendosi''  aeumi  beati  Petri  appellant, 
mentiunturque   iUum   fore®  mundum   a  peccajtis^  qui 


sub  saxo  illo  liberius  potuerit  repere,^^    Sunt  etiam  in 
De  caballig  Itoma  duo  magni  equi  marmorei  quorum  talis  redditur 

marmoreis.  o  *  x 

ratio.  Tempore  Tiberii  imperatoris,  duo  juvenes  philo- 
sophi,  Praxitellus  et  Fibia,"  venerunt  Romam,  quos 
cum  CsBsar  interrogasset  cur  nudi  incederent,  dixerunt, 
"  Quia  omnia  reliquimus^  et  qida  omnia  nobis  sunt  nuda 
"  et  aperta ;  etiam  ^*  quse  dixeris,  Caesar,  vel  clam  feceris, 

1  laUtudinef  C.(iu»tD.) 

2  est,  O.D. 

"  continentes,  C.D. 

*  colosseo]  om.  C.B. 

*  metricus]  om.  CD. 
^  aneos  added  in  CD. 
'  mendosi]  om»  OfD, 
^  mutidum  esse,  CD. 

*  pegnitenHanique  perfedam  egiase, 
added  i&  CD. 

w  BUghtly  alimd  in  CD, 
"  Fibu$^  C  (not  D.)  It  neems 
that  in  this  monstrons  legend  the 
persons  Intended  aire  the  sculptors 
Phidias  and  I^'axiteles.  Bee  Gre- 
gofovins»  Guschkht^  d$r  Stadt  Bom. 
vol.  iii.  pp.  404,  405,  (Bttiitgard» 

'^  etiam  egq.^  Slightly  altered  in 



luHus  Cesar  his  piler  is  most  wonderM  and  hftj?  in  heij»e  two  Trevisa. 

hondred feete  1  and  fifty;  in  fe  coppe  ferof  [in]^  a  rounde      

ping  of  bras,  wher  on  9  bee]>  lulius  Cesar  his  askes  and  his 
bones.4  Of  |>at  piler  in  an^  arche  beef  vers  i-write,^  pat 
be}>  )>us  to  menynge,  and  nameliche  of  pe  ouermest  stone: 

^if  pe  stone  is  oon,  telle  what  craft  brou^t  hym  yppon ; 
^if  meny  st[on]es,7  telle  where  pej  ioyne^  attones.® 

pis  arche  and  piler  is  i-fonnded  and  y-sette  vppon  fonre 
lyouns.  Filgryms  ful  of  lesynges  clepe]>  ])is  orche  and  piler 
Seynt  Fetres  nedle,  and  Hep  and  sei]»  p&t  ])at  ^^  man  is  clene 
of  dedely^^  synne  pat  n^ay  orepe  vnder  pat  stoon.  pere 
beej,  also  in  Borne  tweie  grete  horse  of  marbilstou :  for  in 
Tiberius  J>e  emperoures  "  tyme  twei  ^onge  philosofres^  Praxi- 
tellus  and  Fibia,  come  to  Rome,  and  ^ede  all  naked;  and 
whan  pe  emperour  axed  hem  ^  why  and  wher  fore  pey  tede^^ 
so  nakedj^  pel  answerde  and  seide:  ^'For  we  bwep  m  piBg  . 
'^  for  sake ;  ^^  and  for  all  ping  is  to  vs  naked  and  bare  and 
''  openlicl^e  i^pknowe ;  ^e,  sirQ  emperourey  and  all  pat  pow 
"  spekest  in  counsail  and  in  priuete  we  knowep  at  pe  ^^  beste." 
Treuiaa.    pe  firste  poynt  of  pis  dpynge  and  anawere  teohep 

the  beryalle  of  lulius  Cesar  dotha  excedo^  cont^yneugo  in  MS.  Hasl. 
altitude  cc.  and  l^  foote,  in  the  hUhte  of  whom  is  a  spere      ^^^^* 
of  brasse  conteynenge  the  bones  of  lulyus  Cesar,  of  whom  ^^T 
hit  is  seyde  in  metre, — ^If  that   ston  be  oon   say  in  what  QoUose. 
wyse  and  by  what  arte  hit  was  elevate  ;  if  there  be  mony 
stones  say  where  they  be  contiguate  or  ioynede  to  gedre. 
Mony  pilgremes  calle  that  beryalle  of  lulius  sette  on  iiij. 
lyones  made  of  brasse,  the  nelde  of  Seynte  Fetre.    Also  in 
Borne  be  ij.  grete  horses  made  off  marbole,  wbiche  were 
made  for  this  cause  folowenge.    In  the  iymo  of  Tiberius 
themperoure,  ij.  yonge  philosophres,  FraxiteUus    and  Fibia, 
come  to  Borne.    TiUs   inquiren^e   of  theyme  why  they 
wente  bare,  they  seyde,  For  we  haue  refusede  alle  thynges, 
and  alle  thynges  be  to  vs  bare  and  open  that  thow  seyes 

'  foot,  a,f  Cx. 

2  Added  firom  a.  and  Cx.  Pro- 
l>ably  is  is  the  true  reading. 

'  wher  on]  om.  Ox. 

*  So  MS.  and  a. ;  Ldius  Cezars 
bones  and  asshes,  Cx. 

^  in  an]  and,  a,  Cx. 

'  made,  a.,  Cx. 

^  stones f  a. ;  Andyfthe^  be  many 
stmes,  Cx»  (which  is  better  metre). 

®  joynel>,  a, 
*  at  ones,  Cx. 


t^lk,  Cx 
"  deddy]  om.  Cx. 
^  |>c  emperouresi  om.  Cx. 

I»  A,»,^  Cx. 

"  wente,  Cx.,  who,  however,  has 
yeden  just  before.  ' 

1^  forsaken  al  ihynge,  Cx. 
w  f  e]  om.  Cx, 

P  2 



"  nobis  patent/'  Qpod  cum  Caesar  verum  comperisset, 
ipsis  hoc  petentibus,  fecit  hoc  ^  memoriale,  duos  ^scilicet 
caballos  marmoreos.  Est  et  aliud  signum  ante  pala- 
tium  domini  Papse,  equus  seneus  et  sessor  ejus  manu 
dextra  quasi  populo*  loquens,  sinistraque  quasi  ^  fre- 
num  regens^  habens  avem  cuculam  inter  aures  equi  et 
nanum  quasi  moribundum/  sub  pedibus,^  quern  peregrini 
Theodoricum  vocant,  vulgus  Constantinum,  sed  clerici 
curiae  Marcum  seu  Quintum  Curtium  appellant.^  Hoc 
signum  antiquitus  sub  quatuor^  columnas  aereas  ante 
aram  Jovis  in  Capitolio  stabat,  sed  Beatus  Gregorius 
equitem  et  equum  dejecit,  et  colunmas  in  ecclesia 
Lateranensi  posuit,  Bomani  vero^  eqidtem  et  equum 
ante  palatium  papae  *  posuerunt.    Qui  Marcum  ilium  ^^ 

'populiSi  CD. 

^  qmsi\  om.  B. 

*  So  A«B.;  morbidum,  C.D.E, 

'  ^U8  a4ded  in  B.D. 

*  The  previous  sentence  is  slightly 
altered  in  CD. 
^  super  deeemy  C.D« 
®  sedHomani,  B. 
^  domini  papa,  D. 
>•  iUud,  C. 



fat  who*  forsake])  all  pjng  forsakef  all  his  clojies;  and  so  Tkbvisa. 

it  folowej»  fat  fey  fat  beef  wel  i-clof ed  and  goof  aboute      

and  beggef  and  gaderef  money  and  com  and  catel  of 
of  er  men  ^  forsakef  nou^t  al  f  ing.^  pe  emperour  assaied 
and  founde  soof  all  fat  fey  seide^  and  at  here  prayer^ 
made  in  mynde  of  hem  tweie  gi*eet  hors  ^  of  marbel.  pere 
is  anof  ere  signe  and  tokene  to  fore  ^  f  e  popes  paleys  ;  an 
hors  of  bras  and  a  man  sittynge  f eron  and  halt  his  ^ 
ri^t  hond  as  f  ou^  he  spake  ^  to  f  e  peple  ;^  and  halt  his  ^ 
bridel  in  his  lift  hand^  and  haf  a  cnkkow  by  twene  his  hors 
eres  and  a  seek  *^  dwerf  vnder  his  horse  *^  feet.  Pilgrims 
clepef  fat  man  Theodoricus,  and  fe  comouns  clepef  hym 
Constantinus.  But  clerkes  of  fe  court  clepef  hym  Marcus 
and  Quintas  Curtius  also,  pis  signe  stood  somtyme  to  fore 
lupiters  au^ter  ^^  in  f  e  Capitol  vppon  foure  ^^  pilars  of  bras  ; 
but  Seynt  Gregorie  f rewe  doun  hors  and  man  and  sette  ^^ 
f e  pilers  in  Seint  lones  chirche  fe  Lateranensis.  But  f e 
Bomayns  toke  hors  and  man  and  sette  hem  to  fore  f  e  popes 
paleys,    pey  fat  clepef  hym  Marcus  tellef  fis  skile  and^* 

or  dose  priuely.     Themperoure  knowenge  that  to  be  trewe  MS.  Habl. 

at  the  desire  of  theyme   made  that  memorialle  for  theyme,      2261. 

that  is  to  say,  ij.  bare  horses  of  marbole.    Also  there  was      """^ 

an  other   signe  a  fore  the  palice  of  the  pope,  whiche  is 

an  horse  made  of  brasse,  and  the  sitter  on  hit  as  spekenge 

to  the  peple  by  the  signe  of  the  ry^hte  honde,  and  gouemenge 

the  horse  as  with  the  lyfte  honde,  hauenge  a  brydde  callede 

a  cukkowe  made  betwene  the  eeres  of  the  horse,  and  Nanus 

lyke  to  dye   vnder  his  feete,  whom  pilgremes  calle   Theo-  f.  39  b. 

doricus,  the  commune  peple  Constantyne,  but  clerkes  of  the 

cowrte  calle  hit   Marcus  or  Quintus  Curtius.     That  signe 

stode  somme  tyme  on  iiij.  pyUers  of  brasse  a  fore  the  awter 

of  lupiter  in  the  Capitoly  or   chiefe  place   of  Rome.    But 

Seynte  Gregory  put  downe  the  horse  man  and  that  horse, 

and  putte  fiie    pillars  in  the  chirche  Lateranense.      The 

Romanes  toke  the   horse   man  and  the  horse,  and  sette  hit 

before  the  palyce  of  the  pope.    Men  callenge  hyt  Marcus 

*  ]>at  who  i»at,  ce. 

^  \nng  before  men  in  MS.  (not  a. 
^  Be&rence  to  V»-  added  in  Cx. 

*  cwenprayeTy  Cx. 

*  horsesy  Cx. 
-    *  by/ore,  Cx. 

'  hoMetkf  Cx.  (twice.) 

*  speke,  a. 

9  pie,  "MS. 
*•  sike, «. 
11  horie^  om.  Cx. 
1*  awlter,  Cx. 
"  the  four,  Cx. 

"  Cx.  omits  the  seventeen  words 
1^  skile  arid]  om.  Cx. 



appellant  hatio  caiiBam  assignaat.  Ex  genere  Messe- 
noratn  corpore  qtiidam  nanus  Bed  arte  nigromanticus, 
cum  jSnitamos  dbi  reges  subjugasset^  Bomanog  aggressus 
est,  quibus  ^  virtutem  feriendi  ^  ademit.  Unde  ^  et  ipsos 
in  urbe  eonclusos  diu  obsedit*^  Nanus  ^  nempe  ille 
quotidie    ante   soils  occasum^    extra  castra  egrediens 

artem  suam  in  agro'  excercoii®  Quo*  comperto  Eo- 
mani  strenuo  militi  Marco  urbis  dominium  et '®  memo- 
riale  perpetuum  promiserunt,  si  urbem  liberarei  At 
ille  muro  urbis  ex  ilia  parte  perforato,  qua  nanus 
solebat  praestigiari,"  de  ^^  nocte  ^^  exiens'mane  **  expecta- 
bat  '*  quod  et  ^^  cuculus  avis  ^^  denunciabat  ^'^  ^®  voce 
sua^  Arreptum  nanum,  quern  armis  non  poterat,  manu 
in  urbem  deportabat;    et  ne,  si  fandi   copiam  haberet, 

^  qui  virtHtCy  O. )  qui  mrtutem^  D. 
^  et  artem  secandi  arte  sua  penituSf 
added  in  C.B. 
.3  Dhde']  om*  A» 

*  Transposed  in  C  J). 
^  Denique  magus  iSe,  C.D. 

*  wtum^  Off  eeeaaum  solis^  A. 
^inaigro]  magicam^B. 

*  ^e  preiions  sentence  slightly 
altered  in  CD. 

« Hoc,  D, 

>•  «0  in,  A. 

"  prastagiari,  B. 

^^  de, .,  avis]  exspectatoque . . 


"  nocteque,  C.  $  noetey  (quid  ?)  D 

"  maneque,  CD. 

'*  exspeetato,  A.O.D. 

•«cq  om.  CD. 

>'  denundavii,  C  (not  D.) 

"  noctef  added  in  CD. 




resoun,    pere  was  a  dwerf  ^  of  p$  kjnrede  of   Mesenis ;  Tbeviisa. 

his  craft  was  nigremansi.^    Whan  he  hadde   so  conquered      

kynges  fat  woned  hym  nyh,s  and  made  hem  soget  to  hym, 
an  he  wente  to  Rome  to  werre  wi]>  Romayns,^  and  wij> 
is  craft  he  byname  fe  Romays*^  power  and  mytt  for  to 
smyte,  and  so  ®  byseged  hem  long  tyme  i-elosed  wifynne  "pe 
citee.  pis  dwerf  ^ede^  eche  day  to  fore  pe  sonne  risynge 
in  to  pQ  feld  for  to  doo  his  craft,  Whanne  pe  Romaynes 
had  aspied^  )>at  manere  doynge  of  )>at  dwerf,  pey  speke 
to  Marcus  a  noble  kny^t,  and  byhiZt  hym  lordschippe  of 
pe  citee  and  a  memoryall^  in  mynde  for  euermore,  ^if  it 
were  his  wille  to  helpe  hem  and  saue^^  pe  citee,  pan 
Marcus  made  *^  an  hole  J)orwe  pe  wal  toward  pe  place ; 
fere  i^  pe  dwerf  was  woned  to  worche  and  vse  pe  sotilte 
of  his  craft.  And  Marcus  rod  oute  at  fat  place  forw  pe 
wal,  longe  or  it  were  day,  for  to  abyde  his  tyme  to  caccne 
pe  dwerf,  anon  as  it  were  day.  And  whan  it  was  tyme,  pe 
kukkow  Bong  and  wamede  hym  of  pe  day.  pan  Marcus  ^ 
resede  too,  and  for^^  i^q  my^te  nou^t  hitte  pe  dwerf  wif 
wepoun,  he  kau^te  hym  wif  his  honde,  and  bare  hym  in  to 
fe  citee.    And  for  drede  lest  he  wolde^^  ^elpe  hymself  wif^ 

assigne  this  cause*  A .  man  caUede  Nanus,  erudite  in  the  MS.  Hasl. 
arte  of  nigromancy,  whiche  subduenge  to  hym  mony  kynges  2261. 
and  realmes  wente  to  the  Romanes,  takenge  a  weye  from 
theyme  the  vertu  of  smytenge  and  kyttenge,  segede  theyme 
longe  schutte  with  in  the  cite.  This  Nanus  wente  from  his 
felowschippe  erly  in  the  mornenge  afore  the  rysenge  of  the 
Sonne,  and  put  his  arte  in  exercise  ;  whiche  thynge  percey- 
vede,  the  Romanes  made  promise  to  Marcus,  a  nowble  kny^hte, 
that  he  scholde  haue  predominy  of  the  cite,  and  a  per- 
petualle  memory  if  he  cowthe  delyuer  that  cite.  Marcus 
pereschenge  the  walle  of  the  cite  on  that  parte  where  Nanus 
vsede  the  arte  of  nigromancye  goenge  furthe  on  the  ny^hte 
taryede  for  Nanus  yntylle  the  morowe,  whom  a  brydde 
callede  a  cuckowe  schewede  by  here  voyce ;  whiche  takenge 
hym  brou^hte  hym  in  to  the  cite,  whiche  Mlenge  down  amonge 

'  dwarf,  Cx. 

^  nigromancy,  a. ;  nygromaneiei  Ox. 

^  dtoeUyd  nygk  him,  Cx.     ■ 

*  the  Momojfns,  a.,  Cx. 
^  Biomayns,  a,,  Cx. 

*  sd\  om.  Cx. 
'  wente,  Cx. 

®  espied,  Cx. 

^  memory  aU,  M^.;  memorial,  Cx.; 
a  agrees  apparently  with  MS. 

^^  mfhe  woMedtfende  hem  andsaue^ 

»  So  Cx. ;  at,  MS. 

i!*  Probably  we  should  read 
where.  Cx.  has  large  omissions 

»»  Marhus,  MS. 

"  hycause,  Cx. 

«  shMe,  Cx. 



arte  sua  se  forsaa'  Uberaret,  statim  sub  pedibus  equi 
sui®  contrivit;  uade  et'  tale  memoriale  promeruit.* 
Qui  vero  Quintum  Curtium  illud  vocant  hoc  assiguant, 
qudd  hiatus  quidam  in  media  urbe^  patuit  sulphurea 
exhaiatione  multos  peiimens ;  in  quern,  responso  Phoebi^ 
accepto,  Quintus  Curtius,  ut  urbem  '  liberaret,  armatus 
se  dejecit;  et  statim  cuculus  avis^  de  hiatu  illo^ 
exivit,  et  terra  se  eonclusit  Aliud  signum  est  '^  imago 
Colossei  quam  statuam  SoKs  aut  ipsius  "  Eomse  dicunt, 
de  quo  mirandum  est  quomodo  tanta  moles  fundi  ^^ 
potuit  aut  erigi,  cum  lougitudo  ejus  sit  centum  viginti 
sex  pedum.  Fuit  itaque^®  hsec  statua  aliquando**  in 
insula  Rhodi  ^^  quindecim  pedibus  altior  eminentioribus 
locis  Bomss.  Hsec  statua  sphsaram  ^®  in  '^  specie  mundi 
'®manu  dextra,  et  gladium  sub  specie  virtutis  bellicse 
'®manu  sinistra  gerebat,  in  signum  quod   minoris  vir- 

^/orsUanf  B.;  si  forsan,  A. 

*  sui]  om.  CD, 
»  eQ  om.  CD. 

*  meruit,  CD. 

^  So  B. ;  m  iir5e,0*B. ;  urbe  omitted 

^  plehem,  C  (not  D.) 
"  cuculus  avis']  biatus  in  B.,  filled 
up  in  pencil  by  a  modem  hand. 
'  de  hiatu  itto]  om.  CD. 

**  esq  cm.  B. 
"  ipsius']  ipsi,  B. 
»*  infundi,  C  (notD.) 
^*  itaque]  SoB. ;  o/igtcancfoyCD. ; 
^*  aUquando]  om.  CD. 
"  Haredii,  B.;  Herodii,  A,CDJB. 
>0  speram,  MSS. 
"  sub,  CD. 
^*  inmanUf  B.GJ).  (twice.> 


his  craft,  and  he  moste  ^  speke,  he  threw  hym  vndir  his  ^  Tbbvi&a. 

hors  feet,  and  p&  hors  all  to  trade  hym.    And  herefore  fat 

image  was  i-made  in  mynde  *  of  J>is  dede.  pey  fat  clepef 
fat  signe  an  4  ymage  Quintus  Curtius,  tellef  f is  skille  and 
resoun:  pere  was  somtyme  in  fe  myddel  of  Eome  a  greet 
chene  *  in  fe  erf e ;  out  of  fat  chene  ^  come  smoke  ^  and 
brymston,  and  slow  ®  many  man.^  panne  Quintus  Curtius 
took  counseil  of  Phebus,  and  armed  hym,  and  auntrede  hym 
hym  in  to  fe  chene  ;^  fanne  anon  fleigh  a  cukkow  out  of 
fati^  chene.^  pan  fe  erfe  closed  to  gidres,  and  so  fe 
chene®  was  i-stopped.  Anofer  signe  is  Colossus  ^^  ymage,  fat 
is  i«>cleped  also  f  e  ymage  of  f  e  Sonne,  ofer  of  Rome,  pere 
is  grete  wonder  how  it  my^te  be  i-iote^2  ofer  arered,  fe 
ymage  is  so  grete*  pe  lengf  ferof  is  sixe  score  foot  and  sixe. 
pis  ymage  was  somtyme  in  fe  ylond  Rhodus,i^  fiftene  foot 
hi^ere  fan  fe  hi^est  place  of  ^*  Borne*  pis  ymage  bare  in  his 
riit  hond  a  spere  ^^  al  round  i-schape  as  f  e  world,  and  in 
his  lift  hand  a  swerd  fat  tokenef  ^®   my^t  of  bataille ;   in 

the  feete  of  the  horses  supposede  to  have  delyuerede  hym  MS.  Hahl 

by  his  arte  ;  wherefore  Marcus  hade  that  memorialle.     Men      ^^^* 

that  calle  hit  Quintus  Curtius  17  assigne  this  reason,  seyenge      ^~" 

that  there   was   a  place  open  in  the  myddes   of  the   cite 

pereschenge   mony  men    as  with   a   brethe  of  sulphure,  an 

answere  ^iffen  to  the  peple  that  hit  wolde  not  be  schutte 

vn  tylle  that  a  man  felle  in  to  hit  voluntarily.     Then  Quintus 

Curtius  ^7  armenge  hym  felle  in  to  hit  to  delyuer  the  cite  5 

that  doen,  a  cul^o  did  flye  owte  from  that  pytte,  and  the 

erthe  was  closed  anoon.    An  other   signe   is   an  ymage  of 

Colossus,!^  whom  they  seye  to  be  the  ymage  of  the  sonne 

or  elles  of  the  cite  of  Bome^  of  whom  hit  is  to  be  meruaylede 

how  that  so  hevy  a  thynge  my^hte  be  soe  erecte,  sythe  hit 

is  in  longitude  of  c.  foote  and  xxvi'^ ;   whiche  ymage  was 

somme  tyme   in  the  yle  of  Bhodus,^^  whiche  was  more  hie 

in  altitude  by  xv.  foote  then  eny  place  of  the  cite.     That 

ymage  hade   in  the  ry^hte  honde  of  hit  a  rownde  thynge 

after  the  similitude  of  f  e  worlde,  and  a  swerde  in  the  signe 

of  batelle  in  the  lifte    honde,  in  token    that  hit  is  lessef.40.a. 

'  i(fhe  myghty  Cx.  "  K  «. 

2  tfte,  Cx.  li  CoHoseus,  MSS.  and  Cx. 

«  remembraunce,  Cx.  12  yofc«,  Cx. 

*  and,  a.,  Cx.  13  fferodius,  MSS.  and  Cx. 

*  chjifte  or  hoole,  Cx, 

*  hool,  Cx.,  and  so  beloir. 
^  smookf  Cx. 

"  slewey  Cx. 
^  men,  a. 

"  in,  Cx. 

«  So  the  MSS.  andCx.for^A«rc. 

'*  bytokenethy  Cx. 

*^  CursiuSf  Harl.  MS.  (twice.) 



tutis  est  qua^rere  quam  quaasita  turn.  Haac  quidem^ 
statua  90rea^  sed  impariali  auro  deaurata^  per  tenebras 
radiabat  continuo^^  et  (Bquali  motu  cum  solo  circum- 
ferebatur,  semper  solari  corpori^  feciem  gereiis  oppo- 
sitam,  quam^  cuncti  Bomani  adveMentes  ^  in  signum 
subjectionis  adorabant.  Hanc  •  Beatus  Gregoritis/  ctim 
viribus  non  posset,  igne  supposito  destruxit;*  ex  quo 
aolummodo  caput  oum  manu  dextra  spheeram  tenente 
incendio  superftiit,  quae  nunc^  ante  palatium  domini 
PapsB  super  *^  duas  columnas  marmoreas  visuntur.^^ 
Miro^^  quoque  modo  ars  ftisilis  adhuo  in  aere  rigido 
moUes  mentitur  capillos,  et  os  loquenti^^  fiimillimum 
pisafert.**  Po2.,  Uhro  secuTido}^  Ad  venustanidam 
urbis^'  majestatem  moliebrem  formam,  qua3  orbem 
dextra*''  contineret,  in  sens  materia  fieri  fecerant;*^ 
qua  perfecta  quidam  solas  tibias  tantas  moU  perfe- 
rendae  insufficientes  sunt  ^^  causati^  quiblis  faber  statusB 

'  qmdem]  om.  CD. 

3  sperm,  &  (not  D.) 

*hanc,  C.B. 

^  v'enientes  flexis  genihm  adora^ 

hantf  CJ>. 
^pastmodtan,  added  in  CD. 
'  Papa^  added  in  CD. 
^  combwsit,  C  J>* 
^  etiam  nunc,  D. 
w  int/er,  C  (not  D.) 
^^  vinciuatur,  B. 
12  Miroque,  A»O.P* 

"  loquentis,  C.  (not  D.) 

•♦  profsrt,  bj>. 

'*  So  A. ;  PKniuSy  Ubr0  sec.,  E. ; 
i\>f{.,/i5rol^B.  The  trae  refetence 
is  to  Johan.  Saresb.  Po^^amt  lib.  ii. 
c.  15.  Be&rence  omitted  in  CD. 

"or&w,  C  (not  D.) 

"  dextra  orhem,  B^ 

■^The  previous  clause  slightly 
altered  and  transposed  in  C J). 

^^insufficientes  caustibant,  gtHbus 
faber  respondit,  CD. 



tokeynge  ^  ]iat  fin  ^  is  lasse  maiBtrie,  to  wjnne  and  to  con-  Tbevisa. 
quere,  fan  it  is  to  kepe  and  to  saue  J>at  fat  is  conquered  "^^ 
and  i-wonne*  pis  ymage  was  of  bras;  but  it  was  eo 
rialliche  ouer  gilt,  pat  it  scboon^  in  derknes^  and  taf 
grete  bemes  of  ^  li^t ;  also  it  moned  ^  aboute  wif  ]>e  itotine 
in  suche  a  manere  fat  alway  bis  face  was  toward  f e  sonne. 
Alio  fe  Romaynes  fat  come  fereby  worschipped  fat 
ymage  in  wey^  of  subieccioun  and  of  fraldom.  Seynt 
Gregorie  destroyed  fat  ymage  wif  fuyre,  for  he  my^te 
noui^t  destroye  it  wif  strengfe.  Of  fat  ymage  is  onlicbe 
i-leffc  f e  hede  and  the  ri^t  bond  boldynge  f e  spere, 
fat  is  f e  roundenesse  and  f e  liknesse  of  f  e  world  ;  for  of  al 
fat  ymage  lefte  ^  namore  vnbrend.  But  ®  fat  hede  and  fat 
bond  beef  now  to  fore  fe  popes  palays  vppon  fe^  tweie 
pilers  of  marbll ;  and  wonderliche  by  craft  of  ^etynge  ^^  fat 
bras  is  i-^ote,  fat  fe  beer  semeT>  nescbei^  to  a  manis  si^t, 
and  fe  mouf  as  fey  it  were  spekynge.  Po/tcr.,**  libro 
secundo.  For  to  hi^te  f  e  noblete  of  f  e  ^^  citee  f  e  Bomaynes 
made  a  wommans  ymage  in  bras ;  fat  ymage  helde  in  his  i^ 
bond  a  spere  f e  schap  ^^  of  f e  world  wyde.  And  whan  f e 
ymage  was  made^  hem  semede  fat  f e  legges  were  to  feble 
for  to  here  suche  an  ymage  ;  it  was  so  grete  and  so  huge. 

vertu  to  gete  then  to  kepe  thynges  y-geten.    That  ymage  MS.  Harl. 
was  made  of  brasse,  but  hit  was  ouer  gilte  with  golde  impe-     226U 
rialle,  schynenge  contynuaUy  in  derkenesse,  movenge  egally      — ~* 
with  the  son  in  his  circumference,  hade  the  face  of  hit  con- 
trarious  alleweyes  to  the  body  of  the  sonne ;  whom  aUe 
Romanes  worschippede  in  a  signe  of  subieccion,  whom  Seynte 
Gregory  destroyede  with  fyre ;  of  whiohe  ymage  the  hede  and 
ry^hte  honde  remaynede,  whiche  be  sette  now  afore  the  palice 
off  the  pope  on  ij.  pyllers  of  marbole.    Policronicofi,  libra  2^, 
The  Romanes  made   an  ymage  of  a  woman,  to  make  feire 
the  maieste  of  the  cite,. in  brasse  ;  whiche  performede,  mony  i 

men  seyde  the  legges  of  that  ymage  to  be  insufficiente  to 
here  suche  a  burden.    To  whom  the  smythe  that  made  hit 

>  token,  a.f  Cx. 
2  hit,  a.,  Ox. 
'  shone,  Cz. 

*  of]  Added  from  a.  and  Cx. 
^  meoitede,  a, ;  meued^  Cx« 
®  tokene,  a.,  Cx. 

'  is,  or  rather  was,  miut  be  inserted 
before  kfte, 
^  But^  om.  o.,  Cx. 

•  f>e]  om.  a. 
'^  milting,  Cx. 

"  softe,  Cx. 

1«  Poliei^., «. 

"  this,  Cx, 

^*  hir,  Cx. ;  but  perhaps  bia  own 

»s  So  «.  and  Cx.  j  scharpest,  MS. 
(not  understanding  spere). 


respondit  eas^  usque  quaque  sufficere'-^  donee  virgo*^ 
pareret.  Quod  et  fadjum  est  in  Christi  nativitate.^ 
Qregoriu8.^  Juxta  palatium  Vespasiani,  ubi  sus®  alba 
de  Pario  lapide  cum  triginta  porceUis  aquam  abluendis 
prsBbet,  esf  tabula  senea  peccatum  prohibens,  ubi 
scripta  sunt  potiora  legis  praecepta ;  et  scribuntur  ^  ibi 
quasi  aphorismi  metrici,  quorum  ®  sententiae  supple- 
mentum  pene  subintelligitur.     Versus :  *^ 

Gallus  ibi  quanquam  "  per  noetem  tinnipet  omnem, 
Sed  sua  vox  nulli  ^^  jure  ^^  placere  potest. 

Dulce  pelora  sonat^  quam  dicunt  nomine  troscam/* 
Sed  fugiente  die  ilia  quieta  manet. 

Et  merulus  ^^  modulans  tarn  pulcbris  zinzitat  ^^  odis, 
Nocte  ruente  timet,  cantica  nulla  canit. 

Vjere  calente  novo  componit  acredula  cantus, 
Matutinali  tempore  ruricolans. 

» mas,  CD. 
^  sufficeresy'E, 
^  virgo]  om.  B. 

*  nam  tunc  corruit^  added  in  C.t>. 
^  Gregcrius]  om.  B. 

*  versus  albam,  C,  (not  D.) 
'  iW,  C.  (not  D.) 

^  Scribuntur  etianif  C. ;  scribuntur 
autem,  D. 

*  omnia  /ere  verba  subinteUigun' 
tur,  CD. 

"  Versus']  om.B. 

"  So  B. ;    quemquam^   A.C.I>.£. 
and  Trevisa. 

»2  affi,  C.  (not  D.) 
"  virOf  B. 

"  guodam,  C.  (not  D.) 
"  moruUs,  B. 

"  indtat,  B.  ;  zinzaht  is  perhaps 
the  true  reading.    See  Dn  Cange. 


Bot  |>e  craftes  men,  fat  it  made,  answered  and  seide :  pe  Trevisa. 
legges  schal  dure  alway,  and  bere  f e  ymage  at  fe  beste,  — ■ 
and  neuere  faille,  for  to!  a  mayde  bere  a  childe.  But  fe 
legges  faillede,  and  ye  ymage  fel  ^  down,  whan  Crist  was 
i-bore.  Faste  by  V  espasianus  his  paleys  is  a  stone  fat 
hatte  Parius,  [and  is  why^te  marbil ;  and  hatte  Parius]  ^  for 
suche  a  stoon  is  i*digged  in  fe  ilond  fat  hatte  Pares,  In 
fat^  stoou  is  i-corue  a^  white  sowe  wif  fritty  pigges,  fat 
fyndef  *  water  to  hem  fat  wol  wasche.'^  pere  is  also  a 
table  of  bras  fat  forbedef  synne ;  f erynne  beef  i-write  f e 
chief  poyntes  of  fe  lawe  ;  fere  beef  i-write  as  fere  were 
rules  in  metre.  p6  menynge  ferof  is  vnderstonde  in  fis 
writynge,  fat  folwef  next : 

Euerich  ny^t,  fere®  a  cok 
Wakef  som  man,  or  it  dawe; 
All  his  song  in  a  flok 
May  like  no  man  by  f  e  lawe. 

Whan  somer^  is  hote 

prosteP<>  syngef  wif  mery  note. 

Whan  f  e  day  gof  away, 

pe  brid"  is  stille,  and  leuef  his  lay. 

In  towne,  as  it  longes, 

pe  osul  twyteref  mery  songes. 

At  ny^t  for  drede 

Truly  no  song  dof  he  grede. 

Whan  floures^^  springef  on  rote, 
pe  ny^tyngaJe  in  his  note 
Twyteref  wel  fawnyng 
Wif  fuU  swete  song  in  f  e  dawenyng. 

^afe    answere    and  seyde,  that  the  ymage   scholde  stonde  MS.  Habl. 
tylle  that  a  mayde  scholde  be  delyuerede  of  a  childe,  whiche      ^^^^* 
felle  down  in  the  natiuite  of  Criste.  Nye  to  the  place  and      """ 
palyce  of  Vespasian,  where  a  whyte  sowe  made  of  ston  with 
xxx^  pygges  ^iffe  the  water  to  thynges  to  be  waschen,  is 
a  table  of  brasse   prohibetenge   synne,  where  the  mythty 
preceptes  of  the  lawe  bene  wryten. 

3  Words  in  brackets  added  fix>m 
a. ;  absent  fi^m  Cx,,  who  has  other 

*  pat"]  Added  fiom  a.  and  Ox. 

s  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  i  eomere  white,  MB. 

«  giue,  Cx. 

'  Cx.  adds  Aere. 

®  where,  Cx. 

'  So  cu  ;  somBf  MS. 

"  the  throstle,  Cx. 

"  birde,  Cx. 

^^flmre,  Cx. 



Cum  tardus*  tritulat/  sturnus  tunc  pausitat  ore; 
Sed^  quod*  mane  cammt  vespere  non  recolunt 

Cap.  XXV. 

De  qmbvsda/m  Moinaruyrum^  institutis. 

Iddarua,  libro  octavo  deoimo,  eapitulo  de  tri^ 
umphisy^  et  Hugutio,  eapitulo  Trie?  Venienti  ®  duci, 
regi,  consul!,  sive  imperatori  post  insignem  victoriam 
ad  urbem  Romam  ^  triumplius  parabatur,  id  est,  honor 
triplex  triumphanti  **  exhibebatiir.  Nam  totus  popu- 
lus  cum  exultatione  varia  exibat"  obviam  victori, 
Captivi  quoque  ^^  sequebantur  currum  ejus  '^  ligatis 
post  terga  manibus,  et  ipse  victor  induebatur  tunica 
Jovis  in  ^*  curru  sedens,  quern  trahebant  quatuor  equi 
albi  usque  *^  ad  Capitolium:  unde  Ovidius: 

Quatuor  in  niveis,  Caesar,  abibis***  equis. 

Hanc  tamen  ferebat  ^^'  *®  molestiam  sic  honoratus,  ne  *® 
sui  ipsius  obliyisceretur,  quia  cum  eo  ponebatur  servus 

'  Hmidus  tmctdat,  B. 
*  tUnlat,  0. ;  tniiilat^  B. 

»  Ety  CB. 

^  qua^  B. ;  %,  A. 

^  obaervantHs  et,  added  in  C. ;  oh- 
s^fvantiis  in  plaee  of  institutiSfiy, 

"  capituh  de  triumphis]  om.  B. 

'  de  tris,  CB.  The  title  of  Ha- 
gatio's  section  is  tres  vel  tiis. 

®  Venienti]  om.  C.B. 

^  redeunti,  added  in  C  J)« 

^^  iriumphantl}  am*  CB. 

"  exibant,  C. 

«  etiam,  C.B. 

"  tdctaris,  C J). 

"««]  oni,  B. 

^^  et  aie  ditcebatwr  ad^  CJ)« 

>«  ahihii,  C.  %  abihqi^  9,  The  tme 
veading  1«  mreu»  Um,  (Ovid.  1  ^m. 

^^  patiebatur^  C.B, 

"  flimc . .  .ferebat']  Attpmen  mo- 
'  lestia,  B. 

^  nofR  aliquit  BvmUU  oimdkionis 
uden9  in  curru  jugiter  eoktphixftbat 
trtumphantem^  sic  di^ens,  ffodiUfgeH' 
ft»,  ^c,y  C.B, 



J>ral  maki]>  his  fare, 

Wip  mouth  fan  cheterej> '  }>e  stare. 

Of  morwe  song  kynde 

pey  haueth  at  eue  no  mynde. 

Capitulum  vieesimum  quintum, 
De  guibusdam  JRomanorum  institutis  et  obseruaniiis. 

IsidoruSy  Et^m.,  libro  octavo  decimOy  cap,  de  triumphiSy  et 
HugutiOy  cap.  Tris,  Whan  duke,  kyng,  consul,  ojier  empe- 
rour  hadde  i-doo  greet  viage^  and  victorie,  and  come  into 
Rome,  at  his  comynge  he  schulde  wif  3j,re  manere  wor- 
achippe  be  vuderfonge."^  Al  ]»e  peple  schulde  come  a^enst 
hym  wi]>  all  J)e  solempne  ^  merfe,  comforte,  and  ioye  fat  fey 
koufe  make;  alle  fe  prisoneres  schulde  folwe  fe^  chaar 
wif  hire  hondes  i-bounde  byhynde  her  bakkes  ;  f  is  victor 
hym  self  schulde  were  on  lupiter  his  cote  and  sitte  in  ^  a 
chaar  fat  fyue  white  hora  schulde  drawe  anon  to^  fe 
Capitol,    perof  spekef  Ouidius  : 

Wif  foure  hors  all  snowe  white 
pou  nchalt,  sire  Emperour,  w^nde. 

Xit  among  all  fis  worschippe,  for  h^  schulde  not  fbr^ete 
hym  self,  fis  onnuy  ^  he  hadde :  a  ch^rle  was  wif  hym  in 


Of  somme    institutes  and   obseruaunces    of  the  Romanes,  MS.  Hahl. 
Isidarusy  Et^mologiarufn  libro  octavo  deeimo,  eapitulo     2261. 

Triumphusy   et   HugutiQ^   capitulo    Tri$.      Capitulum      

vteesimum  quintum. 

A  triplicate  bonc»r  was  ^iffen  to  a  kynge^  duke^  consul, 
or  'emperoure  hauenge  victory,  in  his  commenge  to  the 
cite  of  Borne ;  for  the  peple  wente  fiirthe  to  mete  the 
victor  with  variable  gladdenesse,  the  charyette  of  whom  men 
putto  in  captiuite  folowede,  theire  hondes  bownde  behynde 
the  backes  of  theyme.  Also  the  victor  was  indueda  with  the 
coote  of  lupiter,  syttenge  in  a  charyette  whom  ii^,  white 
horses  didde  draw@  to  fe  Capitoly.^^^  A  victor  tbas  bade  in 
honor  9uffi:odo  m  of  er  grevaunce,  fat  b$  sebold^  not  forgeta 
bym  «olff ,  m  iijo  cbsryetto  of  whom  a  noniaTOto  of  Tile  con- 

•  tmtOy  Cx, 

*  So  MS.  and  a.  $  this  one  annoy ^ 

^^io  be  Capitofy,  added  in  the 
margin,  apparently  by  the  original 

*  ckitertih,  Cx 

^  don  (my  grete  voyam^  Cx. 

*  re  before  >re  in  IdfS.  (not  a.) 

*  teceymd,  Gx» 
^  soUnmUi  vk, 

«  hisy  Cx. 
'  <m,  a.,  Cx» 



in  eodem  curru,  qui  jugiter  colaphizaret  triumphan- 
tem;  et  hoc  duplici  de  causa,  ne  scilicet  triumphans 
nimis  *  ex  tali  gloria  superbiret,  et  etiam  *  ut  daretur 
spes  cuique^  probo  pervexdendi  ad  consimilem  hono- 
rem,  si  probitas  sua  hoc  promereretur.  Colaphizans 
vero  s8Bpius  dicebat  triumphanti  '^Tvwii  o-gawToV,"* 
id  est,  Tiosce  teipsv/m,,  quasi  diceret,  **  Noli  superbire 
"  de  tanto  honore/^*  Et  eo^  die  licuit'  unicuique  de 
populo  dicere  victori®   impune   quicquid  vellet.    XJnde 

et  Julio  ^  triumphanti  multse  dicebantur  contumeliae,*® 
nulla  tamen  ^^  ultione  subsequente.  Nam  a  quodam 
dicebatur,  *'  Salve,  calve  f  et  ab  alio,  "  Ave,  Kex  et 
"  Regina/*  Ranulpkus.  Vide  infra  de  Julio  Caesare.  In 
vita  Joha/mds  Eleemoayna/n/iP  Quando  imperatores  co- 
ronabantur,  venerunt  ad  eos  ssdificatores  monumentorum, 
inquirentes  ^^  de  quali  metallo  "  seu  lapide  Caesar  vellet 
suum  moniunentum"  fieri,  quasi  diceret,  ^'  Corruptibilis  es, 
*^  pie  regnum  dispone/'  jffitgftt*io,  copituio  CTartts.  Quan- 
do Eomani  bellum  ^^  indicere  volebant,  accedebat  aliquis 

^  mmis  d&eT  gloria,  B* 

^  etiam']  om.  B« 

^  cuieumque,  B.£. 

^  ^othissUitoSi  A.;  Nothiselites,  B. ; 
No^isselitoSfCS),;  NiehoeselUoSy'E, 

^  C,D,iikjis:  Hoc  autem  duplici  fie- 
bat  de  causa f  ne  videlicet  triumphane 
sui  ipsiits  chlimsceretur,  et  ut  daretur 
spes  cuicumque  proho  simikm  hono- 
rem  consequeftdi. 

'  licuit  after  populOy'B, 
®  triumphanti,  CD. 

^  CdBsari  aliguotiens  sic^  added  in 

'^  multa  dicehantvsr  conviHa,  CD. 

^^  absque  vUa,  CD. 

^^  1^  • . .  JElemo8i9iari{\  om.  CD. 
which  have,  in  place  of  it,  Valerius. 
The  text  is  ooirect.  See  Jac  de 
Vora^.  Leg,  Auk  c.  27.  (p.  130.  ed. 
Lips.  Id50.) 

^*  dicentes,  C 

^*  seu  marmore  jubet  vestra  domr 
natio  monumentum  fieri,  CD. 

"  cuiquam  provincuB,  CD. 


his  chare^  and  smote  hym  all  wey  in  fe  nekke ;  and  J>at  Trbvisa. 
for  tweye  skiUes  ;  J?at  oon  was,  for  he  schulde  nou^t  be  — — 
pronde  of  ]>at  gi*eet  worschippe ;  fat  oJ>er  skile  was,  for 
euerich  man  schulde  hope  to  come  to  pat  worschippe,  ^if 
he  made  hym  self  worfy  by  his  dedes.  While  pe  cherle 
smoot  ]>6  victor,  he  schulde  ofte  seie  to  hym  in  fis  manere: 
Nothisselitos,^  ^at  is  to  menynge,  Knotve  \yselfi  as  who 
8ei]|»,  Be  nou^t  to  proude  of  J^is  worschippe.  And  also  ]>at 
day  euerich  man  hadde  leue  to  seie  to  pe  victor  what 
euere  he  wolde,  and  no  blame  schulde  take.^  And  so 
were  meny  dispitous  worde^  i-seide  to  lulius  Cesar  [and  he 
took  ]>6rof  no  maner  wreche.  On  seide  to  lulius  Cesar V  at 
suche^  alyme:  ",'Salue,  calue;"  ])at  is,  "jETmY,  ballardr&ad 
anoper  seide  :  "  Heile,  kyng  and  queue."  B.  Loke  wij  ynne 
lulius  Cesar«  In  vita  lohannis  EleemostfnariL  Whan  ]>e 
emperoures  of  Bome  were  i-crowned,  come  ^  to  hem  craftes 
men  J^at  made  tombes,  and  axed^  of  hem  of  what  manere 
stoon  oj^er  metal  ]>ey  schulde  make  her  tombes ;  as  who 
seip,  "pow  schalt  deye;^  goueme  myldeliche  ]>y  peple." 
HuguUoy  capiu  Clarus,  When  "pe  Bomaynes  wolde  worry  in 
eny  lond,  schulde  oon  goo  to  pe  endes  of  j^at  lond  and  clere- 

dicion  was  putte,  whiche  scholde  bobbe  besily  the  victor,  MS.  Habl. 

and  that  for  two  causes.    Oon  was,  That  fe  victor  scholde     ^^^** 

not  be  ouer  prowde  of  suche  glory  ;  an  other  was,  And  also      "~^ 

in  token  that  euery  man  my^hte  comme  to  the  same  honor 

if  his  manhode  extendede  labor  to  that  merite.   And  the  ser-^ 

uaunte  bobbenge  hym  seyde  ofte  tymes,  "Knowe  thy  selfe;" 

as  if  he  scholde  saye,  "Be  not  prowde  of  this  victory.'*    In  f,  40  b. 

whiche  day  hyt  was  lawefulle   to    euery  man  and  woman 

to  saye  to  pe  victor  after  theire  pleasure  with  owte  eny 

peyne.    Of  somme  men  hit  was  salde,  "Haile,  baUede  man;'* 

of  somme,  "Hayle,  kynge."  1^.   Beholde  in  this  processe  how 

the!  seyde  to  lulius  Cesar.    In  vita  lohannis  EleemosynariL 

When  emperoures  were  crownede,  makers  of  graves  come 

to  theyme  inquirenge  of  what  metalle  he  wolde  his  beriaUe 

to  be  made,  as  if  he  scholde  say,  "Thow  arte  corruptible, 

dispose  the  empire  mekely."    Sugutio,  capit.  Clarus,    When 

the  Bomanes  intendede  to  ^iffe  batelle  to  eny  cuntre,  oon 

of  theyme  scholde  goe  to  the  costes  of  theire  enmyes  and 

^  So  MS.  and  a.  $  Noiko  solitos,  Cz. 
'  shoMe  he  take  ikerfore,  Gz. 
■  wordeSf  Cx. 

^  The  irords  in  brackets  added 
from  a.  and  Gz. 


*  siche,  Cz. 

^  shMe  come,  Gz. 

'  €Lxe,  Cx. 

8  deye"]  Added  from  Cx. 



ad  fines  hostitim  et  dara  voce  causas  belli  exponebat. 
Et  talis  expositio  vocabatur  fclarigatio.*  Et  tunc  hasta 
defixa  in  finibns  hostium  principium  pugnse  denunci- 
abat.  IsidorvSy  libro  Twno  dedmo,  capitulo  vicesimo 
se<yumdoJ^  Tempore  consulum  milites  Bomani  pridie 
quam  pugnarent  ^  rosea  veste  *  induebantur,  quod  *  fie- 
bat  ad  celandum  sanguinem,®  ne  viso  sanguine^  corda 
militum®  trepidarent  Inde  et®  rosati  dicebantur.  Ra- 
TmlpTma,  Nota  *"  hie,  secundum  Papiam  et  Hugutionem, 
quod  Virgilius  poeta  vocat  gentem  Komanam  togatcmi, 
quia  veste  toga  utebantur.  Erat  autem  triplex  toga^ 
videlicet,  praetextata,  palmata,  candidata.  Prsetextata 
utebantur  filii  nobilium  usque  ad  tertium  decimum 
setatis  annum,  et  postmodum  toga.  Secunda  toga  ute- 
bantur victores.  Tertia  toga  utebantur  magistratus  in 
re  publica.*^  Hugutio,  capitulo  Fastvs.  Dies  quibus 
bene  contigit  Eomanis  vocabantur  fasti,  eo  quod  fas 
erat"  in  illis  exercere  cau^ias  et  negotia.**  Dies  vero 
in  *^  quibus  male  contingebat  illis  ^*  vocabantur  nefasti^ 
quasi  non  fasti  ;*^  et    illos    dies  maJos  colebant,^*  non 

^  qucR  quidem  expositio  chrigatio 
dtcebatur,  CD. 

®  So  A.I).,  rightly  ;  lib.  nono,  B. 
cap,  xxi,y  S. 

'  dimicaturi  essent,  CD. 

*  lieu  purpurea,  added  in  CB. 

^  hoc  autem,  CD. 

^  St  forsan  vulnareniur,  added  in 
^  viso  sanguinel  om.  B. 
^  militum}^  om.  B.CD. 

» ef]  om.  A.B.C  (notD.) 

^*  Ranulphus,    Nota  ...  publico] 


"Transposed,   CD.    Partly  re- 
peated in  B.  by  error  of  the  scribe, 

J*  m]  om.  CD. 

"  iUis-]  om.  A.CD, 

»*  quasi  nm  fasti]  cm.  CD. 

*^  et  celebrabanty  added  in  CD. 


liche  declare  and  schewe  J>e  matire  and  cause  of  the  werre,  Tkbvisa. 

and  fat  declaracioun  was  i-cleped  clarigatio.^    panne  a  spere      

i-pyit  in  jie  ende  of  J>e  londe  warned  fat  f e  Bomayns  wolde 
werre.    Isidorus^  libra  nano  decimo,  cap.  vicesimo  secundo. 
While  consuls  rided  Rome,  f e  knyites  of  Rome  schulde  were 
rede  clones  fe  day  to  fore  fat  fey  schulde  fiite.    pat  was 
i-do  for  fey  schulde  not  knowe  and  be  abashed,  whan  fey 
say  f e  reed  blood  renne  on  hir  clof es ;  and  suche  kny^tes 
were  i-cleped  Eosati,  as  it  were  i-clof  ed  in  roses.     ]^.     Take 
hede  fat  ^  Papy  seith,  Virgil  clepef   the  Romayns  togati ; 
fat  beef  men  i«clof ed  in  govraes.     pre  manere  gownes  fey 
vsede  and  were    i-hote,    Pretextata,^    Palmata,   Candidata. 
pe  firste   manere  gowne,  Pretextata,  gentil  men"*  children 
vsede  for  to  fey  were  ^  fouretene  ^ere  olde  5  f e  secounde 
manere,    Palmata,  vsede  victoris  for  here  noble  dedes ;  f  e 
f ridde  manere  gowne,  Candidata,  vsed  lordes  and  maistres  « 
of  fe  lawe.    Hugutio^  cap.  Foetus*     pe  dayes  fat  f e  Ro- 
mayns wel  spedde  heet  fasti,  fat  is,  leful^  for  it  was  ^  leful 
to  hem  f ylk  ^  dayes  to  vse  dyuers  doynge  and  dedes,  Dayes  ^ 
fat  f e  Romaynes  mysspedde  were  i-hote  nefasti,  as  it  were 
nouyt  leefulf  and  [fey]  byhelde'^  filke  dayes  and  wroujt 
nou^t  filke  dayes,**  but  nou^t  for  lone  and  12  deuocioun,  but 

expresse  with  a  clere  voice  the  causes  of  batelle,  and  Buche  MS.  Harl. 
an  expression  was  callede  a  clarigacion.     Then  the  spere      2261. 

of  the  messengere  defixede  in  to  the  erthe  schewede  a  pre-      

nosticacion  and  as  a  begynnenge  of  fi^hte.  Isidorus^  libra 
710710  dectTHOy  capitula  vicesima  s€cu7ido.  What  tyme  the 
consules  were  reignenge  in  Rome  the  knythtes  of  the  Ro- 
manes [wente]  *^  in  clothenge  of  redde  in  the  day  a  fore  they 
scholde  fi^te,  that  theire  hertes  scholde  not  be  in  fray  or 
feere  to  beholde  bloode.  Wherefore  the  Romanes  were  callede 
Rosati,  as  'clothede  in  redde.  HugutiOy  capitula  JFastus, 
The  dayes  in  whom  the  Romans  hade  victory  and  spedde 
welle  were  callede  fasti,  in  so  moche  that  hit  was  lawefulle 
to  theyme  in  those  daies  to  exercise  theire  causes  and 
erneddes.  And  the  dayes  in  whom  hit  happede  ylle  to 
theyme  were  callede  nefasti,  in  whom  thei  worschippede 
ylle  thynges,  not  for   cause   of  deuocion   or  of  luffe    but 

1  clarigacixm,  Cx. 
^  whaty  Cx* 

'  Pretaxata,  MS.  and  Cx. 
*  gentibnenSf  Cx. 
^for  to  were  ofxiiij*^  Cx. 
®  maystres  ruhrsy  Cx. 
'  Four  words  preceding  wanting 
in  MS. 

» So  Cx. ;  J>af,  MS. 

®  >af  dayes,  a. ;  the  dayesy  Cx. 

^^  and  iAey  Jiedde,  Cx. 

^1  \nlke  dayes]  om.  Cx. 

^^  and]  ne,  Cx. 

'3  This  or  some  similar  word  is 

Q  2 



causa  devotionis  et  amoris  sed  timore  ^  infortunii. 
HugvMOy  capitulo  Qumque?  Unde  et  qmnquatria 
dicuntur  iUi*  quinque  atri  dies,  sive  festum  illoriun 
dierum  quos  Romani  sustinuerunt  *  obsessi  a  Gallis  et 
ab  Haunibale ;  quibus  diebus  uiillus  Bomanus  audebat 
egredi  urbem.^  Hugiitio,  capitulo  Glassia.  Cum  in- 
stituisset  Komulus®  rem  publicam,  divisit  populum  in 
duas  partes,  majores  scilicet'  et  miaores,  et  utramque 
partem  vocavit  classem  a  quibusdam  classicis,  id  est, 
sonis  vel  signis,  quae®  inter  se  distincta  habebant. 
Unde  et^  nobiles  dicebantur  prima  classis,  in  quorum 
honorem  instituit  mensem  Maium,^^  id  est,  Majorum. 
Inferiores  dicebantur  secunda  classis^  in  quorum 
honorem  instituit  mensem  ^^  Junium,  quasi  Juniorum. 
Postmodum  Bomani  divisi  sunt  ^*  in  quatuor  partes, 
in  quarum  prima  *^  erant  consules,  dictatores^  qui  '^ 
summos  tenebant "  bonores.  In  secunda  classi  erant  *^ 
tribuni,  et  qui  minores  tenebant  ^^  dignitates.  In 
tertia     classe    fuerant  ^'^     Kberi,     in     quarta     servi. 

'  cottsimUsy  added  in  CD. 

*  5,  C.  The  versions  have  the 
same  error. 

» mi\  om.  B.D. 

*  sustinuerunt  Homani,  A.B. 

^  ausus  fiat,  A. ;  urbem  egredi, 
A.B.  The  sentence  abbreviated  and 
clauses  transposed  in  CD. 

^  Transposed  in  A.CD. 

'  scUieet]  om.  A. 

^per  quern,  C  (not  D.) 

^distincta    erat    (sic.)     Nobiles^ 

CD.  The  readings  of  A.  are  blun- 
dered in  the  four  lines  following. 

^**  Maium  . , .  mensem]  om.  CD. 

"  dividebantur,  CD. 

'^  In  prima  classe  erant,  CD. 

"  qui]  et  qui,  A'D. 

^*  habebant,  CD. 

^«  erant]  om,  A.B.CD. 

^^  habebant,  C 

"  classe  fiierant]  om.  B.CD. ; 
fiterant  only  omitted  in  A. 



for  drede  of  euel   happes.     Hugutioy  cap.  quinto.    pe  feste  Tkbvisa. 

of  filke   dayes   is  i-cleped    Quinquatriay    fat  is,    fe  fyue      

bl[a]k^  dayes,  for  fe  sorwe  and  fe^  bitternesse  })at  fe 
Romayns  mysspedde  ^  whan  fe  Frenscbe  men  and  Hanni- 
bal-* byseged  hem  all  aboute.  For  fan  no  Romayn  dorste 
ones  goo  out  of  towne,^  HuguUoy  cap.  Classis.  Whan 
Romulus  hadde  ordeyned  for  the  comoun  profi^t,  he  departed 
atwynne  ^  J>e  grete  and  fe  mene,  and  cleped  eifer  partie 
Classis/  for  certeyne  noyse  and  signes  fat  fey  were  by 
departed,  fat  we[re]  i-cleped  classica.  And  so  fe  gentil^ 
men  and  noble  were  i-cleped  first  f  e  firste  classis.  Ixt  wor- 
schippe  of  hem  ^  he  ordeyned  a  monthe  and  cleped  hym 
Mains,  fat  is,  f e  monf e  of  f e  grete  men.  pe  mene  ^^  men 
were  i-cleped  f  e  secounde  classis,  and  in  worschipe  of  hem 
he  ordeyned  a  monf e,  and  cleped  hym  lunius,  fat  is,  f e 
monf e  of  ^onge  ^^  men.  Afterward  fe  Romaynes  were  de- 
parted in  foure  parties.  In  f e  firste  partie  were  consuls  and 
doctoures  ;  in  fe  secounde  classis  were  tribuni  and  men  of 
lasse  dignite  ;  in  f  e  f ridde  were  fre  men  ;  and  in  f  e  fourf  e 

for  drede  of  infortuny.    Hugntio^  capitulo  quinto.    Of  whom  MS.  Habi,. 
quinquatria  were  namede  v.  blacke  daies,  or  the  feste  of     2261. 
those  dales  in  whom  the  Romanes,  besegede  of  Frenche  men 
and  of  Hanniball,'*  susteynede  mony  thynges,  in  whiche  dayes 
noo  Roman  hade  audacite  to  go  furthe  of  that  cite.     Hu- 
gutioy  capitulo  Classis.    When  Romulus  hade  institute  the 
commune  vtilite  he  diuidede  the  peple  in  to  tweyne  parties, 
into  the  moore   nowble    men    and    lesse  nowble,    callenge 
either  parte  of  theyme  classis  of  sowndes  and  sigies  whol. 
thei  hade  distincte  amonge  theyme  selfe.    Wherefore    the 
nowble  men  were  callede  Prima  Classis,  the  firste  companye. 
In  the  honor  of  whom  he  ordeynede  the  monethe  of  Maij,  Menses 
that  is,  of  grete  men.     The  other  inferior  parte  was  callede  Maii  et 
the  secunde  companye,  in  the  honor  of  whom  he  ordeynede  '^^^  ^^" 
the  monethe  of  lunius,  that  is  to  saye,  of  yonger  men.  After-  stituuntur. 
warde   the  Romanes    were  diuidede   in  to  iiij.  partes.    In 
the  firste  parte  of  whom  were  consules  and  men  of  grete 
honor.      In  the  secunde  parte  were  tribunes  and .  men  of 
lesse  dignite.      In   the  thrydde    parte   free    men ;   and   in 

*  black f  Cx.;  blake^  a. 
^  J>6]  om.  a.  and  Cx. 

'  mysspedde]  had,  Cx. 

*  Hanyhal  or  Hanibal,  MSS.  and 

^  the  toun,  Cx. 
®  a  sondrCf  Cx. 

'  Cx.  has  large  omissions  here. 

^jantil,  a. 

®  MS.  repeats  in  worschippe  after 

'*  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  mene,  MS. 
^*  yongere,  a.  and  Cx. 



Hugutio,  capitvlo  Colon}  Consuetum  fuit  apud  Ro- 
manos^  ut  in^  quolibet  mense  nundinas  celebrarent^ 
quae  inciperent  *  prima  die  nonarum  et  durarent  ^  usque 
ad  primum  diem  Iduum.  Idus  namqne  idem  est  quod 
divisio,  quia  tunc  dividebantur  a  nundinis ;  verum^  quia 
venturi'ad  nundinas  ignorabant  frequenter  principia^ 
mensium,  ideo  semper  prima  die  mensis  (quse  vpcabatur 
pluraliter  kalendse  a  calo-^las,^  quod  est  voeare,)  ascen- 
debat  prseco  turrim  et  tptiens  clamabat  Galo}^  (id  est, 
Voco  vos  ad  nundinas,)  quot  restabant  dies  usque  **  ad 
inceptionem  nundinarum ;  ^^  ut,  si  in  quarto  die  incipe- 
rent nundinse,  quater  dicebat  Galo.  Inde  est  quod 
aliquis  mensis  in  ^^  kalendario  habet  tantum^*  quatuor 
nonas^  aliquis  mensis  '*  sex  nonas.  Quod  ideo  fiebat  ut 
latrones  insidiantes  mercatoribus  in  silvis  absconsi  ^^ 
nescirent,  quando  forum  inciperet.  Hugutio,  capitvlo 
Mereor,  Milites*''  Romani^^  post  sexagesimum  setatis*^ 
annum   non    eogebantur    militare,   sed   dabatur  illis^® 

■  cason,  B.  The  text  is  correct. 
Hugut  MS.  CamV.  Univ,  libr.  has: 
Colon  Grsece:  Latine  ligntani  soon 
after  which  follows  Higden's  ex- 

^  Momanisy  CD. 

'  in]  om.  CD. ;  in  qualibet,  A. 
Similar  errors  of  gender  occur  else- 
where, and  arc  not  always  recorded. 

*  incipiehant,  B.C.D.  (not  A.) 

^  durabant,  A.B.O.D. 

«  ety  CD. ;  at,  A.B, 

'  venientes,  B. 

^prmeipium  mensis^  A«B.CD«, 
which  last  have  other  very  slight 
variations,  just  below. 

^  cab,  colas,  CD. 
^*  Calo,  badly  repeated  in  B.CD ; 
calo'las.  A.,  which  is  worse. 
"  usque]  om.  C 
^^fori,  A.B*  CD. 

*^  sex  nonas  habet,  CD.,  omitting 
the  rest. 
^^  tantum  habet,  B. 
13  mensis']  vero,  B. 
^^  absconditi,  C;  latitantes,  D. 
"quondam,  added  in  A.B.CD. 
^^  Komani]  om.  A. 
»*  (Btatis]  om,  A.B.C 
^  tunc  eh,  C;  eis  tunc,  D. 


were  bonde  men.    Tribunus  is  he  fat  fongej)*  tribute,  and  Trevisa. 

pajef  kny^tes,  and  a  ledere^  of  a  l)0wsand  kny^tes  hatte      

tribunus.  HugutiOy  cap.  Colon,  pe  Eomayns  vsed  somtyme 
in  eueriche  mon]>e  to  make  a  faire,  and  }>e  faire  bygan  fe 
firste  day  of  fe  Nonis,^  and  durede  to  fe  iirste  day  of  Idus, 
Idus  is  to  menynge  ^  delynge  and  departynge ;  for  fan  f e 
feire  was  departed.  Also  for  fe  begynnynge  of  the  monthe 
was  ofte  tyme  vnknowe  of  ^  marchaundes  and  to  chapmen, 
ferfore  the  firste  day  of  fe  monfe  fat^  hatte  Kalende,  of 
caloy  calaSf  'pat  is,  to  clepe  and  crie*  A  cryour  schulde 
stonde  vppon  a  itoure,  and  as  meny  dayes  as  were  from  fat 
day  to  fe  bygynnynge  of  the  feire,  he  schulde  crie,  "  Calo  :" 
f  erf  ore  it  is  fat  som  ^  monf  e  in  f  e  kalendere  haf  but  foure 
Nonas,  and  som  haf  sixe.  And  fat  was  i-doo,  for  fefies 
(fat  were^  i-hud^in  woodes  for  to  aspye  chapmen)  schulde 
not  knowe  ^®  whan  f  e  faire  schulde  bygnne.  JSugutio,  cap. 
Mereor,  Som  tyme  knyttes  after  fey  were  sixty  wynter  ^^ 
olde  were  no^t  compelled  forto  do  deedes  of  armes ; 
but    me  *2    ^af  hem     feldes     of  er  townes    of  er    somwhat 

the  iiijt'^e  parte  seruauntes.     Hugutio^  capitulo  Calon.    The  MS.  Habl* 

Romanes  vsede  to    have    feires  in  euery  monethe  whiche      2261. 

began  in  the  firste  day  of  Nones  durenge  vn  to  the  firste 

day  of  the  Idus.    Idus  is  nou^te  elles  but  a  diuision  5   for 

then  men  were  diuidede  from  the  feires.     And  for   cause 

men  commenge  to  the  feires  were  ignoraunte  ofte  tymes 

of  the  begynnenge  of  the  monethe,  therfore  a  bydelle,    or 

the  crier  of  the  cite  ascendede  in  to  a  towre  in  to  the 

markethe,  and  seyde  so  mony  tymes,  "  Calo,  calo,"  (that  is  to 

seye,  "  y  calle  yow  to  the  feires,")  as  were  dayes  vn  to  the 

begynnenge  of  hit ;  as  and  if  the  feires  scholde  begynne  in 

the  liiy^^  day,  he  scholde  saye  iiij.  tymes  calo.     Therefore 

hit  is  that  somme  monethe  in  the  calendary  Jiathe  iiij.  nones 

oonly ;    somme  monethe  vj.,  whiche  was  ordeynede  for  this 

cause  that  thefes  ^iffenge  wacches  to  marchauntes  lyenge 

priuely  in  woodes  scholde  not  knowe  when  the  feires  scholde 

begjmne.   Httgutio^  capitulo  Mereor,    Somme  tyme  knyihtes 

in  Eome  were  not  constreynede  to  exercise  the  actes  of 

cheuallery  after  the  age  of  Ix.  yere  ;  but  lyvelode  was  ^iffen 

^fangethy  a. ;  receyueth,  Cx.»  as 

2  Cx.  adds,  or  capitaiti, 

3  Nonas,  te. 

*i8as  mocke  to  saye  as^  Cx. 
>  i»,  a.,  Cx.;  the  latter  oniits  of  the 
monihe,  just  above. 

« j>et,  Cx. 

^  iU'SomTnef  Cx.  (typ.  error.) 

^  So  a.  and  Cx.;  we,  MS. 

°  hidde,  Cx. 

^<^  i-kmowe,  MS.  (not  Cx.) 

"  yere,  Cx. 

**  men,  Cx. 



villa  vel  ager  vel  aliquid  ^  de  re  publica  unde  viverent; 
et  tunc  vocabatur  miles  emeritus,^  vel  emeritae  mili- 
tiae,^  quasi  positus  extra  meritum  militi».^*  Ra/fmU 
phus?  Inde  quaBdam  tabema  trans  Tiberim  vocabatur'^ 
Emeritoria,  quia  ibi  milites  emeriti*  symbola  sua 
expendebant.®  Hugutio,^^  capitulo  Nea}^  Consuetum 
fuit  apud  Eomauos^^  at  usque  ad  horam  nonam  cives 
de  commodo  rei  publicae  traetarent,^*  nee  alteri  delec- 
tationi  vacarent ;  unde  et  meretrices  Bromanae  voca- 
bantur  nonariaB,  quia  ante  horam  nonam  non  liciiit  eis 
egredi  prostibula  sua,  ne  forte**  impedirent  juvenes  ab 
utilitate  rei  publicaB.  Hugutio,  capitulo  NepaJ^  Olim 
pueri  Bomani  non  tradebantur  patribus  propriis  ad 
erudiendum  seu  nutriendum,  quia  praesumebatur  quod 
prae  nimia  aflfectione  eos  non  verberarent  ;*^  nee  etiam 
tradebantur  magistris  omnino  ignotis,*®  eo  quod  extra- 

1  qmppiam,  added  in  CD, 

^  dicebantur  mUttes  emeriH,  CD. 

3  vd  emeriUB  militioi}  om.  C.D. 

*  Transposed  in  A.B.C.D. 

^  quia  nil  postea  ex  militia  mere' 
bantur,  added  in  C J). 

^  Bandphus]  om.  C.  (not  D.) 

'  dicebatury  A.;  videtur  did,  D, 

^  emeriti]  om.  B. 

"  So  A.B.  ;  transposed  in  £.  ; 
slightly  altered  in  CD. 

"  Hugutio  . . .  Nepa]  om.  C.  (not 

"  Stea,  A.B.5  Sta,  D.  The  text 
is  correct  Hngutio's  section  be* 
gins:    iVea  GrcEci   dicunt   novem; 

soon  after  which  follows  Higden's 

>^  apud  Homanos]  om.  A.B. 

^^  disputarent,  A.B. ;  iractare  et 
disputare,  B.  (omitting  ut\  which 
proceeds  thns:  nee  licebat  quenquam 
ante  ilktm  horam  deleclationibus  va* 
care  ;  tmde  et,  &c. 

'^^foreauy  D. 

^  dUectione  nottentfilios  verberare, 
CD.  (with  other  very  slight  altera- 
tions.) The  readings  of  CD.  agree 
more  nearly  with  Hugutio's  text 
(cap.  Nepa), 

^*  omnino  extraneis  ma^tris^  C  J). ; 
extraneis,  A.B. 



elles  of '  pe  comyn  tresorie,  wherby  pei  schulde  leue.    And  Tkbvisa. 

J)aii  suche  a  kny^t  was   i-cleped  Emeritus  (oper  Emeryte)      

militief  as  it  were  a  kny^t  i-sett  out  of  l>e  myddel  2 
dedes  of  chyualrie.  ]^.  perfore  Achanarii^  J?at  is  by- 
Jonde  Tyber  beet  Emeritoria ;  for  ^  knyjtes  spended  ^  "pare 
what  fey  badde  rafer  ^  i-gadered  and  i-wonne.  Hugutio^  cap. 
SitaJ  Hit  was  vsage  in  Borne  J>at  pe  citezeyns  schulde 
doo  nou^t®  elles  to  fore  none  but  despute  of  J>e  comyn 
profit :  ^  perfore  comyn  wommen  of  Rome  were  i-cleped 
Nonarie,  for  |?ey  schulde  nou^t  to  fore  none  goon  oute  of  ^^ 
here  comoun  place,  leste  J>ey  schulde  lette  ^onge  men  from 
the  comyn  profi^te.  HugutiOy  cap.  Nepa»  Somtyme  in 
Rome  fader  and  moder  schulde  nou^t  norische  and  teche 
hire  owne  children ;  for  me  supposed  "  J)at  he  12  wolde  be 
to  tendre  of  hem  ^^  and  nou^t  chast  ^^  hem  and  bete  hem  to 
sore.^*  [Neyther  maystres  that  were  al  straunge  and  out  of 
the  kynne  shold  teche  childeren  of  Rome,  lest  they  wold 

to  thejine,  or  somme  goodes  of  thynges  commune  whereby  MS.  Harl. 
thei  myihte  lyffe,  and  then  the  kny^hte  was  callede  Emeritus,      2261. 

as  putte  with  owte  the  merite  of  cheualleiy.    !1^,    Wherefore      

a  tauerne  ouer  Tiber  was  callede  Emeritoria,  where  kny^htes 
put  with  owte  merite  of  cheuallery  spende  theire  goodes. 
HuguMoy  capitulo  Scea.  Also  a  consuetude  was  amonge 
Romanes  that  the  citesynnes  scholde  dispute  of  the  commune 
profette  vn  tylle  none  ;  and  not  attende  to  eny  other  delecta- 
cion.  Wherefore  the  harlottes  at  Rome  were  callede  nona^ 
ricB^  for  hit  was  not  lawefuUe  to  theyme  to  passe  theire  places, 
leste  they  scholde  lette  yonge  men  from  the  commune  vtilite. 
HuguHoy  capitulo  Nepa.  Somme  tyme  children  in  Rome 
were  not  taken  to  theire  faders  to  lerne  or  to  be  noryschede, 
for  hit  was  presumede  that  the  faders  wolde  not  chastise 
theire  children  for  the  grete  luffe  that  they  wolde  schewe 
to  theyme  ;  neither  thei  wyUede  not  their  children  to  be 
taken  to  maistres  that  were  not  of  theire  kynrede,  for  a 

1  o/]  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  /or,  MS. 
'  mmfuly  a.$  nedeful,  Cx, 

*  Anatarij,  Cx. 
*for  isuehe,  Cx. 
^  spende,  a. 

« to  fore  gotten,  Cx. 
'  litay  Cx. 

*  not,  Cx. 

^  profiytf  a, 
**o/]  to,  Cx. 

^^Jbr  it  was  supposed,  Cx. 

»2  ik^,  Cx. 

"  of  keni]  om.  Cx. 

"  chastyse,  Cx.  (omittiHg  hem,) 

^*  to  sore]  om.  Cx» 



neus  parum  curat  de  extraneo**  Sed  tradebantur  pa- 
truis,^  qui  non  nimis  propinqui  nee  nimis  remoti  erant.*^ 
Hugutio,  capitulo  Proles,  Erant  in  urbe  proletarii,  qui 
causa  gignendse  prolis*  semper  in  urbe  morabantur, 
nee  exire  ad  anna  cogebantur.^  Rarmlphus.  Tempore 
tamen  Hannibalis  cogebantur  tales  exire  ad  arma 
propter  militum  penuriam,^  Valerius^  libra  8ecundo7 
Ab  urbe  condita  usque  ad  centesimum  sexagesimum 
annum  divortium  nullum®  inter  conjuges  fuerat.^ 
Primus  tamen  Carbilius  Spurius  '^  uxorem  suam*'  dun- 
taxat  ^^  causa  sterilitatis  dimisit ;  qui,  quamvis  ratione 
motus  videretur,  reprehensione  tamen  non  caruit,  quia 
cupiditatem  liberorum  fidei  conjugali  prsBposuii  Isir- 
dorubs^^  libra  sexto.  Quamvis  Graeci  primum  cum  stylis 
ferreis  in  cera  scripserunt,  Bomani  tamen  statuerunt^^ 
ut  nuUus  stylo  ferreo  sed  tantum^^  osseo  scriberet. 
Poi./®  libra  seeundo.    Siquis^'  ab  initio  urbis*®  con- 

1  quia  extranet  parum  curant  de 
extraneisy  CD. 

^  CD.  add  et  avunculis. 

«Slightly  altered  in  CD.  For 
non  A.  has  nee* 

*  gignendorum  liberorum^  C.B. 

*  Transposed  in  A,B.C.D. 

®  coacti  suant  ad  bellum  exire,  CD. ; 
coacti  sunt  exire  propter  penuriam 
militum,  A.B. 

"^  prvmo,  B, ;  quarto,  D.  The  text 
is  correct    SeeVaL  Max*,  Ub.  ii. 

c.  1.  §  4. 

^  nullum  divortium,  B. 

^fuit,  A. ;  virum  et  mrdieremfuit, 
C.D.  (with  other  very  slight  al- 

'^  autem  Spurius  CarbUius,  CD., 
more  correctly. 

'^  suam']  om,  AJB. 

"  dumtaxaf]  om.  CJD,  (with  slight 
alterations  just  aiterwards)  ;  trans> 
posed  in  A.B. 

"  Etymohgia,  added  in  CD, 

"  interdixerunt,  CD,  (with  slight 
alterations  just  before.) 

^^  tantum\  om.  CD. 

>«  So  A.B.;  Plinius,  CD. ;  Vale- 
rius, E.  The  true  re&rence  is  to 
Johan,  Sarisb,  Polycrat,,  lib.  il.  c. 

»»  Si  qui,  CD. 

^^  urbis  totam,  A. 



recche  to  lytel  of  the  childeren,  and  bete  hem  to  sore].^  Tbevisa. 

perfore    maistres  schulde  teche    pe   children  of  Rome  pat      

were  nou^t  to  ny^,  oper  2  to  fer  of  hire  own  kin,  Hugutio, 
cap.  Proks.  pere  were  som  tyme  men  ^  in  Rome  pat  serued 
of  nou^t  elles  but  for  to  gete^  children  and  dwelled  all 
wey  in  pe  citee,  and  were  no^t  compelled  to  doo  dedes 
of  armes.  And  suche  men  were  i-cleped  proletarii,  J>at  is 
geteris*  of  children.  !l^7  Neuerpeles  in  Hannibals  tyme 
pey  were  i-constreyned  for  to  goo  out  of  ^  skarsnesse  of 
kny^tes.  Valerie,  libro  secundo^  An  hundred  ^ere  and 
sixti  after  pat  pe  citee  was  i-buld  was  no  deuors  i-made 
bytwene  a  man  and  his  wyf.  Neuerpeles  Carbiiius,  a 
bastard,  was  pe  firste  pat  lifte^  his  wif,  onliche  for  pe 
womman  was  bareyne.  pei  he  eemed  i-meued  of  resoun,  ^it 
he  was  nou^t  al  blameles  :  for  he  pntte  couetise  of  children 
to  fore  pe  fey  ^^  of  wedlock.  Isidorusy  libro  sexto,  pey  pe 
Grees  write  first  yn  wex  wip  poynteles  of  yren,  the  Ro- 
mayns  ordeyned  pat  no  man  schulde  write  wip  poynteles 
of  yren  but  wip  poyntels  of  boon.  PoL,  libro  secundo. 
Who  pat  wil*^   loke   bookes   of  stories  among   all  men  pat 

straungeour  ^iffe  the  litelle  attendaunce  of  an  other  straun-  MS.  Harl. 
geour ;  but  thei  were  of  theire  kynne,  as  vndes  to  theyme,  226I. 
whiche  were  not  ouer  nye  to  theyme  neiper  ouer  ferre 
from  theyme.  Hugutto,  capitulo  Proles»  There  were  men 
in  the  cite  of  Rome  whiche  tajyede  in  the  cite  for  multi- 
plicacion  of  childer,  and  were  not  coacte  to  goe  furthe  to 
batelles.  ^.  Neuerthelesse  they  were  coacte  in  the  tyme  of 
Hannibal  for  pennury  of  knyjhtes.  Valerius^  libro  secundo. 
From  the  cite  made  unto  clx.  yere  folowenge  was  movede 
noo  diuorce.  The  firste  man.  induceuge  hit  was  callede 
Carbilius,*^  a  bastarde,  whiche  departede  from  his  wife  be 
cause  that  sche  hade  not  childer,  whiche  hade  schame  and 
reprove  ynowe  for  hit,  whiche  sette  before  the  lufFe  of 
childre  to  the  luffe  of  matrimony,  IsidoruSy  libro  sexto. 
Thau^he  the  Grekes  did  wryte  ffirste  in  wexes  with  poyntelles, 
neuerthelesse  the  Romanes  ordeynede  that  noo  man  scholde 
wryte  with  an  instrument  of  ime,  but  made  of  boon.  Poli- 
cronicon^^  libro  secundo.    If  a  man  reuolve  in  his  mynde 

f.  41  b. 

'  The  sentence  in  brackets  added 
from  Cx.,  whose  orthography  is 
retained.  It  is  omitted  in  a. 

^  men\  om.  Cx. 

^  So  a.  and  Ox. ;  geleny  MS. 

^  dwelfydy  Cx. 

*  geters,  o.,  Cx. 

'S^]  Added  £roin  Ox. 

^for,  a, 

®  lefte,  a.,  Ox. 

^^  filthy  Cx. 

**  wofe,  a. 

J2  ScarbUius,  HarL  MS. 

*3  So  written  at  length  in  Harl. 
MS.,  for  Pdycratwon ;  the  same 
concision  occnrs  in  the  title  of  Hig- 
den's  work. 


ditsB  totam  revolvat  historiam,  inveniet  ^  Romanes  prse 
csBteris  gentibus  ambitione  et  avaritia  laborasse,  sedi- 
tionibus  et  plagis  totum  orbem  concussisse,^  in  tantnm 
ut  vix  quisquam  principum  suorum  ad  exitum  vitse 
natura  ducente  pervenerit.®  PrsBterea  Eomanus  omnis 
aut  adulatione  corrumpit  aut  corrumpitur,*  Certe  si 
non  verbis  possunt  ^  tamen  fraudulentis  muneribus  ex- 
pugnari,  et  quos®  munuscnla  non  dejiciunt  bonoribus 
certe  captivantnr.  ''Pol.,  Hhro  qv/into,  capitvZo  v/nde- 
ci/mo.  Italiae  urbes,  dum  paoem  diligunt,  justitiam 
colunt^  et  a  pequriis  abstinent^  gaudio  *  perfruuntur ; 
cum  vero  prolabimtur  ad  fraudes  et  scbismata>  statim 
vel  fastum  Romanorum*  vel  furorem  Teutonicorum  ^° 
aliudve  Domini  flagellum  persentinnt,  donee  per  poeni- 
tentiam  conterantur.  Merita  namque  ^'  populi  illius 
aut  ^^  evacuant  omnem  principatum,  aut  principem 
faciunt  mitiorem. 

1  inveniet  alter  laborasse,  B.  ;  be- 
fore it,  A.D. 

^  convixissBf  B. 

'  So  AJ5. ;  pervemt,  E. ;  slightly 
transposed  in  C. 

*  Verbs  transposed  in  CJD. 

^  possint,  B. ;  tamen  omitted  in  A. 

«  et  quos']  ex  quo,  B. 

'  lUm,  added  in  CD.  The  true 
reference  is  to  the  Polycraticon  oi 
John  of  SaHsbnry,  lib.  ir.  c.  11, 

®^o  (gloria)  f  C;  ghdio,  D.  (for 
gaudio  f) 

'  statum  Homanum,  C. ;  fasium 

Bomanum,  D. 

^^  Theutonicum,  C. ;  Teutonicumj 

•'  noMy  A. 

**  iUim  auf]  juste  vel,  C.  5  illius 




were  si]>j>e  Rome  was  first  sette/   he  schal  fynde  fat  fe  Tbevisa. 

Romayns  were  most  couetous  and  proude,  he  schal  fynde      

also  pat  J>e  maistrie^  j>at  J?ey  liadde  in  J>e  world  aboute 
]>ey  gete^  it  by  punyschynge  of  peple^  by  false  wiles 
and  by  gile  so  fer  for|>  pat  vnnepe  eny  of  hir  princes 
leuede  his  lyf  kyndeliche  to  pe^  ende,  perfore  eueryche 
Romayn  ouercomej?^  oper  is  ouercome  wi|>  flaterynge  and 
wip  7  faire  wordes ;  and  ^if  wordes  faille]?,  Jiftes  ®  schal 
hym  awelde  ;  ^if  ^iftes  faillep,  worschip  make]?  hym  pri- 
soner. PoLy  tibro  sepHmOy  capitulo  undecimo*  While 
J>e  citees  of  Italia  louep  pees  and  worschippe}>  ®  ri^twis- 
nesse  and  leueth  false  opes,  pan  pey  hauep  i®  likynge 
and  welpe  in  here  owne  lend.  But  whan  pey  ^euep  ^*  hem 
to  falshede  and  to  stryf,  anon  pe  pride  of  ^^  Romayns,  oper 
pe  woodnesse  of  Duches  *^  men,  oper  som  oper  wrecche  of 
God  all  my^ti^4  fallep  vppon  hem  for  to  pey*^  amende  her 
lyf  16  |)y-  penaunce  of  ^7  contricioun.  For  trespas  of  pat 
peple  puttep  awey  al  principalte^  oper  makep  here  prynce 
more  mylde. 

alle  the  storye  ffrom  the  begynnenge  of  Rome,  he  schal  MS.  Habl. 
fynde  the  Romanes  and  other  peple  to  have  laborede  in  ^^^^* 
ambicion  and  auarice,  in  so  moche  in  that  noo  prince  of 
pe  empire  lyvede  vnnethe  after  the  naturalle  course  of  his 
life,  but  thei  were  destroyede  by  fiihte.  Polieronicony  libro 
sepHmOy  capitulo  septuagesimo  primoM  While  the  men  of 
Italy  lyye  in  peace,  thei  luffe  ry^hteuousenes  and  absteyue 
from  periury.  But  when  they  falle  to  fraudes  and  diuision 
they  fele  other  the  pride  off  the  Romanes  or  cruelnesse  of 
men  of  Allemeyne,  or  somme  other  peyne  or  punyschenge 
of  €rod,  tylle  thei  be  contrite  by  penaunce.  For  other  that 
peple  avoide  euery  principate,  odier  elles  thei  make  the 
prynce  moore  meke. 

^  maistry,  a, 

*  gatCf  &♦ 

^puplcy  a. 

^  his,  a.,  CsL 

°  Ihat  cuercomeih,  Cx. 

'  m|>]  om.  a.  (not  Cx.) 

» yefis,  Cx. 

^  worschepe\ffa»  ;  worshipped,  Cx.^ 
more  correctly,  who  has  also  loued, 
and  leued. 

»•  had,  Cx. 
"  yeue,  Cx. 
^^  of  the,  Ox, 
^*  ahuyyti,  a. 

*^  vnto  the  tyme  they,  Cx.  ' 
"  her  lyf]  om.  Cx. 
"  of]  and,  Cx. 

"The  reference   giyen    thus  at 
length  in  Harl.  MS. 



Cap.  XXVI 

Be  Oermania  et  ejus  partibus} 

IsiDORTJS  tradit  quod^  Germania  proprie  dicta 
habet*  ab  orti;i  ostium  Danubii  fluminis,  ab  austro 
Bhenum  fluvium,  a  septentrione  et  occasu  oceanum. 
Est  autem  *  duplex  Germauia ;  superior,^  quse  se  extendit 
ad  Alpes  juxta  ^  sinum  maris  mediterranei/  quod  Adria- 
ticum  dicitur,  ubi  mare  sistitur  in  Aquileiae  partibus 
per  paludes ;  alia®  Germania,  inferior,  versus  occiden- 
tem  sistit®  circa  Rhenum/^  quse"  communiter  Aleman- 
nia  sive  '^  Teutonia  ^^  didtur.  Multi  namque^*  in  utra- 
que  Germania  sunt  populi  et  provindfe,  utpote  Boemia, 
Westfalia,  Bavaria/^  Thuringia,  Suevia,  Saxonia,  Fran- 
conia,  Lotharingia/®  Frisia,  Selandia.  Paulns,  Ubro 
primo,  capitulo  qidnto}'^  Verum  quia  septentrionalis  *® 
plaga  quanto  ab  sestu  solis  fit*^  remotior,  tanto  pro- 
pagandis  nutriendisque  ^  populis  salubrior ;  sicut  e 
contra  meridiana   plaga  ^*  quanto  soli  vidnior,  tanto  ^^ 

*  Isidorus,  libro  19,  A.;  9°,  B.C. 
(not  B.)  The  true  reference  is  to 
lib.  xiv.  c.  4. 

^  Isidoms  » • .  qttod]  om.  B.D. 

^  Germania  proprie  sumpta  ab 
ortuy  CD.  (with  otihier  slight  varia- 

*  Et  est,  CD. 

^  scUicetf  added  in  A.B. 
^  Juxta   Alpes    itsque  ad  sinum, 
B.CD. ;  and  so  A.,  omitting  usque, 
^  magni,  A.B. 
®  est  added  in  B. 

*  sistitur,  C.  (notD.) 

^®  Thenum,  0. ;  Eenum,  B. 
"  qui,  CD, 
«  seu,  B.C 
"  Teutonica,  B. 

^*.namque']  om.  C  ;  nempe,  A.B« 

^^  Gavarria,  C  ;  Savarria,  "E. 
Some  of  the  names  following  are 
written  with  slight  variations  in  the 

"  Lothoringia,  MSS. 

^^  Paulus^..quinto\  om.  Ct  eapi- 
ttth  quinto,  om.  A.B.D.  The  true 
reference  is  to  lib.  i.  c.  1.,  which  is 
copied  almost  verbatim  as  &r  as 
alere  sufficiat, 

13  eiiam  added  in  0.  (not  D.) 

19  est,  C  (not  D.) 

^  et  nutriendis^  C  (not  D.) 

2*  regioy  CD.  (and  Panlus.) 
^  enim  after  tanto  in  £.  ;  not  in 


De  Germania  et  eius  prouinciis.     Capitulum  vicedmum     Tbevisa. 


Isid,  Eth*  quarto  decimo.  Ysidre  *  seif  p&t  verray  Ger- 
mania ha]7  in  ye  est  side  J^e  moath  of  pe  rjuer  Danubius, 
in  fe  sonth  .J>e  Ryne^  hat  ryuer,  and  in  fe  north  and 
in  fe  west  ]>e  see  of  Occean.  pere  beep  tweie  londes, 
eiper  hatte  Grermania ;  f  e  oner  Germania  ^  strecchef  by  sides 
Alpes  to  pat  moup  and  coost  of  pe  grete  see  pat  hatte 
Adriatiens ;  pere  pe  see^  is  as  it  were  lakes  yn  pe  contrayes 
of  Aquila.^  pe  oper  Germania  is  lower,  toward  pe  west 
about  the  Beyne,^  and  is  eomounliche  i-cleped  Almania  oper 
Teutonia.  In  eiper  Germania  beep  many  prouinces  and 
londes,  pat  beep  Boemia,  Westfalia,  Bauarria,  Thuryngia, 
Sueuia,  Saxonia,  Franconia,  Lothoringia^  Frisia,  Selandia. 
Paulus^  libro  prima,  pe  north  contrey  is  fer  from  pe 
hete  of  pe  7  sonne,  and  holsom  for  men  to  wone  ^  yn,  and 
able  to  brynge  forp  children,  perfore  it  is  pat  pere  is 
more  multiplicacioun  and  encrese  of  men  and  children 
in  pe  norp  contray    pan    in    pe    south,    pat  is  ful   nyh   pe 

Of  Allemeyne  or   Germany  and  of  pe  provinces  of  hit  MS.  Easl. 
Capitulum  vicesimum  sextum.     I»idorus,  Etymologia-      2261. 
rum  libro  none*  

IsiDOEUS  rehersethe  that  Germany,  or  Allemeyne  properly 
seyde,  hathe  on  the  este  to  hit  the  durre  of  the  jloode 
callede  Danubius,  on  the  sowthe  the  floode  callede  Renus, 
of  the  northe  and  the  weste  the  occean.  There  be  ij.  Ger- 
manyes  ;  the  superior  whiche  ^xtendethe  yn  to  Alpes  to  the 
bosom  of  the-  grete  see  that  is  callede  the  see  Adriatike. 
And  the  inferior  Germany,  toiv^arde  the  weste,  is  abowte  the 
floode  callede  JRenus,  whiche  is  callede  communely  Almayne. 
There  be  mony  peple  in  either  Germany,  and  prouinces,  as  Aleman- 
Boemia,  Westefalia,  Bauarrea,  Turingea,  Sveuia,  Saxonia,  nia. 
Franconia,  JJothoringi%  Frisia,  Selandia.  PauluSy  libra 
quinto*  For  the  northerne  plage,  in  as  moch  as  hit  is 
more  remoyede  frpm  hete,  in  so  moche  hit  is  more  hollesome 
for  childer  to  be  gendrede  and  to  be  nory^chede.  Hyt  is 
in .  contrary  wise  of  the  plage  meridian ;  for  in  as  moche 

*  Isidorus,  Cx. 

*  rytiery  MS. ;  Ryn,  Cx. 

'  }pe  Otter  Crermania]  om.  MS. 

*  se,  a. 


Agyylia,  Cx. 
*  i?pe, «.,  Cx. 
!*  hete  ofpe"]  om.  Cx. 
"  a.  adds,  and  dweEe, 



knguoribus  obnoxior.  Inde  fit  ut  tantse^  popidorum 
multitudines  arctico^  sub  axe  oriantiir,  ut  non®  im- 
merito  omnis  iUa  regio  a  Tanai*  usque  ad  occiduum/ 
quamvis®  propriis''  singula  loca  vocentur*  nominibus, 
generaKter  tamen  Germania  vocatur,  quia  tot  genninat 
populos  quot  vix  alere  sufficiat.  Inde  est  quod  totiens 
ab  ea  parte  mundi  gentes  sunt  egressse^  aut  videlicet 
sorte  emissae  aut  non  sponte  captivatsa,  aut*  ad  csete- 
ras  nationes  subigendas  ultro  progressse,  sicut  patuit 
aliquando^^  de  Hunis^  Gothis^  WandaJis^  SaxonibuSi 
WynnuKs,"  Longobardis. 
DeBoemia.  Boeinia,  prima  orientalis  Germanise  '^  provincia,  habet 
ab  oriente  ^^  Mo6siam  et  Alanos,  a  meridie  Danubium 
et  Pannoniam,  ab  occidente  Bavariam  et  Thuringiam, 
a  septentrionali  circio  ^^  Saxones.  Fere  undique  circum- 
septa  est  montibus  et  silvis;  abundat  quoque  herbis 
pascualibus  et  aromaticis,^*  necnon^®  fens  et*^  bestiis^ 
inter  quas  est  quoddam  animal  comibus  et  oorpore 
bovi  valde  persimile,^*  quod  lingua  Boemica**  leaz^  vo- 
catur; ^^  suis  tamen  comibus^  se  non  defendit^  sed  in 
amplo  folliculo  quod  sub  mento  gestat  ^'  aquam  coIU- 

>  iantai]  So  A.B.C.D. ;  tanium,  £). 

*  €trtOy  CD.  (arctooy  Faolus.) 
'  nm\  om.  C.  (not  D.) 
*Jluvio  added  in  G.I). 

*  oceanum,  C»  (not  D.) 

*  licet,  C,l>. 

'  <wi  added  in  CJ), 

^  nuncupeniur,  O* ;  nuncupanturf 
D^^i  loca  vocenturf'B, 

^  quod  added  In  A.C.D. 

^^^  guondam,  CD. ;  om.  A.B* 

"  sive  added  in  C*I>« 

'^  Germanue  orientalis^  A.B. 

»  orUt,  CD. 

^^  So  E.  septeatrume.  Circio  Scu- 
anes  (Bic),  A. ;  sqitenirione  circio, 

D,  Perhaps  septentrione  et  circio  is 
the  time  reading.   SeeTreyisa. 

'*  Transposed  in  B. 

»« ac,  B.  5  nee  feris  nee,  A.,  ab- 

"  etj  om.  C. 

'^  stmile  boot,  CD. 

''  Boemetica,  B. 

^  So  EJ). ;  Lew,  C. ;  Boez,  B. 
Loz,  A.  ^e  text  is  peiiiaps  oor- 
mpt.  The  modem  Polish  name  of 
the  Auroch  (Biaon  £«rop<eiM),'wluch 
appears  to  be  intended,  is  Zubr,  or 
Stfhr.    See  Penny  Cych,  s.v.  Ox. 

«» dieitar,  CD. 

^  cum  insectatur,  added  in  CD» 

^gerit,  B. 


Sonne,    and    vnholsom    and    siklewe     for    men  to    wonye  Trevisa. 

ynne.     And   so   fey  eueriche  londe  and  contray  haue  his      

owne  propre  name^  noj^eles^  al  pe  contray  and  lond  from 
the  ryuer  Tanais  anon  to  pe  west  hatte  G^rmania;  for 
he  gendrep  and  bryngeth  forth  mo^  men  and  children  J^an 
J>ey*  may  wel  susteyne.  perfore  hit  is  psA  so  ofte  goj? 
dyuers  men  out  of  }>at  side  of  pe  world  ynto  oper  londes, 
ofer4  by  lot,  oj^er  a^enst  hir  wille,  oJ>er  by  here  good 
wille  for  to  Wynne  and^  gete  o})ere  londes.  So  dedeGothy, 
Wandaly,  Saxones^  Wynuly,  and  Longobardi.  Boemya  is 
pe  firste  prouince  of  fat^  ester  7  G^rmania»  and  ha]?  in  pe 
est  side  Mesia  ^  and  Alania^  in  pe  sou]>  pe  ryuer  Danubius  / 
and  Pannonia,  in  pe  west  Bauaria  and  Thuringia,^  and  in' 
pe  north  and  northwest  Saxonia,  and  is  i-closed  al  most 
all  ^^  aboute  wi]?  hilles  and  wodes,  and  hsp  grete  ^^  plente  of 
lese  and  of  gras  J>at  ^^  smellej?  fid  swete,  and  of  dyuerse 
wylde  bestesy  among  pe  whiche  is  oo^^  beste,  and  hatte 
boz  in  pe  langage  of  Boemia,  but  he  defPende]?  nou^t  hym- 
self  with  his  homes,  but  he  ha]»  a  large  ryuel,  as  it  were 
a  bagge,  vnder  pe  chynne ;  ]>eryn   he   gadereth  water  and 

as  hit  is  more  nye  to  the  son,  in  so  moche  hit  is  more  nyous  MS.  Habl. 
to  nature.  Wherefore  alle  that  region  from  Thanay  unto  2261. 
pe  weste,  thauthe  euery  place  be  namede  by  theire  propre 
names,  generally  thei  be  caUede  Germany,  for  that  londe 
gendrethe  so  mony  peple  that  hit  may  vnnethe  suffise  to 
norysche  theyme.  That  causede  so  mony  peple  to  haue 
goen  from  hit,  as  Huhes,  Gothes,  Wandalynges,  Saxones, 
Winuli  and  Longobardes.  Boemia  is  the  firste  prouince  of 
esturne  G^rmanye,  hauenge  on  the  este  parte  to  hit  Mesia,^ 
of  the  weste  Danuby  and  Pannony,  of  the  meridien  Bauarria 
and  Thuringia,  of  the  northe  weste  Saxones,  allemoste  com- 
passede  abowte  with  hilles  and  woodes,  beynge  habundante 
in  yerbes  and  pastures  and  mony  wilde  bestes.  Amonge 
whom  is  a  beste  like  to  an  oxe  in  body  and  in  homes,  while 
is  callede  in  their  langa^^e  loz^  whiche  defendethe  hym  not  with 
his  homes,  but  gedrl^e  water  in  a  grete  voide  place  vnder 


netkeles,  Cx» 

^  vnooy «. 

*  iU  Cx. 

*  o^er]  om.  Cx.,  who  has  or  be- 

*  Wynne  and\  om,  Cx. 

*  >c,  o.,  Cx 
'  c*fe,  Ox. 

^  Misia,  MSS.  (as  usual.) 
^  Thufynga,  MS.,  here  and  be- 
low (not  so  always  a.  or  Cx.) 

>®  all}  om.  Cx. 
''  agreete,  a. 

»2  So  Cx.  (that)  ;  and,  MS.,  a. 
^^o  beste^  a.;    bestes,  MS.;    one 
I  beeste,  Cx. 

VOL.  I.  R 



De  Thu- 



git,^  quam  currendo  multum^  calefacit,  et  super  in- 
sequentes  venatores^  et  canes  projicit,  sicque  approxi- 
mantes  sibi  mirabiliter  depilat  et  exurit.* 

Thuringia  habet  ab  ortu  Boemiam,  ab  occidente 
Franconiam,  a  septentrione  Westfaliam,  ab  austro  Da- 
nubium  fluvium.® 

Franconia  est  quasi  ^  media  Qermaniae  provineia,  habet- 
que  ad  ortum''  sui®  Thuringiam,  ad  oceasum®  Sue- 
viani,  ad  aquilonem  partem  Westfalise,  ad  austnim  '^ 
Bavariam  et  Danubium. 

Bavaria  habet  ad  ortum  "  Danubium,^^  ad  occidentem 
Sueviam,  ad  aquilonem  Franconiam,  ad  austrmn  partem 
Danubii  et  Rhseticam.*^ 

Westfsdia  habet  ad  ortum  Saxones/*  ad  occasum 
Frisiam,  ad  aquilonem  oceanum,  ad  austrum  partem 
FranconisB  et  SuevisB. 
DeSuevia.  Suevia  habet  ad  ortum  sui^^  Bavariam,  ad  occiden- 
tem Hhenum  fluvium,^^  ab  aquilone^^  partem  Franconise; 
ad  austrum  Ehaeticam  et^^  Alpes. 

Saxonia  habet  ab  ortu  Alanos/^  ab  occasu^^  West- 
faliam,  a  septentrione*^  oceanum,  ab  austro  Thurin- 
giam.  Isidorws^  libro  quarto  dedmo,  Saxonum  gens 
ad   septentrionales    fines   oceani   constituta  virtute  et 

ite  West- 


*  recolligit,  A.C.D. 

^  v^tores]  Added  from  B.C.D. 

*  So  A.B. ;  depilat  atque  urit,  C. 
D  ;  depilat  et,  cm.  E. 

^^uvtum]  om.  A.B.C.D. 
®  qucBdamf  D. 

*  ab  ortUy  CJ). 
®  sm]  om.  CD. 

®  ah  occasu,  B.C.  (not  D.) 

**  ab  austro,  CD. 

»  ab  ortu,  CD. 

*2  Bavaria  . .  .  jyannhinm]  om.  B. 

(by  error  of  scribe.)  The  readings  of 
A.  are  blundered  through  omissions 

^^  et  Iih(jtticam\  om.  CD. 
.    ^*  ab  ortu  Saxoniam,  B. 
**  sut]  om.  CD. 
^^Jluviiim]  orii.  B.CD, 
"  ad  aquilonem,  CD. 
*8  Hheticam  ef]  om.  CD. 
'»  Slavos,  B. 
2"  occidente,  D. 
2*  septentrionale  parte,  B» 
22  Etymol,  added  in  C  (not  D.) 



heteji    it  in   his  rennynge   scladeng  *   hoot,    and   j)rowe]>  it  Trevisa. 

vppon  hunteres  and  houndes  J)at  pnrsewef  hym,  and  scalde])       

of  })e  heere  of  hem  ^  and  brennef  hem  fiil  sore.  Thuryngia  ^ 
ha}»  in  pe  est  side  Boemia,  in  )7e  west  Franconia,  in  ];e 
norJ>  Westfalia,  and  in  J?e  souj?  J?e  ryuer  Danubins.  Fran- 
conia  is,  as  it  were,  j?e  myddel  prouynce  of  Germania,  and 
ha]?  in  |)e  est  side  Thuryngia,^  in  pe  west  Sueuia,  in  pQ 
norJ>  a  party  4  of  Westfalia,  and  in  fe  son]>  Bauaria  and 
J)e  ryuer  Danubius.  Bauaria  haf  in  fe  est  fe  ryuer  Da- 
nubius^  and  Retica.^  Westfalia  haj»  in  pe  est  side  Saxonia, 
in  j>e  west  Frisia,  in  fe  norj)  occean,  in  fe  sou}»  a  party  of 
Fraunce  7  and  of  Sueuia»  Sueuia  haf  in  fe  est  Bauaria,  in 
]?e  west  }?e  ryuere  fat  hatte  pe  Ryne,  in  pe  north  a  party 
of  Franconia,  and  in  pe  south  Retica  and  Alpes.  Saxonia 
ha}>  in  pe  est  Alania,  yn  pe  west  Westfalia,  in  pe  north 
occean,  and  in  pe  sou}>  Thuringia.®  Isidorus,  libro  quarto 
decimo*  Men  of  Saxonia  wone]?  toward  pe  nor]?  endes 
of  occean,  and   bee}?    bo}?e   lifter  ^   and  stronger    fan   oJ>er 

his  chynne,   whiche  makenge  the  water  hoote,  in  rennenge  MS.  Hasl* 
castethe  '^  hyt  on  hunters  and  on    dogges    folowenge  hit,      2261. 

hurtenge  theyme  soore  with  that  water.     Thuringia  hathe  on 

the  este  to  hit  Boemia,  on  the  weste  Franconi%  on  the 
northe  Westefalia,  on  the  sowthe  Danubyus.  Franconia  is 
as  the  myddelle  prouince  of  Germayne,  hauenge  on  the  este 
to  hit  Thuringia,  at  the  weste  Sweuia,  at  the  northe  parte 
of  Westefalia,  at  the  sowthe  Bauarria  and  Danubius. 
Bauarria  hathe  on  the.  este  to  hit  Danubius,  at  the  weste 
Sweuia,  at  the  northe  Franconia,  at  the  sowthe  parte  of 
Danuby  and  Rethica.  Westefalia  hathe  on  the  este  to  hit 
Saxones,  at  the  weste  Frisia,  at  the  northe  the  occean,  and 
at  the  •  sowthe  parte  of  Franconia  and  of  Sueuia.  Sveuia 
hathe  at  the  este  of  hit  Bauarria,  at  the  weste  Renum,  at 
the  northe  parte  of  Franconia,  at  the  sowthe  Rethica  and 
Alpes.  Saxonia  hathe  on  the  weste  to  hit  Westfalia,  on 
the  northe  the  occean,  on  pe  sowthe  Thuringia.  Isidorus,  « 
lihro  quarto  decimo.  The  peple  of  Saxones  whiche  be 
moore  nowble  in  vertu  and  agilite  not  oonly  on  londe^  but  f.  42.  b. 

*  scM,  a.  \  shedding.  Ox.,  which 
is  probably  alone  right 

2  So  Cx.  J  hym,  MS. 

*  Thwtftigcf,  MS.)  here  and  below 
(not  so  always  a.  or  Cx.). 

*  So  Ox. ;  of  a  party,  MS.  and  a, 
^  Eight  woids  preceding  wanting 


^  So  a.  and  Cx.  $  Ratica,  MS. ; 
Rethica  below. 

'  Some  words  repeated  In  MS. 

^  Ox.  omits  the  last  clause  of  the 
foregoing,  and  muchof  thefoUowing 

'  ben  more  lighter,  Cx. 

»•  castetethe,  Harl.  MS. 

R  2 



.  agilitate  prsestantior  quam  caeteri  piratse,  non  solum 
per  terras,  sed  etiam  per  maria,  suis  hostibus  est  in- 
festa;  unde  et  Saxones,  quasi  saxei  et  duri  ac*  im- 
portabiles  sunt  vocati;^  in  quorum  montanis^  omnia 
pene  metallorum  genera  excepto  stanno*  sunt  effossa  ^ 
Qermania^  etiam  fontes  habet^  salsos,  ex  quibus  sal 
albissimum  eonficitur,  et^  juxta  ilium®  montem  ubi 
cuprum  effoditur  est  mons  magnus,  cujus  lapides  redo- 
lent sicut  vioke.^^  Et  jiixta  cenobium  Sancti  Michaelis 
invenitur  marmor  pulcherrimum.^  Beda,  libro  quarto, 
cap.  mcesimo  quinto}^  Antiqui  Saxones  ducem  non 
habent,^®  sed  'satrapas  plurimos  genti  susa  praepositos, 
qui  ingruente  belli  articulo  ^^  mittunt  sequaliter  sortes, 
et"  quemcunque  ^^  sors  ostenderit  *^  hunc  tempore  belli  ^' 
ducem  sequuntur,^®  peractoque  bello  rursus  aequalis  po- 
testatis  omnes  satrapse  fiunt.^^ 
DeFrisia.  Fiisia,^^  Secundum  PUnium,  est*^  regie  super  Uttus^^ 
occidentalis  oceani    sita ;  ab  austro    incipit  a  ^^  Eheno  - 

'  saxei  duri  et,  CD.  (-with  other 
very  slight  variations  above) ;  et,AJB. 

*  dicii  suntf  CD. 
^  montanat  B. 

*  stagno,  MSS* 

®  effossa]    cm.  E.  ;   effodiuntvr, 
CD. ;  genera,  cm.  B. 

*  Germania ....  ptdckerrimum, 
om.  CD. 

'  habetjbntes,  B. 
^  €{]  om.  A.B. 
^iHufn]  om.  A.B. 
**  stent  wiWffi]  So  A  .B. ;  viohs  sicut, 

"  The  true  reference  Is  to  lib.  v. 
c.  10«    D.  has  no  reference. 

*2  non  habent  regem,  A.B.C  (and 

"  hdb,  B. 


1^  cuicumque,  B. 

"  evenerit,  B, 

^^  omnes,  added  in  CD.,  and  in 
Bede's  text 

1®  sequentur,  A. 

^  sunt  omnes  satrapee,  B. 

^PUnius  prefixed  in  A3.;  Pli- 
nius,  libro  6<*,  C  No  reference  in  D., 
which  has  Frigia, 

^  secundum  PUnium  est'\  om.  B« 

^  svb  litus,  B. 

^^  a]  om.  A. 



skymours  ^   of  fe    see,   and  pursewe]?  her  enemyes  ful  hard  Tbisyisa. 

bo]?e  by  water  and  by  lond,  and  hatte  Saxones  of  saxum,^      

y&t  is,  a  stoon,  for  y&y  bee]>  hard  as  stones  and  vnesy  to 
fare  wi]?.  In  Jje  hulles  of  Saxonia  is  wel  ny^  all  manere 
metal  i-digged,  outakyn^  tyn.  In  Germania  beej?  salt  welles, 
of  fe  wMche  wellis  is  salt  i-made  as  white '^  as  any^ 
snowe.  Fast  by  J>e^  hille  J>at  coper  is  i-digged  ynne  is 
a  greet  hille  of  stones ;  of  ^at  hille  [the  stones]  7  smellej? 
sWete  as  violet.  Also  faste  by  fe  mynystre®  of  Seint 
Michel  is  marbil  i-founde  ]>e  fairest  fat  may  be.  Beda^ 
libra  [^uinto^,  capitulo  vicesimo  quinto,  pe  olde  Saxones 
haue  no  kyng,  but  meny  kny^tes  of  here  owne  rulej?  hem;^ 
but  in  tyme  of  bataifle  fei  caste]?  lott  whiche  of  here 
kny^tes  schal  be  ledere  and  cheveteyn,  and  folwef  him  fat 
is  so  i-chose  by  lott  *^  as  cheef  lorde  and  maister  durynge 
fe  bataille ;  but  whan  ]>e  bataile  ^^  is  i-doo^  fan  schal  he  be 
as  he  was  rafer,^^  he  and  ofere  kny^tes  al  i-liche^^  greet 
of  power  and  of  my^t  Plinitts,  libro  quinto,  Erisia  is  a 
lond   vppon  fe  clyue^*  of  fe   west  occean^   and  bygynnef 

also  on  the  see,  is  moche  contrarious  to  theire  enmyes.  MS.  Harl. 
Wherefore  thei  be  callede  Saxones,  as  importable  and  harde  2261. 
as  a  stOB,.  In  the  hilies  or  mownteynes  of  whom  allemoste 
alle  kyndes  of  metalles  be  founde,  tynne  excepte.  Also 
Germayne  hathe  salte  welles,  of  whom  white  salte  is  made. 
Also  riye  to  the  hille  where  copur  is  geten  is  a  grete 
hille,  the  stones  of  whom  smelle  lyke  violettes.  Also  feire 
marbole  is  founde  in  the  hille  nye  to  the  Abbay  of 
Seynte  Michael.  Beda,  libro  quarto,  capitulo  vicesimo 
quinto.  The  olde  Saxones  vsede  not  a  kynge  but  other 
men  in  worschippe  ;  which  perceyvenge  batelle  to  be 
inducede  made  a  gouemoure  to  theyme  after  as  the  chaunce 
scholde  ffalle,  whom  thei  folowede  in  tyme  of  batelle. 
The  batelle  doen,  alle  the  nowble  men  weBe  of  egalle 
honor.  Plinius,  libro  quinto,  Frisia  is  a  region  sette  on 
the  brynke    of   the  weste  ocean,  takenge    begynnenge    of 

'  scommers  or  iheuys,  Cx. 
2  saxon,  MS.  (not  «.  or  Cx.) 

*  cmtake,   a.  ;  fouvden,    reserued 
tyriy  Ox. 

*  whiyty  a, 

*  ony,  Cx.  (and  so  often.) 

*  ihaty  Cx. 

*  Added  from  Cx.,  who  varies 
the  sentence  a  little. 

^  monasterye,  Cx. 

om.  Ox. 

'*  whiche  of, , ,  lott]  Added  ih>ni 
a.  and  Cx. 

"  Four  words  omitted  in  MS. 

^^  before ;  Ihat  is  to  wete,  he,  Sfc,^ 

1^  aUe  lyche,  Cx.,  who  omits 

1*  coste,  Cx. 





fluvio,^  et  mari  Danico  terminatur,  cujus  viri  circular 
liter  tondimtur^  et  quanto  nobiliores  sxmt,  tatito  Celsius 
tonsorantur.  Gens  quidem  fortis,^  prooeri  corporis,  animi 
ferocis,  lanceis  utens  pro  sagittis;  libertatem  summe 
zelat ;  *  ideo  uullum  qui  eis  domihetur  in  militem  erigi 
sinuni  Judieibus  tamen^  subsunt,  quos  annuatim  de 
seipsis  eligunt;  pudicitiam^  zelant;  liberos  suos^  dili- 
genter  custodiunt ; ''  quos^  non  ante  vicesimum  quar- 
tum  annum  nubere  permittunt ;  unde  et  ^  contingit 
robustam  sobolem  procreari.  Lignis  carent,  proinde*^ 
glebas  et  cespites  ad  ignem  ponunt.'^ 

Selandia,  terra  modica  et  maritima,  instar  insula 
marinis  brachiis  circumdata,  ad  ortum  habet  Hollan- 
diam^  ad  septentrionem  Frisiam,  ad  occasum  oceanum, 
ad  austrum   Flandriain.     Cincta   est   aggeribus  in  cir- 

^Jluvio]  om.  A.B.C.D. 
'  fartis]  om.  A. 

^  zelantf  CD.,  which  is  perhaps 
*  tamenjudicibuSf  A. 
^  prudentiam,  0*  (not  D.) 
^  ei  suos^  A. 

^  custoditoSf  A«B.C.D. 

^quos^  pm.  A.6.C.P. 

*  ef]  om,  A.C.D, 

**  iccircOy  C  J).  ;  et  proindey  A. 

"  incendunt,  A.B.C.D. 


itt  pQ  sou}»  side  from  }>e  Byne,  and  ende]?  at  pe  see  of  Den-  Tkevisa. 

mark.i     Men   of  Frisia  bee]?  i-schore^  aboute,    and   euir^      

pe  more  gentil  man  and  noble  ]>e  hi^er  he  is  i-schore. 
pe  men  bej)  faire  of  body  and  cruel  and  bolde  of  herte, 
and  vsed*  spores  in  stede*  of  arwes,  and  loue]>  fredom 
most  of  any  ping,  perfore  J?ey  sufiTreji  no  man  be  a  knytt 
J?at  wil  be  her  lorde.  Neuerpeles  J?ey  heep  gouerned  and 
ruled  by  domesmen  and  iuges,  and  euerich  ^ere  pej^ 
chese]>  of  hem  self  her  owixe  iuges,  pey  louep  wel  chastite, 
and  kepej)  besiliche  here  children,  and  suffi*eth  hem  nouZt 
to  wyfe^  wi]?  ynneS  foure  and  twenty  ^ere.^  perfore 
pej  hauej'  stalwor fe  i<>  children  and  strongej  pey  hauef 
none  wodes,ii  perfore  pey  make]?  hem  fuyre  of  torues.12 
Selandia  is  a  litel  lond  vppon  pe  see,  [whiche  retmoth 
thurgh  the  londe  and  cause])  xvij.  ilondes,  and  about 
eueryche  a  shippe  saylle,]^^  and  hap  in  pe  est  side  Ho- 
landia^  in  pe  north  Frisia,  in  pe  west  occean,  in^^  p^  ^Qy^p 
Flandria,  and  is  by  clipped  aboute  as  an  ilond  wip  armes  of 

the  sowthe  parte  from  the  floode  callede  Ehenus,  and  is  MS.  Habl. 
endede   with  the  see  of  Danes.     The  men  of  that  londe     2261. 

be  rowndede  in  the  maner  of  a  cercle,  as  moche  as  men      

be  of  moore  nobilite,  in  so  moche  thei  be  rowndede  more 
hye.  That  peple  is  stronge  and  of  semely  stature,  bolde 
in  herte,  vsenge  speres  for  arowes,  luffenge  moche  liberte. 
Wherefore  thei  wylle  not  suffre  a  knyjhte  to  haue  pre- 
dominy  in  theyme.  They  be  obediente  to  iugges,  whom 
thei  make  yerely ;  luffenge  clennesse  and  chastite ;  kepenge 
theire  childer  with  grete  diligence,  not  suffi-enge  theyme  to 
be  maryede  tylle  they  atteyne  to  xxiiij*»  yere  in  age. 
Wherefore  thei  gette  my^hty  childer.  Whiche  wontenge 
woode  brenne  turfes  maae  of  the  erthe*  Selandia  is  a 
litelle  londe,  and  in  the  costes  of  the  see,  compassede 
abowte  as  an  yle  with  armes  of  the  see,  hauenge  at  the 
este  to  hit  Holande,  at  the  northe  Frisia^  at  the  weste 
the  occean,  at  the  sowthe  Flandres;  hauenge  grete  hopes 

*  Denmarch,  a. 

^  ben  high  shauen,  Cx. 
'  euere^  a. 

*  vae,  Cx.y  vhieh  is  better. 

^  So  a,  and  Cx. ;  dede^  MS. 

'  marief  Ox. 

*  wil»  ynne]  til  they  be,  Cx. 
°yere  old.  Ox. 

^<*  stronge  and  stehoorih  chUderen, 

'^  no  tvoodes,  a. 

^*  turues,  Cx. 

^^  The  words  in  brackets  added 
from  Cx.  After  see  MS.  and  a  have 
by-cUpped  aboute  as  an  ihnd  wtl» 
armes  o/H  see,  wbicJi  occurs  bek>w. 

^*  and  in,  a. 



cuitu  contra  impetum  maris^  cujus  gleba  frugum  ferax, 
sed  arborum^  rara;  non  enim  potent  ibi  arbor  ^ 
radicem  profundare  propter  soli  salsuginem.  Qens 
ejus^  magnae,  est  *  staturse^  fortis  corpore,  pia  mente.® 
De  Scribo-  Paulus^  libro  primo.    In  circionali  oceiduo  Gennanise 

nils  [vel 

^?^*^^h    sunt  populi  dicti  Scribonii/  qui  etiam  sestatis  tempore 

nisj,  et  de  ^    -^  ^  *^ 

^^u     ^^^il)^^    ^^^   carent,   crudis  animaliuni   camibus  ves- 

soporous»  ,  •  i*i*  11*1  «I  i«i* 

cuntur,  de  quorum  hirtis  pellibus  indumenta  abi  co- 
aptaat.  '  Apud  quos  drca  solstitium  sestivale  radii 
solares  aliquibus^  noctibus  continue  apparent;  et  rursum 
drca  solstitium  brumale,  quamvis  lux  diei  adsit,  sol 
tamen  non  videtur.  Item^  Pavlua,  libro  primoy^^ 
capitulo  quarto.  Juxta  eosdem  Scribonios"  in  ipso 
oceani  Httore  antrum  sub  eminenti  rape  conspicitur^ 
ubi  septem  viri  jam  diu  soporati  quiescunt  ita  illaesis 
corporibus  et  vestibus/^  ut  etiam  apud  indoctos  barba- 
ros  magnae  venerationi  habeantur.  Hi  quoque,*®  quan- 
tum ad  habitum  spectat,  Bomani  putantur;^^  e  quibus 
unum  dum  aliquis  ^^  cupiditate  stimulatus  vellet  exuere, 

^  arborum]  So  B. ;  arbore,  A.E. 
2  arbor  thtdem,  B. ;  arbor  ibi,  A. 
^  et  added  in  B. 

*  est"]  om.  B. 

^  Selandia . . .  mente]  The  whole 
paragraph  omitted  in  CD. 

•  PUnius,  C  J). 

'  Stricobinif  (or  perhaps  Scrito- 
btnif)  CD.  Paiilns  DiaconnB  (lib.  i. 
c.  51,  ed.  1603)  has  Scritobini, 
which  may  be  correct. 

**  aliquibus^  om*  B. 
•  Iteni]  om.  CD. 
'•  quinto,  B.  wrongly.    The  text 
is  correct. 
"  Siricobinos,  C.D. 
*^  vestimentisy  CD.  (and  Paulus.) 
**  denique,  CD.  (and  Fanlus.) 
^*  ease  cer»i(}itur,CD.(andPaulus.) 
'^  quidam,  CD,  (and  Paulus.) 



fe  see  and  floodes.^    J)ere  is  good  com  londe  and  scai'sete  Tabvisa. 

of  trees,  for  J^e  rootes  mowe  not  take  depnesse  and^  fatnesse      

for  saltnesse  of  }>e  er}ie.  pe  men  bee]>  grete  of  body  and 
mylde  of  herte.  Paulus,  libro  prima.  In  ]>e  norfwest^ 
side  of  Germania  is  a  peple  ]>at  hi^te  Scribonias,  Jiat  bath 
snow  al  pe  somer  tyme,  and  ete]?  rawe  flescb,  and  bee]>  i- 
cloj>ed  in  goot  bukkes^skynnes.  In  hire  contray,  whan  pe 
ny^t  is  schort,  me  may  all  ny^t  see^  pe  sonne  hemes;  and 
eft  *  in  the  wynter,  when  pe  day  is  schort,  J>ey  may  see  pe 
li^t  of  pe  Sonne,  J^ey  7  me  seep  no^t  pe  sonne.^  Item  Paulusy 
libro  primoy  cap,  quarto,^  Fast  byside  fat  peple  Scribonius, 
Vndir  pe  clif  of  occean,  is  a  den  vndir  an  bite  stoon  ;  J>er- 
ynne  slepe]>  seuen  men  and  haue]?  longe  i-slepe,  and  bee]) 
hool  and  somid  -in  body  and  clojiinge,  and  al  vrip  oute  wem.^^ 
So  J>at  vntau^t  men  and  straunge  haue])  hem  '*  in  gret  wor- 
schippe.^2  pQ.y  ijee]?  i-holde  Romaynes,  as  pel  seme]?  by  hire 
clo]>inge.i3  pere  was  a,  man  som  tyme  ])at  for  couetise  wolde 
stripe   on   of  hem,  and  haue  his  closing.     But  anone  his 

in  hit  in  a  circuite  for  cause  of  the  see;  in  whiche  londe  MS.  Hael. 
be  fewe  trees,  for  a  tree  may  not  take  fer  roote  for  2261. 
saltenes  of  the  erthe.  The  peple  of  hit  is  of  grete  stature, 
stronge  off  body,  meke  in  mynde.  PaultM^  libro  primo. 
Also  in  the  sowthe  weste  of  Germayne  be  peple  callede 
Scribonij,  whiche  haue  plente  of  snawe  in  the  tyme  of 
somer,  and  eite  rawe  fiesche  of  bestes,  hauenge  clothes  of 
the  ru^he  skynnes  of  bestes ;  where  the  beames  of  the 
Sonne  be  seen  contynually,  somme  ny^htes  abowte  the 
solstice  of  somer ;  and  also  abowte  the  solstice  of  wynter, 
thau^he  li^hte  appere  in  the  day,  the  son  is  not  scene. 
Itenh  libra  primoy  capitulo  quarto,  A  denne  is  seen  nye 
to  men  of  that  cuntre  vnder  an  hie  hille,  where  vij.  men 
slepenge  haue  lyen  longe,  the  clothes  and  bodies  of  theym 
incorrupte,  whiche  be  supposede  to  be  Bomanes,  as  after 
their  habite  ;  whom  a  man  movede  thro  auaryce  willenge  to 

^  Cx.  thus  :  and  is  enuironed  with 
water  and  Mghe  hankes  to  holde  out 
the  rysynge  of  ike  see  andjloodes, 

«  ne,  Cx, 

'  westy  Cz. 

^  IrnkkCy  a.,  Cx.  (fiuk.) 

^  see  ode  the  nyght,  Cx. 

*  after f  Cx. 

'  b^]  om.  a. 

'  Cx.  thuB :  though  men  see  the 

light  of  the  son7i€f  yet  the  sonne  is 
not  seen, 

*  Cx.,  omitting  the  reference, 
thus  :  Item  fast,  ^'c, 

*^  wemme,  a.,  Cx. 

"  Forwhieh cause  the  comyn peple 
have  hem,  Cx. 

1^  worship  and  reuerencey  Cx. 

^^  Tliei/  ar  supposed  Romains  bg 
lier  chtking,  Cx. 


mox  ejus  bracMa  aruerunt.  Fortassis  ad  hunc  pro- 
ventum  eos  Deus  servat^  illsesos,^  ut  barbarse  gentes 
per  eos  aliquando  ^  convertantur. 

Cap.  XXV. 

De  Franda  sive  GaUia,^ 

Tradunt^  historiae  quod  Gallia,  quss  et  Francia,  a^ 
candore  populi  sit  dicta/  Gala  enim  Graece  lac  dici- 
tur  Latine ;  idcirco  eos  Gallos,®  id  est,  candidos, 
Sibylla  ®  vocat,  dicens  : 

tunc  lactea  colla 
Auro  humectentur.*^ 

HugutiOy  capUido  Gala.  Nam  secundum  diversitatem 
coeli,  colore»  facierum,  quantitates  corporum,"  qualitates 
animorum  existunt.  Inde  Roma  graves,  Graecia  leves, 
Africa  versipelles,  Gallia  ingeniosos  generat.  Ranuln 
fhus.  Hie  autem  est  notandum,  sicut  tangit  Augus- 
tinus  De  Civitate,  libro  secundo,  capitulo  quinto,  quod 
Galli  uno   modo   dicti   fuerant   sacerdotes  in    templo 

J  servaventDominuSf  CD.;  Domi" 
nus  servaverit,  B. 

2  iUiesos]  om.  CD. ;  iUe^  A.  (cleri- 
cal error.) 

^  qtiandoque,  CD. 

*  De  GaUia  seu  Franda^  A.B. 

^  Tradunt . . .  sepiimo  decimo  (next 
page)]  om-CD. 

8  a]  om.  B. 

'  denomiTiataf  A.B. 

^  et  idieo  Gallos  eos^  A.B. 

®  sub  illUi  B. 

10  The  reference  i$  to  Virg.  ^n. 
viii.  660,  where  however  innectun- 
tur  is  the  true  reading.  The  Sibyl 
is  not  speaking,  but  the  words  are 
part  of  a  description  of  Vulcan's 

"  et  added  in  B. 



armes  driede    aud  wax    al  drye.^     Hit    may  be  J?at  Grod  Tbevisa. 

kepej>^  hem   so  hool   and   sounde,   for  mysbyleued  men  in      

tyme  to  comynge  schulde  }>orw^  hem  h&  conuerted  and  i- 
torued  to  good  byleue. 

De  Gallia  sive  Francia, 

Capitulum  vicesimum  septimum, 

i^.  Hit  is  i- write  in  stories  fat  Gallia,  fat^  is  Prancia^  haf 
J?at  name  Grallia  of  wbitenes  of  |)e^  peple*  Gala  is  Grew,^ 
la^  in  Latyn^  mylk^  in  Englissh.  perfore  Sibylla  clepe]> 
hemGalloSy  ]?at  is,  white,  and  seij)  "pan^  jje  mylky  nekkes 
"bee)>  i-wasche  wij)  gold,"  HttgutiOy  cap.  Gala,  By  J>e  dyuex'- 
site  of  heuene  is  dyuersite  of  coloures  of  face,  of  quantite 
and  gretnes  of  body,  of  maneres  and  of  witt ;  perfore  in 
Rome  beej?  heuy  men,  yn  Grees  ly^t,  in  Affrica  gileful,  in 
Gallia  witty  men  and  wys.  ]^,  Here  take  hede,  as  Augus- 
tinus  touchej>,  De  Civitate  Dei,  libro  [secundo,  cap.]  ®  quinto, 
pat  Gaily  in  oon  manere  speche  were  pe  preostes,  pat  were 

vnclothe  anoon  bis  armes  wexede  drye.    Perauenture  GodMS.HABL. 
preseruethe  theyme   incorrupte  for  that  entente,  that  men      ^^^^* 
of  Barbre  may  bo  conuertede  to  the  feithe  by  theyme. 

Of  Fraunce.     Capitulum  vicesimum  septimum, 

^.  Storyes  expresse  that  Gallia  or  Praunce  bathe  denomi- 
nacion  of  the  whitenesse  of  peple  ;  for  thys  worde  "galla"  in 
Grewe  is  seyde  "mylke"  in  Latyne,  wherefore  SibiUe  callethe 
Frenche  me,®  white,  seyenge,  **  Then  the  white  neckes  schaLle 
**  be  humectate  or  made  weiete  with  golde."  HuguUo^  capi- 
tuh  Gala*  Por  the  eoloures  of  faces,  quantites  of  bodies, 
qualites  of  sawles,  haue  theire  existence  in  man  after  the 
diuer  site  of  heuyn.  perefore  Rome  gendrethe  hevy  men, 
Grece  Ijrthte  men,  and  Praunce  wy tty  men.  ]^.  Hit  is  also 
to  be  aduertisede  after  the  seyenge  of  Seynte  Austin,  De 
Civitate  Dei,  libro  tertio,  capitulo  quinto,  that  men  cajlede 
Galli  in  oon  maner  were  prestos  in  the  temple  of  a  godesse 

^fonoitk  his  arme  waxed  <d  dretfe, 

2  list  to  kepe^  Cx. 

^  Jxzf]  Added  from  «.;  whielh  CX' 

^  )>6]  om.  a.  and  Cx. 

'  a  worde  in  Gtewe,  and  is  lac, 

^  and  mylk^  Cx. 
» that,  Gx. 

^Tke  words  in  brackets  added 
from  Cx.  This  is  the  true  reference, 
and  the  text  agrees ;  the  HarL  MS. 
is  irrong. 

'  tm]  So  Harl.  MS. 


Cybelis,  non  a  Gallia  provincia,  sed  a  Gallo  fluvio 
PhrygisD  sic  dicti;  a  quo  potantes  fiebant  insani,  et 
omnes  castrabantur  in  memoriam  pueri  Attis^  quern 
amavit  Dea  Cybele.  Hie  nempe  Attis,  propter  fraudem 
quam   Dea3   fecerat,    versus  est  in   insaniam,   in   qua 


castravit    se,    secundum    Ovidium     de     Fastis.^      Sed 
de  Gallis   qui   sunt   Franci,  sic^  dicit  Eutropius,  libro 
secundo :  Galloruin  animi  feroces  erant  et  corpora  plus- 
quam  humana ;   sed  expeiimento   deprehensum/   quod 
sicut  Gallorum  virtus   primo  impetu  major  est   quam 
virorum^  ita  sequens  virtus  minor  est  quam  foeminarum. 
Alpina  namque  corpora  humenti  ccelo  educata  quiddam 
simile  suis  habent  nivibus  qusd  pugnse  calore  in  sudore 
resoluta  quasi   radio  solari  laxantur.^     GircMus,  List 
prvma,   cap.    septimo  dedmo.      Gallia*    igitur''    cum 
j^artibus    suis^  a   septentrione  habet    Germaniam,   ab 
ortu   Ehenum,    ab   Euro    Alpes,    ab    occasu    oceanum 
Britannicum,®  ad  austrum  ^^  fretum  mediterraneum,  quod 
prseterfluit"  provinciam  Narbonensem.^^    Gallia  quon- 

._ .  '  -■■-... 

*  Athis,  MSS.  I       '  O.I),  begin  the  chapter  here. 

^  Hie  autem  .  *  .  Fastis']  om.  A.B. 

^SoB. ;  sicut,  "E. 

*  De  Gallis  sic  dicit  Eutropius  in 
historia  R&mana ;  experimento  cfepre- 
hensum  est,  A.6. 

^*  Alpina  , . .  laxantur]  om.  A.B. 

'  Gallia,  qwB  et  Francia,  CD. 

*  suis  partihus,  B. 

^  seu  GaUicum,  added  in  A.B,C.D. 

^*  ah  austro,  B. 

^^  praterluit,  B, 

"  Abbreviated  in  CD. 


in  ]?e  temple  of  J>at   goddes  ]?at  hi^te  Cybele,*  and  hadde  Tbeyiba. 

the  name  2  nou^t    of   J?at    lond  Gallia  but  of  p&t^  ryuer      

Gallus  |>at  is  in  Phrygia.^  Alle  fat  drank  of  ]>at  ryuer 
schulde  worfe  wood,  and  were  alle  i-gilded  in  mynde**»  of 
])at  cbjld  Attis,^  ]7at  ]>ilke*  goddes  Cybele  loued  wi]>  all  ber 
my^t.  pe^  childe  worfe®  wood,  and  gilded  hymself,  for 
fraude  and  gile  fat  be  badde  i-doo  to  J>at  goddes  Cybele, 
[so  sayth]»  Ovidius  de  Fastis.  But  ofi<>  Galli  fat  beef 
Franci,  and  Frenscbe  men,  Eutropius,  libro  secundo,  seif, 
Galli  bee]?  wel  hasty,  and  here  body  passe]>  fe  comune  sta- 
ture of  oJ>er  men.  But  it  is  i-founde  by  assay  pat  as  "  Galli 
bep  wel  hasty  pan  strong  in  fe  firste  rees,l2  soo  afterward 
fey  beep  ^^  in  fi^tynge  more  feble  pan  wommen.  For  as  pey 
beep  liche  Alpes  in  gretnes  of  body,  so  pey  beep  liche  ^^  to 
the  snowe  pat  Hep  vppon  Alpes  i^  pat  brekep  out  on  sweet, 
and  meltep  wip  hete  of  fy^tynge  as  snow  doop  wip*  hete  of 
pe  Sonne.  Girald.,  Dist,  [e.],  cap.  septimo  decimo.  panne  Gallia 
wip  his  parties  al  hole  hap  in  pe  north  sideGermania,  in  pe  est 
pe  Ryne,  in  pe  soupest^^  Alpes,  in  pe  west  pe  see  of  ^^  occean 
pat  hatte  bope  Britannicus  and  Gallicus,  pat  is,  Englisshe  , 
and  EVensche,^®  for  it  departep  bope  Engelond  and  Fraunee, 
in  pe  soup  pe  see  of  myddel  erpe  pat  waschep  aboute  by  pe 

callede  Cybele,^  not  namede  of  Gallia,  that  is  Fraunee,  but  MS.  Habl. 
of  a  floode  callede  Gallus  in  Frigia,  of  whiche  water  men  ^261. 
di'ykenge  were  made  madde,  and  were  geldede,  in  to  the 
memory^  of  a  childe  callede  Attis,^  whom  that  godesse 
callede  Cybele  *  luffedde.  Whiche  childe,  after  Guide  De 
Fastis,  for  the  fraude  that  he  hade  doen  to  the  godesse  was 
tumede  to  maddenesse,  in  whiche  maddenesse  he  did  gelde 
hym  selfe.  Griraldus,  Dist  prima^  cap,  septimo  decimo» 
Therefore  Fraunee  with  his  partes  hathe  on  the  northe  to 
hyt  Germayne,  on  the  este  the  floode  callede  Ehenus,  on 
the  weste  the  occean  of  Britayne,  at  the  sowthe  the  grete 
see  whiche  flowethe  to  the  cuntre  of  Narbonense.     Somme 

I  Ciheles or  Sibeles,USS,  and  Cx. 
^  haue  that  name,  Cz. 
» the,  Cx. 

*  Frigitty  MSS.  and  Cx. 

*  their  mynde,  Cx. 

«  Athis,  MSS.  and  Cx. 

7  That,Cx. 

®  waxe,  Cx. 

9  Added  ftom  Cx. 

»«  \>e]  Added  in  a.  |  MS.,  a. 

"  a.  and  Cx.  add  J>«. 

**  rese  or  brout,  Cx. 

'^  they  ben  after  Jyghtyng,  in  Cx. 

"  be  somwhat  like,  Cx,  (and  a.) 

^^  the  Alpes,  Cx.,  and  so  belov. 

'^  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  south  est,  MS. 

"  of]  om.  Cx. 

^®  So  Cx. ;  Frensehe  m  Englisshe, 




dam  apiid  JuKum  Csesarem  fuerat^  tripartita,  modo 
vero  propter  ^  varies  rerum  eventus  a  Rheno  fluvio 
usque'  Sequai^am,*  Gallia  Belgica  sive^  Francia 
proprie  dicitur.  Inde^  usque  ad'  Ligerim  fluvium 
dicitur  Gallia  Lugdunensis,  quae  nunc  superius  vocatur  ^ 
Burgundia,  inferius  yero  ^  Neustria  dicitur.'®  A  Ligere 
vero  usque  ad  Garonnam  fluvium  Gallia  Aquitanica 
dicitur,  quge  ab  orientali  sibi  Rhodano  usque  ad  occi- 
dentalem  oceanum  porrigitur ;  cujus  pars  superior  a 
celsitudlne  montium,  qua  prseminet,  Celtica  dicitur."  A 
Garonna  autem  '^  fluvio '«  usque  ad  fretum  mediterra. 
neum  seu  Pyrenseos  montes  Gallia  Narbonensis  dicitur, 
quae  etiam  '*  nimc  '^  partim  Gothia  partim  Vasconia 
dicitur.  Et^^.  sic  Gallia  universa '^  cingitur  tribus  no- 
bilibus  fluminibus,'^  Rheno  ad  septentrionem,  Rhodano 
ad  orientem,  oceano  Britannico  ad  occasum.  Gallia  ita- 
que  lapides*^  habet  nobiles;  potissime  solum  Parisi- 
orum^^  abundat^^  gypso,  quod  album  plastrum  vocant. 

^fuit,  B.C.D. 
2  ob,  A^B.CD. 
»  (uf  added  in  B.C.I). 
^  So  B. ;  usque  ad^  A. ;  Secanam,  E. 
*  seuy  CD. 
°  vero  added  in  CD. 
"*  ad\  om.  A.CD. 
^  vocatnr]  onu  A.B, 
^  vero]  om.  A. 

^^  Slightly  abbreviated  and  tmns- 
posed  in  CD. 
»  Slightly  varied  in  CJ). 
'<  auieml  om.  A.B.;  vero^  CD. 
^^Jtumo]  om  CD. 

"  etio)»]  om.  A3. 

*^  etiam  nunc]  om.  C  All  after 
dicitur  omitted  in  D. 

^^  Et  sic  . ..  quondam  in  Grecia] 
Thus  abridged  in  CD. :  In  omni 
prorsus  GaUia  sexdeeim  suntprovin" 
cicBy  quarum  cmnitm  estfeUeior  Agui" 

"  universcditer,  B* 

*^  aquis,  A.B. 

'®  lapidieinasy  A.B. 

^  PariseuSyB, ;  Pariseorumf  A.E. 
^^  abundans  nobili,  6. ;    abundat 
nobUiy  A. 


prouynce  of  Narbon.     In  lulius  Cesar  his  tyme  Gallia  was  Tbevisa, 

departed  on  pre  ;  but  for  dyuers  happes  fat  byfel  afterward      

in  J?at  lond  pe  contray  and  lond  fat  strecchej)  from  ]>e  Ryne 
to  Seyne,  from  f e  oon  ryuer  to  fat  of er,  batte  now  Gallia 
Belgica,  fat  is  verray  Fraunce  ;  and  fat  contray  fat^ 
strecchef  from  fens  to  fe  ryuer  of  Leyre,  hatte  Gallia 
Lugdumensis.  pe  ouer  partie  f  erof  hatte  Burgundia,  and  f  e 
nefere  hatte  Neustria ;  and  f e  contray  fat  strecchef  fram 
fe  ryuer  of  Leyre  to  fe  water  fat  hatte  ^  Garonna  hatte 
Gallia  Aqaitanica,  fat  is  Gyan,  and  strecchef  out  of  f e 
est  from  f e  ryuer  of  Bone  anon  to  fe  West  occean,  J)e 
ouer  party  f erof  hatte  Celicaj^  fat  is,  heuenliche  and  hi^e, 
for  hi^e  mountaignes  fat  beef  f erynne*  From  f e  ryuer  of 
Garonna  to  f e  see  of  myddel  erf e  and  to  fe  mountaignes 
fat  beef  montes  Pyrenei,  greet  hilles  of  Spayne,  is  i-cleped 
Gallia  Narbonensis,  and  now  som  ferof  hatte  Gothia,  and 
som  Vasconia,  fat  is  Gasquyne.  And  so  Gallia  al  hool  is 
i-closed  aboute  wif  fre  noble  wateres,  wif  fe  Reyne^  in  fe 
norf  side,  wif  fe  Rone  in  fe  est,  and  wif  fe  Bruttische»* 
occean  in  fo  west  side.  In  Gallia  bef  many  good  quarers 
and  noble  for  to  digge  stoon;^  and  bysides  Parys  is  greet 
'  plente  of  a  manere  stoon  fat  hatte  gypsus,  and  is  i-cleped 
white  plaistre  also ;  whan  fat  stoon  is  i-tempred  wif  water 

tyme  Fraunce  was  partede  in  thre,  after  lulius  Cesar ;  MS.  Hakl. 
but  nowe  hit  is  callede  Gallia  Belgica,  or  Fraunce  pro-  ^^' 
prely  from  that  fioode  callede  Renus,  vn  to  Seguana.  And 
from  thens  to  a  floode  caUede  Ligeris  hit  is  calledde  Fraunce  f«  43  b. 
Lugdunense.  And  from  that  water  Ligeris  vn  to  the  floode 
callede  Garona  hit  is  callede  Aquitany  or  Gyon,  which  is 
protendede  vn  to  the  esturne  floode  callede  Rodanus,  and  to  the 
weste  occean,  the  superior  parte  of  whom  is  callede  Celtica, 
of  the  altitude  of  hilles  in  hit.  And  hit  is  callede  nowe 
also  Fraunce  Narbonense^  from  that  floode  caUede  Garona  vn 
to  the  grete  see,  whiche  is  nowe  in  parte  Gothia  in  parte 
Gascuyn.  And  so  alle  Fraunce  is  cincte  with  thre  nowble 
waters ;  with  the  water  caUede  Rhenus  at  the  northe,  with 
the  flood  calledde  Rodanus  at  the  este,  and  at  the  weste 
with  the  occean  of  Briteyne.  This  Fraunce  is  habundante 
in  white  stones  whiche  is  callede  white  playster,  whiche 
brente  in    the  fjrre    and    temprede    with    water    makethe 

^}>at]  Added  from  Gx. 
^]HithaUe'i  of,  a.,Cx. 
*  Selica,  a. 

*  JRyne,  a. 

*  So  also  Cx.  (BruttpsL) 

*  digge  y»  stones,  a.,  Cx. 


quod  quidem  igne  exustum  et  aqua  temperatum  verti- 
tur  in  csementum,  unde  fiunt  parietes,  testudines,  et 
pavimenta  indissolubilia.  Ibi^  floret  civitas  Parisius, 
nutrix  morum,  pincema  literaruiUy  ita^  refulgens  in 
Europa  sicut  Athense  quondam  in  Grsacia.®  Gens 
etiam^  Francorum,  sicut  plerseque  gentes  Europea,  a 
Trojanis  originem  duxit ;  Ant^nor  namque  post  captam 
Trojam  cum  suis  proftigus  per  Maeotides  paludes  per- 
que^  fluvium®  Tanaim'  Pannoniam  tenuit,  in  qua 
urbem  Sicambram  fimdavit,  a  qua  et  ipse  et  sui  pos- 
ter!^ Sicambri  dieti  sunt.  Post  cujus  mortem  con- 
stituti  sunt^  duces  super  eos  Trogotus  et  Franco^  a 
quo  Franci  vocati ;'®  sive,  ut  Turpinus  inter  gesta  ^^ 
Caroli,^^  scribit/^  postquam  Carolus  subjugata  Hispania 
Parisium  remeasset^  volens  honorare  Beatum  Jacobum 
et  Sanctum  Dionysium  manumisit^^  omnes  servos  per 
GaUiam  cujuscunque  fuissent  '^  dominii/®  qui  annuatim 
quatuor  nummos  ad  fabricam  ecclesise  ^^  Beati  Dionysii 
ofFerrent ;  et  sic  franci^   id  est  liberi,   Beati  Dionysii 

'  et  ihi,  B. 
^  tto]  om.  A.B. 
*See  preyious  page. 
^  eHam]  om«  CD. ;  igiiur,  A3. 
^  per  qucBy'B, 
^Jiumen,  A. 
»  Thamy,  MSS. 

^  ipse  et  8utpo8ter%\  om.C.I).;  ^us 
sequaceSf  A.B. 
"  Post . . .  suntll  om.  CD. 

1^  sunt  added  in  A.B,D. 

^^  de  gestis,  A:B,CJ>* 

*^  KardUy  MSS.,  and  similarly  be< 

"  dkit,  CD. 

^*  Slightly  tianeposed  in  C. 

"  essentf  A.B. 

"  SUghtly  altered  in  CD. 

"  ecclesuB]  Added  from  A.B.D. 


and  torned  to  playstre.^    panne   me   make]?  J?8rof  ymages,  Trbvisa. 

walles  and   chambres,  pamentes  and   djuerse  manere    of  3     

workes,  J>at  dm*ef  longe  i-now.  pare  is  fe  faire  floure  ]?e 
citee  of  Parys,  norice  *  of  fewes,  botiller  of  lettres,  schy- 
nynge  in  Europa  as  Athene  4  somtyme  In  Grecia,  Girdfd. 
DisL  prima,  pe  Fi'ensclie  men,  \ht  batte  Franci  also,  and 
many  ofer  men  J>e  strongest  of  Europa  come  of  *  Troians  ; 
ffor  aftir  Jjat  Troye  was  i-takc,  Antenor  wi])  Ms  men  fliZ^ 
awey  by  j>e  ^  watres  pat  hatte  paludes  Meotides,  and  by  ])e 
ryuer  Tanais,  and  wonede  in  Fannonia^  and  bulde  pere 
a  citee,  and  cleped  it  Sicambria.  Of  fat  citee  he  and 
alle  hise  wei'e  aftirward  i-cleped  Sicatnbri.  After  Antenore 
his  deep  pey  ordeyned  liem  tweie  lederes,  Trogotus  and 
Franco,  and  of  pilke  Finance  pel  were  after  i-cleped  Franci. 
Turpinus,  de  gestis  Karoli,  seip  pat  whanne*  kyng  Charles 
had  i-made  Spayne  soget,  and  was  i-come  home  to  Parys 
a^en,  he  made  alle  pe  bonde  men  of  Gallia  fre  ^ 
in  worschippe  of  Seint  lame  ^^  and  of  Seynt  Denys ;  but 
'pQj  schulde  euery  ^ere  offre  foure  pans**  to  pe  chirche 
work  of  Seynt  Denys,    And  so  pey  were  i-cleped  Franci 

cemente   as   indissoluble.      The  cite  callede  Parisius  ilory-  MS.  VLxrl, 
schethe  there  the  nutrix  of  vertu,  the  pantry  of   letters,      2261. 

whiche  schynethe  now  in  Europe  as  Atheynes  iloryschede      

somme  tyme  in  Grece.  Gir»  JDist  prima.  The  peple  of 
Fraunce,  as  mony  other  peple,  toke  theire  1>egynnenge  of  the 
Troianes.  For  Antenor,  after  the  takenge  of  Troye,  fleenge 
with  his  feloweschippe  by  the  fioode  of  TJianay,  come  to 
Pannony,  in  whom  he  made  a  cite  called  Sicambria, ^^  where- 
fore he  and  his  folowers  were  callede  Sicambri.^^  After 
the  dethe  of  whom  ij.  dukes  and  gouernoures  were  ordeynede 
to  governe  they  me.  Which  were  Trogotus  and  Francus,  off 
whom  Frenche  men  toke  theire  name.  But  as  Turpinus 
seyethe  of  the  gestes  of  Charls,  after  that  kynge  Charls 
subduenge  to  hym  Spayne  hade  commen  to  Parise,  wyllenge  to 
worschippe  Seynte  lames  and  Seynte  Dionise,  he  Zafe  manu- 
mission to  all  his  seruauntes  thro  Fraunce  of  what  so  euer 
lordeschippe  that  thei  were,  whiche  scholde  offre  yerely 
iiij.  d.  to  the  chirche  of  Seynte  Dionise ;    and  so  Frenche 

'  into  piaster,  a.,  Cx.  * 

2o/]  om.  Cx, 

^  which  is  norifce,  Cx. 

*  AtlteneSf  Cx. 

^  a.  and  Cx,  add  l>e. 

^Jled,  Cx. 

'  >e]  om.  Cx, 

VOL.  I. 

So  a.  $  tehaty  MS.  (first  hand)  ; 
altered  to  whan» 

»  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  fre  before  of 
Gallia  in  MS. 

'« lamest  Cx. 

" panes,  a,;  pens,  Cx. 

'-  Cicamhria  and  Cicambri,  Harl. 



ubique  vocabantur.^  Ex  tunc  inolevit  quod  Gallia 
Francia  vocaretur.^  Dicunt  alii^  quod  Valentimanus 
imperator  lingua  Attica  vocavit  Francos,  quasi  ferancos, 
a  feritate  animi.^  Nam  usque  ad  tempora  ejusdem* 
Valentiniani  ^  Sicambri  longaevis  temporibus  tributarii 
fuerant  Romanorum.  ^  Illud  autem  tributum,  .ut® 
contra  Alanos  ^  Romanis  infestos  *^  bellum  susciperent, 
decennio  remissum  est.  Quo  "  decurso,  Alanisque  '^  de- 
tritis,*^  solitum  exacti  tributum  solvere  renuerunt. 
Quamobrem  Valentinianus,  ingenti  coacto  exercitu,  Si- 
cambros  appetiit**  et  devicit.  Quo  infortunio  Sicambri'* 
etferati  terras  Romanorum  Romanisque  subjectorum 
crudeliter  invaseruntJ®    Hinc  eatenus  Sicambri,  a  Franco 

'  JEt  sic  Franci  Dionysii  et  liberi 
ubique  vocantur,  CD. 
^  A.6.0.  add  ctb  ilia  libertate, 
'  autem  quidam,  CD. 

*  SUgMy  transposed  in  C. }  a  fe- 
ritate animi  lingua  Attica  voeant 
eo9  Francos,  A.B.D. 

*  ^usdeml  om,  CD. 

*  Irr^eraioris]  added  in  CD. 
^  fuerunt  BomaniSf  CD. 

*  uf]  om.  C  ;  auty  A, 

^  Slavos,  B. 

**  infestos  cum,  C  (not  D.) 

^^  Quo  decennio,  A.B.CD. 

**  Slavisque,  B. 

*^  contritiSf  A.B.CD. 

"/>eftVf,  B. 

^^  Sicambri']  om.  A.B.CD. 

^^  s}tbjectas  invadere  inceperunt, 
B.  ;  suhjeetas  invadere  eeperunt, 


Beat!  i  Dionysii,  fat  is  Seint  Denys  his  fre  men.  And  so  Tbevisa. 
it  come  ^  aboute  ^at  Gallia  was  i-cleped  Francia,  by  cause  — *— 
of  ]>at  fredom.  Oper  men  telle]>  fat  Valentinianus  ^  fe 
emperour  cleped  hem  Francos  as  it  were  Ferancos,  j?at 
is  steorno  and  wither,  in  fe  langage  of  Attica,  fat  is 
Grecia.  For  Sicambri,  fat  beef  Frensche  men,  were  tri- 
butarii  to  Rome  longe  tyme  to  fore  Yalentinianus  is  tyme 
also.  But  whan  Alani,  men  of  Alania»  were  enemyes  to 
Rome,  Sicambri  hadde  hire  tribute  for^eue  for  ten  ^ere 
for  to  werre  a^enst  Alani,  men  4  of  Alania ;  and  whan  f  e 
ten  ^ere  were  i-doo  and  Alani  ouercome,  f  e  Romaynes  asked 
her  tribute ;  and  Sicambri  werned  it  and  wolde  none 
paye.  perfore  Yalentinianus  pe  empei'our  werred  vppon 
hem  wif  a  grete  oost,  and  hadde  f e  victorie  ;  fan  for  fat 
myshap  Sicambry  were  wood  wroof,^  and  werred^  in  fe 
londes  of  Rome  [and  also  on  the  londes  that  were  subgett 
to  Rome]  7  also,  perfore  Sicambri  were  afterward  i-cleped 
Franci,  as  it  were  feranci,  fat  is  wither  and  sterne,^  and  of 
fat  duke  Franco  fey  were  i-cleped  Franci,  as  it  were  Franco 
his  men.  Also  of  hir  fredom  fat  kyng  Charles  ^af  hem 
fey  beef  i-cleped  Franci,  fat  is  fre  men  so^  for  to  mene, 
Treuisa,  But  how  er  fey  come  to  fat  name,  !BVanci  beef 
Frensche  men,  and  hatte  bof  e  Sicambri  and  Gallj|«.  And  so 

men  were  callede  the  fre  men  of  Seynte  Dionise.  And  so  MS.  Harl. 
that  londe  was  namede  Fraunce  for  cause  of  that  liberte.  2261. 
Other  men  say  that  Valentinianus  themperoure  callede 
theyme  Francos,  as  ferancos.  For  Sicambri  ^^  were  tributaries 
to  thempjre  of  Eome  yn  to  the  tyme  of  Valentinian,  wMche 
tribute  was  remittede  to  theyme  by  x.  yere  that  they 
scholde  make  batelle  ageyn  men  of  Almayne,  wMche  were 
contrarious  to  thempire  of  Rome  that  tyme  y-paste  ;.  and 
the  men  of  Allemayne  deuicte,  they  refusede  to  pay  theire 
tribute  to  Rome.  Wherefore  Valentinianus,  gedrenge  a 
grete  hoste,  entrede  theire  costes  and  hade  yictory  of  theyme ; 
wherefore  thei  wente  afterwarde  and  destroyede  moche  of 
the  cuntre  of  Romanes ;  and  therefore  thei  were  callede 
Frenche  men    of  Francus    theire    gouernoure  or    elles    of 

^  SaticHy  Cx, 

*  cam,  Cx. 
'  So  Cx. — ^MS.  and  a.  have  his 

tyme  aho,  after  Vol.  i  but  this  seems 
a  inere  clerical  error.    See  below. 

*  ayenst  the  men,  Cx. 

*  iore  wrothy  Cx.  (  below. 

js  2 

•  warred,  Cx. 

7  Words  in  brackets  added  ftom 
"  ioi\>er  and  steeme,  a, 
» so]  om.  Cx. 
"  Cicamhri,  Harl.  MS.,    and  so 

276  POLYcnnoNicoN  banulphi  higden 

l)e  succes.  duce  sive  a  feritate  animorum  *  dicti  Franci,^  Fera- 
gum  Fran-  mundum  filium  Marcomiri  regem  sibi  ^  creaverunt,  et 
corum.  terram  a  Sicambria  usque  ad  Rhenum  fluvinm  proten- 
sam  *  subegerunt.^  Willwlmus^  de  Regibus,  lihro  p^^i/moJ 
Defuncto®  autem  Feramundo  filium  ejus  Clodionem  sive 
Clodium  crinitum  sibi  praefecerunt,  a  quo  reges  Fran- 
corum  criniti  postmodum  vocabantur.  Post  Clodium 
Meroveum  nepotem  ejus  erexerunt,  a  quo  succedentes 
reges  usque  ad  Pipinum  Meroviugi  vocabantur.  Eodem 
modo  ^  filii  regum  Anglise  a  patribus  patronymica  sump- 
serunt;  ut  filius  Edgari  Edgaring,'^  filius  Edmund  i 
Edmundyng  vocetur.'^  Communiter  autem  Adelingi 
vocantur  qui  de  regio  sanguine  descendunt.  Oiraldtis, 
DistinctioTie  prima.  Itaque  ^^  post  Meroveum  regnavit 
Childericus  filius  ejus,  qui  genuit  Clodoveum,  quern 
Sanctus  Remigius  baptizavit.  Qui  Gotlios  Arianos  suasu 
Romanorum  ab  Aquitania  expulit.  Quo  mortuo  Cbilde- 
bertus '®  filius  ejus  cum  tribus  fratribus  suis,  Theodorico,^* 

*  animorum]  om.  A.B.D.  |  post  eum  reges  Francorum  usque  ad 
'  a  feritate  dicti  sunt  Franci,  C.  ,  Pepinvm  Merovingi  sunt  vocati,  A.B. , 
'  Regem  sibi  before  Feramundum  :  which  agree  m  the  rest  with  E.,  as 

in  A*B.D.  '  far  as  descendunt, 

•prote»«»».]oin.B.D.  j      ,  ,<  ^dded  in  A.B. 

*  Transposed  in  C  «  .      . 

«  WiUdmm,  at  lenrh,  here  and  j      "  £d9<>ri»9es,^i  Edganngus,B. 

below   E.  '      ^^  Edmundingis^ A.\  Edmundyngus 

'CD.  om.titleofqnotation.  \  vocentur,  A.'Q. 

8  Defuncto  . . .  expulit]  Quo  de-  \      ^^  Itaque  . .  .  expulit]  Itaque  post 

functo  Clodoveum  jfilium  ejus  substi-  \  Meroveum  CiedonemJUium  ejus  erexe- 

tuerunt.    Post  kctc  Itkenum  trans-  \  runt,  sub  quo  Menumjluvium  trans- 

euntes  a  Rheno  usque  Lygerim  cunc- 
tarn  terram  a  Romanis  abstulemnt 
Post  hac  prcedicante  beato  Remigio 
Clodoveus  ChristianusJactttSf  Gotkos 
Arianos  de  Aqiiiiania  jussu  Romano- 
mm  ibi  existentes  depulit,  D.  ;  and 

euntes  totam  terram  inter  Rhenum  et 
JAgerim  a  Romanis  absttderunt  Post- 
modum Cledoveus  rex  eorunty  prcedi- 
cante beato  Remigio,  Christianus  ef- 
fectus,  Gotkos  Arianos  jussu  Roma^ 
norum  ab  Aquitania  expulit,  B.  And 

so  C,  but  having  hoc  for  hac  twice,  j  so  A.,  but  having  Clodionem,  and 
and  ab  for  de,  and  omitting  est.  \  Clodoveus. 

Quo  defuncto  Meroveum  nepotem  \      **  Agildebertus,  O. 
ejus  in  regem  sibi  erexerunt,  a  quo         "  Theoderteo,  E, 



it  is  alle  oon  peple,  Sicambri,  Galli,  and  ^  IVanci,  aud  Frensche  Tkkvisa. 

men.      1^.2      Franci  .made  hem   a   Isyng   fat  lii^te^  Fera-      

muDdus,  Marcomiris^  sone,  and  made  allc  fe  lond  sogett, 
ffrom  ^  Sicambrla  anon  to  pe  Ryne.  Willielmus  de  Regibus^ 
libro  primo.  Whan  Feramundus  was  dede,  Jjey  made  his 
sone  kyng,  J^at  hadde  fre  names,  aud  heet  Clodion,  Clodius, 
and  Crinitus  ;  and  of  hym  kynges  of  Fraunce  were  aftir- 
ward  i-cleped  Ciiniti.^  After  Clodius  ]>ey  made  his 
sone  kynge,  fat  hadde  fre  names/  and  hiite  Meroueus  ;  ; 
and  after  hym  kynges  of  Fraunce  wei'e  i-cleped  Mei'ouyngi 
anoon  to  I*ypinus  his  tyme.  In  fe  same  manere  kynges 
sones  of  Engelond  hadde  names  i-schape  by  hir  fader  names 
and  so  ^  Edganis  his  sone  hiZte  Edgaryngus,^  and  Edmun- 
dus  his  sone  heet  Edmundyngus.  Comounliche  he  )>at 
come)?  of  ^^  kynges  blood  is  i-cleped  Adelyngns.  Girald,, 
Dist  prima.  After  Mei'oueus  regned  his  sone  Childericus  ; 
hym  folwede  ^^  Remigius.  pis  Childericus  at  fe  prayerc  ^^  of 
l>e  Romayns  put  fat  peple  Gothi  An*iani  out  of  GyanJ-'^ 
Whan  he  was  dede  his  sone  Childebei'tus  helde  fe  kyng- 
dom  wif  his  fre  breferen  Theodoricus,  Clodomirus,!'*  and  CIo- 

cruelleness,  makenge  -kynge  amonge  theyme  Feramundus 
the  son  of  Marcomirus,  makenge  subiecte  to  theym  the  MS.  Haul. 
cuntre  from  Sicambria  vn  to  that  floode  callede  Eenus.  2^6 1. 
Willielmus  de  PonU^cihuSy  libro  prima,  Whiche  Fera- 
mundus  dedde  thei  made  Clodoueus  his  son  kynge.  And 
after  Clodoueus,  Merouius  his  nevewe  was  electe  in  to  the 
kynge,  after  whom  alle  kynges  of  Fraunce  vn  to  Pipinu^j  were 
callede  Merouingi.  In  lyke  wyse  the  sonnes  of  kynges  of 
Englonde  toke  their  names  after  theire  faders.  As  the  son 
of  Edgare  was  callede  Edgarynge,  the  son  of  Edmunde, 
Edmundenge.  Gir.^  Dist,  prima.  Also  after  Merouius, 
Childericus  his  son  reignede,  whiche  gate  Clodoueus  whom 
Kemigius  baptisede*  This  Clodoueus  at  the  instaunce  and 
preier  of  the  Romanes  expelled  from  the  cuntre  of  Gyon 
the  Gothes  infecte  with  the  heresy  of  Arrianus.  Whiche 
dedde,  Childericus  his  sou  occupyede  the  realme  with  his  thre 
brether,  Theodoricus,  Clodomirus,  and  Clotaiius  ;  in  whiche 

'  a.  om.  and»  j       ■  had  names  after  the  names  of 

'  9.]  Added  from  a.  and  Cx.  j  theyrfad£r,  as,  Cx. 

^  heet^  cc 

*  Marcomirus  hiSf  a, ;  Marconurus, 

^ffram,  a. 

*  Criniti]  So  a.  and  Cx.  ;  Cirini 
Sirini,  MS. 

'  Cx.  omits   this   clause,  which 
eeems  repeated  by  a  clerical  error,     j 

'  So  ff .  and  Cx. ;  Edgaryndus,  MS. 

"  cristnedy  Cx. 

"  atte  prayere,  Cx, 

»*  Guyan,  Cx. 

1*  Added  from  a.  and  Cx* 



Clodomiro,^  et  Clothario,^  eo  scilicet  *  tempore  quo  Gre- 
gorius  Magnus^  floruit,  regnum  teuuit  Post  quem 
Clotharius  frater  ejus,  qui  beatam  Radegundam  despon- 
aavit.  Et  post  eum  Childericus  filius  ejus  reguavit  cum 
tribus  fratribus  suis,  Cariberfco,  Guudano,^  Sigeberto.^ 
Post  Childericum  Clotbarius  filius  ejus  regnavit,  qui 
genuit  Dagobertum  et  Batildem  sororem  ejus.  Sub 
iato  Dagoberto  fuit  Pipinus  major  domusregiaB'  tempo- 
ribus  Heraclii  imperatoris.  Post  Dagobertum  filius 
ejus  Clodoveus  regnavit,®  cujus  tempore  corpus  jSancti  ® 
Benedicti  de  provincia  Beueventana  usque  in  Frandam 
delatum  est.^^  Post  Clodoveum  regnavit  filius  ejus  Clo- 
tharius, post  quem  firater  ejus  Theodoricus,  sub  quo 
Ebroinus"  major  domus  regime  beatum*^  Leodegarium 
afflixit.**  Post  quem  Clodoveus,  Post  quem  frater  ejus 
Childebertus.  Post  quem  filius  suus  Dagobertus,^*  Post 
quem  regale  genus  defedt.^^  Nam'  post  eum  regnavit 
Daniel  clericus,  quem  ^®  Franci  mutato  nomine  vocave- 

I  ■  mniOM 

\  Clodemtro,  A.  j  Glodoiniro,  CD. 

'  ClotariOf  A»,  and  similarly  be- 
low ;  Glotario,  I).,  but  Clotarius 

*  eo  scilicet]  om.  CD.  ;  scilicet 
cm.  A.B. 

*  Mttgnusl  Oxn.  C;  magnusPapa 
Gregorius,  A.B.  j  Papa  Gregoritis, 

*  GundianOf  B.CD. 

*  et  Sioeherto,  CD. 
^  regincB,  B. 

®  regnavit]  om.  B. 
3  beatt,  CD 

^^  traiislatum  estfA, ;  deBenevenia 
translatum  est,  CD. 

' '  EliromuSf  B. 

^^  heatum]  om.  B. 

'^  Varied  slightly  in  CD. 

^^  Post . . .  Dagohertus]  cui  Cbil- 
debertas  £rater  ejus  junior  successit^ 
cui  filius  suus  (ejus,  A.)  Dagober« 
tus  junior»  A.B. 

"  The  foregoing  clauses  slightly 
varied  in  CD. 

'®  frater  quem,  CD.  ;  frater  €Juft\ 
quem^  A,B, 



tariuB.  pis  was  in  }>&  popes  tjme  fe  Grefce  G-regory.*  Afte  J>is  Taevisa. 
CMldebertus  ^  regned  his  broper  Clotarius  :  he  wedded  Seynt  — - 
Badagund.  And  after  hym  regned  his  sone,  Ghildericus» 
wij>  his  |)re  bref  eren  Carbertus,  Gundianus,  and  Sigesbertus. 
After  ChUdericus  reigned  his  sone  Clotarius :  he  bygat 
Dagobertus  and  his  suster  Batildys.^  Vnder  pis  Dagobertus 
Pypinus  was  J>e  grettest  man  of  pe  kynges  hous  ;  and  ]?at 
was  in  Heraclius  fe  emperoures  tyme.^  After  Dagobertus 
regned  his  sone  Clodoueus.  In  his  tyme  seynt  Benet  his  body 
was  translated  and  i-bore  out  of  fe  prouince  Beneuentana  in 
to  Fraunce.  After  Clodoueus  regned  his  sone  Clotarius  ; 
after  ^  hym  his  brojer  Theodoricus.  In  his  tyme  Ebroynus,^ 
Jiat  was  pe  grettest  of  fe  kynges  hous,  pursuede  Seint  Leode- 
garius  and  dede  hym  moche  woo  and  tene^  and  martired  hym 
at  fe  laste.^  After  Theodoricus  regned  Clodouius ;  and 
after  hym  his  ^onge®  broiler  Childebertus ;  [after  him  his 
^onger^  sone  Dagobertus ;ji^  and  after  hym  pe  kynges  lynage 
faillede.  For  after  hym  reigned  his  broJ>er  Daniel,  fat  was 
a   clerk.     But    Franci    chaunged    Daniel    his    name,    and 

tyme  Grete  Gregory  floryschede.  Afther  whom  Clotarius  MS.  Habl. 
his  brother  reignede,  whiche  toke  to  his  wyfe  Seynte  Bade-  2261.^ 
gunde.  After  whom  Childericus  his  son  reignede,  with 
Garibertus,  Gundianus,  and  Sigelbertus,  his  brether.  After 
Childericus  Clotarius  his  son  reignede,  which  gate  Dagoberte 
and  Batildis  his  sustyr.  Vnder  this  Dagoberte,  Pipinus 
was  as  the  gouernoure  of  the  kynges  house,  in  the  tymes 
of  Heraclius  themperoure.  After  Dagoberte,  Clodoueus 
his  son  reignede,  in  the  tyme  of  whom  the  body  of  Seynte 
Benedicte  was  translate  from  the  province  Beneuentan  rn 
to  Fraunce.  After  Clodoueus,  Clotarius  his  son  reignede* 
After  him  his  brother  Theodoricus,  vnder  whom  Ebronius 
was  the  gouernoure  of  the  kynges  howse,  whiche  punyschede 
Seynte  Leodegary.  After  whom  Clodoueus,  and  after  hym 
Childebertus  his  yongeste  brother  reignede,  whom  Dagoberte 
his  yongeste  son  succedede,  and  after  hym  the  stokke  of 
kynges  failede^  For  after  hym  Daniel  a  clerke  reignede, 
whiche  was  his  brother  ;  whom  Frenche  men  callede  Childe* 

*  time  of  the  grete  pope  Gregory^ 

"^  So  a. ;  Ckilbertus,  MS. 
3  So  Cx. ;  BatOdus,  MS.,  «. 

*  in  the  iyme  ofEraclius  thempe- 
rour,  Cx. 

*  ami  after f  Cx. 

^  Ebronius f  a.  f  Cx. 

^  atte  hstef  Cx. 

®  yunger,  ce,,  Cx, 

^  yongt  Cx. 

1«  Words  in  brackets  added  froni 
a.  and  Cx. 



runt  Childericum.*  Post  quern  Theodoricus  propinquus 
ejus.  Post  quern  ^  Hildericus  frater  ejus,^  qui  ob  in- 
ertiam  nimiam^  depositus  et  clericus  factus  in  monas- 
lerio  private  vixit.*  Sicque''  defecit  linea  prosapise 
Ferramundi  ^  per  viros,  sed  mansit  per  Batildem  ^  soro- 
rem  Dagoberti  isto  ^  modo.**  Batildis  nupsit  Ansberto, 
de  quo"  genuit  Arnaldum,  cujus  filius  Arnulphus  duxit 
filiam  Pipini  ducis  ac  ^^  majoris  in  domo  regia  ^^  Dago- 
berti fratris  '*  ejusdem  Batildis.  Sed  isto  ^*  Arnulpho 
Metensi  postmodum  '^  episcopo  facto, "^  Ansegisilus  filius 
ejus  genuit  Pipinum,  qui  vetulus  seu  brevis  dictus  est. 
WilUelmus  de  Begibus,  libro  primo}^  Qui  Pipinus 
genuit  Carolum  Tutidem  ^"  seu  Martellum  nominatum,-^ 
eo  quod  tyrannos  per  Franciam  emergentes  contuderifc/^ 
Sarracenos  quoque  Galliam  infestantes  egregie  depulerit. 

*  Childericum  vocaverunt,  A.D. ; 
EthUdericum  vocaverunt^  B. 

^  cui  successity  A.B. ;  illique  sw 
cesnit  ChildertcuSf  D. 
'  /rater  ejus"]  om.  A. 

*  nimiam  inertiam,  A.B> 

*  Abbreyiated  in  O.I). 

*  Sic  ergo,  CD. 

'  Fdramundiy  A. 

*  So  B. ;  BatUdam,  E.  (clerical 
error  ?) 

*  hoc,  CD. 

*•  isto  modo"]  ipsa  rero,  B. 
*'  qua.  A.,  more  correctly. 
»*  et,  C  (not  D.) 

"  regis,  CD.  ;  om.  B. 

^*  fratrisque,  A.CD. 

"  Isto  quoque,  A.B» 

^^  postmodum  Metensi,  A.B. 

"  effecto,  A. ;  abbreyiated  slightly 
in  CD. 

"  Reference  omitted  in  CD. 

1»  So  MSS.,  but  TudiUs  seems  to 
be  the  correct  title,  and  so  Malmes- 
bury,  Gest,  Reg,  AngL,  lib.  i.  §  68 
(vol.  i.  p.  98,  ed.  Hardy).    See  Du- 
cange,  s*  v. 

^  notninatum  , .  ^Iste"]  om.  C,and 
so  D.,  except  the  word  nominatum, 

2»  conquievit,  B. 



cleped  hymi   Childericus.    After  hym  reigned  oon  of  his  Tebvisa. 

tyn  fat  heet  Theodoricus  ;  and  after  hym  his  brother  Hil-      

dericus.  He  was  i-putte  doun  for  grete  nysete  and  i-made 
a  clerk,  and  leued  as  a  monk  in  an  abbay  ;  and  fnmie 
faillede  pe  lynage  in  men  of  Feramundus  blood.  But  ^it  it 
laste  ^  and  durede  in  a  womman  ]>at  was  Batildis,  Dagober- 
tus  his  snster.  In  J)is  manere  Batildis^  Avas  i- wedded  to 
Ansebertus,  and  hadde  by  hym  a  sone  ]>at  heet  Arnold, 
pan  J)is  Arnoldes  sone  heet  Arnulphe.^  pat  Arnulphe^  wed- 
ded duke  Pypinis  doubter.  Pypinus  was  grettebt  of  king^ 
Dagobertus  his  hous.  Kyng  Dagobertus  was  Batildis  brofer. 
pis  Arnulph^  was  afterward  i-made  bisshop,  Metensis  epi- 
scopus.^  pan  his  sone  Ansegesilus  gat  Pipinus,  pat  hadde 
tweie  oper  names,  Vetulus  and  Bremys,^  fVillielmus^  de  Rc' 
gibus,  libra  primo,  pis  Pypinus  gat  Charles  pat  heet  Tutidis,**^ 
[and  Martellus  also,  and  had  pat  name  Tutidis]  i<>  of  ^m[«  jc^cr^, 
pat  is  bete  and  bounseA^  For  he  beet  ^^  out  of  Fraunce  alle  pe 
tyrauntes  and  Sarazynes^^  pat  weiTede  perynne,  and  de- 
stourbed  ^*  pe  loud  and  pe  *^  peple.      pis  Charles  folwed  pe 

ricus.  After  whom  Theodoricus  nye  of  his  kynrede  ;  after  MS.  Habl. 
whom  Hildericus  his  brother  succedede,  whiche  deposede  ^^^^* 
for  his  slawthe,  and  made  a  clerke,  lyvede  priuately  in  a 
monastery.  Soe  the  linealle  descense  of  the  prosapy  or 
kynrede  of  Feramundus  faylede  by  men,  but  hyt  remaynede  ^*  '*^-  ^* 
in  Batildis,  sustyr  to  Dagoberte.  The  seyde  Batildis  was 
maryede  to  Ansebertus,  whiche  gate  of  here  a  childe  callede 
Arnaldus,  whose  childe  callede  Arnulpus  was  maryede  to 
the  do^hter  of  Pipinus,  duke  of  the  howse  of  kynge  Dago- 
berte, brother  to  the  seide  Batildis.  Whiche  Arnulphus 
afterwai'de  beenge  byschop  Metense,  Ansegesilus  his  son 
gate  Pipinus,  whiche  was  callede  olde  Pipinus,  or  schorte. 
Willielmus  de  Regibus,  libro  prima»  Whiche  Pipinus  gate 
Charles,  or  other  wise  namede  Martellus,  in  so  moche  that 
he  depressede  tirauntes  in  Fraunce,  and  Saracenes  makenge 
insurrecciones    ageyne    the    londe    of  Fraunce.    This  man 

om.  a. 
'  lasted,  Cz. 
'  Batildus,  MS.  (not  Cx.) 
^  Arnulphus,  Cx.  (thrice.) 
^  ike  grettest  of  ike  kyng,  Cx. 
*  episcopus']  om.  Cx. 
7  Breuis,  a.  and  Cx. 
«  WiMmus,  Cx.,  here  and  else- 

•  So  tt.  and  Cx, ;  Tutidus,  MS. 
(not  so  below.) 

'^  Words  in  brackets  added  from 
a.  and  Cx. 

>i  beten  and  bounsed^  Cx. 

**  he  beef]  abenf,  a. 

"  Sarzines,  a, 

"  destroubkd,  Cx. 

**  N]  om.  Cx, 



Hie  nempe  pateruse  sententidB  sequax  reges  Francis 
tenuit  in  clientela  sua^  ipse  comifcis  nomine  contentatus.^ 
Giraldus,  Distinetione  prima.  Iste®  Carolus  genuit 
Pipinum  secundum  et  Garolomannum  pestea  monachum. 
Hie  itaque  ^  Rpinus  ^  ex  Batilde  prsedieta  regium  genus 
ducens^  post  depositionem  Hilderici^  regis  voto  totius 
militidB  auctoritateque  Stephani  ®  Papse  successoris  Za- 
charise '  rex  Francorum  effectus/  genuit  Carolum  Mag- 
num, qui  post  obitum  patris  sui,^  anno  Domini " 
DC(y>,JjX^,lXP,  in  regem  erigitun  Deinde  "  advocatus  Petri 
et  patricius  in  imperatorem  est  erectus ;  a  quo  tempore 
imperium  Constantinopolitanum  defecit  a  Romanis  et 
transiit  ad  Francos,^^  eo  *^  quod  Grseci  nuUam  opem 
ferrent  iRomanis  contra  ssevitiam  Longobardorum.  Hie 
Carolus  Lodowicum  ^*  imperatorem,  qui  Carolum  tertium 
Calvum  nuncupatum  progenuit,  qui  Lodowicum  secun- 
dum, qui  Carolum  quartum  et  Simplicem  dictum  pro- 

*  contentusy  A.B» 
-  Qui,  CD* 

*  tl9fif]cr,A.B.C.D. 

^  Pipinus  secundus^  A.B.O.I). 

*  ChUderici,  CD. 

®  toHus   militia  auctoritate  atque, 

"^  auctoritateque  Zacharim  Papce, 


^  est  qui  added  in  A.B.;  est  qui  et 
added  in  CD. 

®  sut]  om.  A.B.CD. 

'*  Domini]  om.  CD. 

" deinde*, .  Canquestoris]  Abbre- 
viated in  B.,  as  foUovs :  "  Qnem 
^  postmodam  Homani  oh  ejus  egre* 

<'  gios  actus  advocatmn  beati  Petri 
**  elegerunt)  deinde  patriciom,  impe^ 
*^  ratorem  deinde  Augnstum  ;  a  qno 
''  tempore  imperinul  Conetaatinopo- 
"  lis  defecit  aKomanis  et  transiit  ad 
"  Francos^  eo  quod  nttllam  opem 
*'  ecclesise  Bomanss  ferrent  contra 
"  ssevitiam  Longobardorum  tnnc 
**  Komanos  infestantinm."  And  so 
A.  very  nearly. 

»2  Deinde  . . , .  Francos']  Abbre- 
viated and  transposed  in  CD. 

"  eo  quod  ....  reportaret  (next 
page)]  om.  CD. 

^*  Lodowycumy  £.,  here  and  some- 
times below 



sentens  of  his  forme  fadres,^  and  helde  pe  kjnges  of  Fraunce  Tbbvisa. 

in  his  retenue.     And  he  hym  self  was  i-cleped  an  erle,  and     

hildo  hym  a  payed  ^  in^  ]>at  name*  Giraldus*  pis  Charles 
gatte  fe  secounde  Pypinus^  and  Charles  fe  Crete  })at  was 
aftirwarde  a  monk.,  pis  secounde  Pipinus  was  of  pe  kynges 
kynde:  for  he  com  of  Batildis,  fat  we  speke  of  rafere.^ 
And  ]>erfore  he  was  i-^made  kyng  of  Fraunce  by  assent  of 
alle  ]>e  chyualrie  and  by  auctorite  of  pope  Steuene  ]>at  was 
next  pope  ®  after  Zacharie.  J)is  Pipinus  gat  Charles  ye  Crete ; 
]>is  Charles  was  i-made  kyng  after  his  fader  7  deep,  pe  ^ere 
of  oure  Lorde  seuene  hundred  pre  score  and  nyne.  For  his 
noble  dedes  pe  Romayns  chees  ®  hym  afterwardes  for  to  be 
Seynt  Petres  aduokett,^  aftirward  patricius,  and  pan  pe  em- 
perour  and  Augustus.  And  from  pat  t3rme  pe  empere  of 
Constantinopolis  *^  tornede  from  the  Romaynes  to  pe  Frensche 
men  ;  for  pey  wolde  not**'  helpe  pe  chirche  of  Borne  a^en 
pe  Longebardes  pat  werred  a^enst  pe  Romayns.  J)is 
Charles  gat  Lewes,  *^  pat  was  aftirward  emperoure.  pis 
Lewis  gat  pe  Balled  Charles,  pat  was  emperour  also,  pe 
Balled  Charles  gat  Lewes  ;    Lewes  gat  Chdrles    pe  Sym- 

folowenge  the   steppes  of  his   fader,  kepede  the  kynges  of  MS.  Hael. 
Fraunce  in  his  seruyce,  contente  with  the  name  of  a  duke.      2261. 

Gir.y  Dist.  prima.    This  Charls  gate  Pipinus  the  secunde,      

and  Karolomannus  afterwarde  a  monke.  This  Pipinus  the 
secunde,  commenge  of  the  stokke  of  the  seide  Batildis,  after 
the  deposicion  of  kynge  Hildericus  was  made  kynge  of 
Fraunce  thro  the  desire  of  alle  the  cheuallery,  and  by  the 
auctorite  of  Pope  Steven  the  successor  off  Zacharye.  Whiche 
gate  Crete  Charles.  Whiche  was  erecte  to  the  kyngedome 
of  Fraunce  after  the  dethe  of  his  fader  in  pe  yere  of  our 
Lorde  Godde  poc.  lx.  and  ix.,  whom  the  Romanes  electe  to 
be  the  aduocate  of  Seynte  Petre  for  the  nowble  actes  that 
he  did  ;  after  that  thei  made  hym  emperoure- and  Augustus. 
From  whiche  tyme  the  empire  of  Constantinople  wente  from 
pe  Romanes  and  wente  to  Frenche  men,  in  that  thei 
helpede  not  the  chirche  of  Rome  ageyne  Longobardes, 
kepenge  werre  ageyne  the  Romanes.  This  Charles  gate 
Lodowicus.     This  Lodowicus  gate  Symple  Charles,  whiche 


^  paid  and  contenty  Cx. 

'  «??J»,  o.,  Cx. 

*  FupinuSf   Cx.   (but   not    uai- 

*  bifore,  Cx. 

^  pope  neyt  (for  next\  Cx» 

''faders,  Cx.  (and  «o  often.) 

"^  choscy  Cx. 

®  adiwcute^  Cx. 

^^  Constantinople,  CX» 

"  nouyt,  a.  (not,  Cx.  uniformly.) 

"  Lowi/s,  Cx.  (and  so  below.) 



genuit,  qui  Lodowicum  tertium,  qui  Lotharium  primuni, 
qui  Lodowicum  quartum,  hujus  prosapia?  regem  ulti- 
mum.  Quo  mortuo  Franci  sfcatuerunt  super  se  Hugo- 
nena  O^pefc,  ducem  Bui*guadise,  qui  genuit  Robei-tum, 
qui  Henricum,  qui  Philippum  primum,  qui  Lodowicum 
quintum^  qui  regnavit  tempore  Henrici  primi  regi^ 
AngKsB  filii  Conquestoris.  WiUielmus  de  Megibus,  libra 
primo.  Sicque  successores  Caroli  Magni  imperaverunt  ^ 
in  Italia  et  Alemannia  usque  ^  ad  annum  Domini  non- 
gentesimum  duodecimum,  quando  Conradus  rex*  Teu- 
tonicorum  imperium  sibi  arripuit.  Rannlphus.  Diu 
postmodum,  ut  fert  fama,  regina  qusedam  Francoruni, 
ad  quam  regnum  FrancisB  descenderat,*  videns  quem- 
dam  macellarium  elegantem^  sumpsit  sum  in  virum ;  ob 
cujus  facti  detestationem,  Franci  apud  se  legem  ^  sanx- 
erunt^  ut  nulla  naulier  deinceps'^  regnum  Francia 
reportaret.®     Oiraldus,  Distioictione  prima.^    Galliam 

*  Sicque  ....  iniperaveruntj  Ex 

hujus   Karoli  genere    regnaverunt 

successores  in  Praucia   usq^ae   ad 

Hngonem   cognomento    Capet,  de 

quo    cs&teri  desceuderunt  quemad- 

modum  inferius  in  sue  loco  dice- 

tur ;  ex  cujus   progenie  regnare- 

runt,  See.,  A.B.  and  the  versions. 

This  is   more   like    Malinesbury's 

text.     See  lib.  i.  §  68  (vol.  i.  pp. 
100,  101,  ed.  Hardy).    The  same 

may  be  said  of  the  readings  of  A.B. 
in  the  notes  to  p.  276  ;  compare 
Maliinesbury,  p.  96. 

*  usque]  om.  A. 
'  rex]  om.  B. 

*  hereditarie  descenderaty  A.B. 

*  legem]  om.  A.B. 

•  statueruntf  A.B. 

'  deinceps]  Added  from  A.B. 

•  See  previous  page. 

•  Distinctione  prima]  om.  CD.  ; 
the  latter  has  Girardus. 


pie.     Charles  fe   Simple  gat  Levres;i    Lewes  gat  Lotlia^  Trevisa. 

rius  ;   Lotharius  gat  Lewes,  J?e  laste  kyng   of  fis   lynage.      

Whan  ))is  Lewes  was  dede,  Franci  took  Huwe^  duke  of 
Bargoyne,  aiid  made  hym  here  kyng.  pis  Hewe  gat  Kobert ; 
Bobert  gat  Henry ;  ^  Henry  gat  Phelip ;  Philip  gat  Lewes. 
Lewes  regnede  in  Henry  Cierkes  ^  tyme,  pe  Conquerours  sone. 
pe  Grete  Charles  his*  ospringe  regnede  in  Fraunce  anon 
to  Hughe  is  tyme,  J)at  hi^t  Capet  by  his  surname.  Of  hym 
come  oJ>er  kynges  of  Fraunce,  as  it  is  wifynne  in  his 
place  openliche  declared ;  kynges  of  his  ofspiynge  regned 
in  Italia  and  in  Almania  anone  to  fe  ^ere  of  oure  Lord 
uyne  hondi'ed  and  twelue,  whan  Conradus,^  kyng  of  Duches  7 
men,  toke  pe  empere  to  hymself.  R.  Longe  aftirward,  as 
comynS  fame  telle]?,  a  woman  j>B,i  was  queue  of  Fraunce 
by  eritage  wedded  a  bocher  for  his  fairenesse  ;  ferfore  in 
ye  repreef  ^  of  jiat  dede  Frensche  men  ordeyned  among 
hemself  J?at  no  womman  schulde  affcirwarde  be  eyre  of  ]>e 
reigue^^  of  Fraunce.     Giraldtts.     pe  Bomayns  were  som- 

gate  Lodowicus.     That  Lodowicns  gate  Lotharius,  whiche  MS.  HAst. 
gate  Lodowicus  the  laste  kynge  of  that  kynrede.     After  the      2261. 

dethe    of  whom   the   Bomanes   ordeynede   Hugo    duke  off 

Burguyne  to  theire  gouernoure,  whiche  gate  Bobert.  That 
Bobert  gate  Henry,  whiche  gate  Philippe,  pat  Philippe  gate 
Lodowicus,  whiche  reignede  in  the  tyme  of  Heniy  Clerke, 
son  of  the  Conquerour.  Kynges  reignede  in  Fraunce  of  the 
stocke  of  Grete  Chai*les  vn  til  that  Hewe  Capet  reignede 
in  Fraimce,  from  whom  other  descendenge  reignede  j;here,  as 
hit  schalle  be  seyde  in  his  propre  place,  of  jthe  stocke  of 
whom  somme  reignede  in  Ytaly,  somme  in  Allemayne,  vn 
to  the  yere  of  oure  lorde  ix<^.  and  xiL,  when  kynge  Con- 
radus  toke  to  hym  thempyre  of  Almayne.  R.  Longe  after- 
warde,  after  the  commune  fame,  a  qwene  of  Fraunce  io 
whom  the  reahne  descendede  by  ti*ewe  inheritaunce,  whiche 
seenge  m  bochor,  a  semely  man  of  stature,  toke  hym  to 
here  howsebonde  5  for  the^  detestacion  of  that  dede,  the 
Frenche  men  made  a  statute  that  noo  woman  after  here 
scholde  reioyce  the  realme  of  Fraunce.    Giraldus.    Nowble 

1  Cx.  omit»  both  clauses  relatiug  |  ^  So  a.  and  Cx. ;  Contradus,  MS. 

to  Charles  the  Simple.  j  '  Dtiehe,  Cx. 

^-Hugh.Cx,  I  «  Me  coOTv»,  Cx. 

^  Harry,  Cx,  t  0  ^/r» 

*  clerk  his,  a.  \  Reproof,  Cx. 

*  his]  So  a,  ;  0/,  MS.  i  '"  royame,  Cx. 



dudum  tenuerunt  fortes  coloni,  qm  ^  Eomanos  saepius  ^ 
protriverunt.  Tandem  Gallia,  sub  Julio  ^  Csesare  sub- 
acta/  per  quadringentos  circiter  annos  usque  ad  ultima 
Valentiniani  temporal  per  Eomanos  occupata  est.^ 
Deinde''  Wandali  et  Huni,  post  quos®  Suevi  et  Bur- 
gundi,  post  quos  Grothi  et  Sicambri,  post  quos  ^  Nor- 
wagenses  et  Dani  sedes  sibi  in  ea  fecerunt.^^  Sunt 
itaque  in  Qallia  sive  Francia^hse  provincise,  Braban- 
tia,*®  Flandria,  Picardia,  Normannia,  Britannia^  Minor, 
Pictavia,  Aquitania,^^  Andegavia,  Vasconia,  Burgundia, 
Alvernia,'*  Salina,  Provincia,  Campania  Minor.*^ 

'  qui  totitis  vrbis  («tc)  victores^  A. ; 
qui  totius  orbis  Ittctatorea,  CD. 

*  multiplici  bellopene,  A.  CD. 
^  Gato  Julio,  CD. 

*  subacta  esty  et  sic  occupata  per 
Romanos,  A.D. 

*  A,CD,  add  :  "  quando  externse 
^'  ex  diversis  orbls  terrae  partibus 
"  gentes  earn  invaseruat." 

*  Sentence  otherwise  very  slightly 
altered  in  CD. 

'  Deinde]  Primo  namque,  CD. 
^  dein,  C  ;  deinde^  D. 

*  post  modum,  A. ;  postremoy  CD. 
*•  sibi  smnpserunty  A. 

"  itaque  in  ea,  CD, 
'*  Brabania,  E. 

^^  Acquitania,  E. :  it  and  other 
MSS.  below  have  often  Aquitannia, 
which  is  interesting^  as  showing  the 
passage  to  the  modem  Cruienne. 

"  Alicervia,  C 

'*  The  proper  names  slightly  trans- 
posed in  A.CD.  The  account  of 
Brabant  Is  placed  at  the  end  of  this 
chapter  in  A.  and  the  Harl.  version, 
but  incongruously  and  inconsistently 
with  the  heading  of  the  following 
chapter.  The  object  in  placing  it 
hele  was  to  get  a  word  beginning 
with  F.  as  the  initial  letter  of  the 
following  chapter.  See  the  Intro- 



tyme  victours  of  alle  f  e  worlde ;   but  stalworJ>e  men  and  Tbbvisa. 

wight,*    fat   wonede    in  Fraunce,  ouercome  hem  in  many      

batailles ;  but  at  ])e  ^  laste  in  Gaius  lulius  Cesar  his  tyme 
Gallia^  fat  is  Fraunce,  was  i-made  soget,  and  bo  occupied 
by  Romaynes  aboute  a  foure  hondred  ^ere  anon  to  ]>e  laste 
tyme  of  Valentinianus  pe  emperour,  whan  dyuers  men  of 
straunge  londes  weiTed  in  Gallia.  For  first  Wandali  and 
Huni,  ])anne  Sweui  and  Burgundi,  Jjat  beef  of  Sweuia,  a 
lond  of  Ahnania>^  fat  is^  Ahnayne.  panne  Gothi  and  Si- 
eambri,  fan  Norfways^  and  Danes  made  hem^  cheef  citees 
in  Gallia,  In  Gallia,  fat  is  Fraunce,  beef  many  prouinces 
and  londes  fat  beef  Braban,  Flaundres,  Pycardie,  Nor- 
raandye,  fe  lasse  Britayne,  Peyto,  Gyan,  Angeoye,  Gas- 
quyn,7  Bnrgoyne,^  Salina,  Prouincia,  Campania  fe  lasse, 
fat  is  ^  Champayn,    And  Aluarn  also  is  in  Fraunce.    Flan- 

men  occupyede  late  Fraunce,  whiche  allemoste  contriuede  MS.  Harl. 
the  Romanes  and  victores  of  this  worlde  with  mony  batelles.  2261. 
At  the  laste  Fraunce  was  subacte  to  lulius  Cesar,  and 
occupyede  by  Romanes  by  cccc.  yere,  vn  to  the  laste  tymes 
of  Valentinian  themperoure,  when  straunge  peple  of  diuerae 
partes  of  the  worlde  entrede  in  to  hit.  Firste  Wandalinges 
and  Hunes,  after  that  men  of  Sveuia  and  of  Burguyne, 
after  whom  Gothi  and  Slcambri,  after  theyme  men  of  Nor- 
guegia  and  Danes,  and  toke  theire  places  in  hit.  In  whiche 
Fraunce  be  these  prouinces,  Braban,  Flandres,  Pikardy, 
Normandy,  Breteyne  the  lesse,  Gyon,  Pictauia,  Gascuyn, 
Burguyn,  Aluerne,  Salina,  Prouince  the  lesse,  Campanye. 
Brabancia  is  sette  at  the  sowthe  este  off  Flandres,  a  copious 
londe,  and  habundant  in  marchaundise»  and  specially  in 
colourenge  woUe  in  diuerse  coloures,  whiche  they  receyve 
from  Englonde,  and  sende  the  clothes  in  to  diuerse  pro- 
uinces, Thau^he  Englonde  haue  the  beste  wolle,  neuer- 
thelesse  hit  hathe  not  suche  waters  to  make  colores  with  as 
is  in  Flandres  or  in  Brabayn.  At  London  is  a  welle,  and  q> 
determinate  place  in  the  ryuer  that  is  abowte  Lincolne,  thro 
helpe  of  whom  nowble  scarlet  is  made. 

^  wiytf  a. 

^  Ox.,  as  usual,  omits  i>e, 

^  So  a.,  Cx. ;  Alemanii,  MS. 

*  is]  Added  from  Cx. 

*  So  a.,  Cx. ;  Norwaye,  MS. 

^  hem  self,  C:i;:.,  who  omits  chee/, 

^  Gascoign,  Cx. 

'  JSurgun, «. 

*  is]  Added  frop  a. 



Be  Bra- 

De  Flan- 

Cap.  XXVIII.^ 
De  Provinciis  Francice. 

Brabantia  ad  Eurum  Flandrise  situatur,  terra  mer- 
cibus  copiosa^  potissime  lanis  ordiendis  instar  Flandrise 
indulge t,  quo  fit  ut  lanas  quas  de  Anglia  recipit  in 
pannos  multicolores  convertit,  multisqne  provinciis  re- 
fundit.  Quamvis  enim  Anglia  lanas  optimas  producat, 
aquas  tamen  tincturse  tam  accommodas  sicut  Flandria, 
vel  Brabantia,  non  habet.  Est  tamen  apud  Londonium 
fons  quidam,  et  apud  Lincolniam  determinatus  locus  in 
rivulo  per  transversum  urbis  decurrente,  quonim  ope 
optimum  scarletum  efficitur.^ 

Flandria  provincia  Gallise  Belgicae  juxta  litus  oceani 
constituta,  a  septentrione  habet  Frisiam,  ab  ortu  Ger- 
maniam,  a  meridie  Picardiam,  ab  occasu  oceanum  et 
borealem  partem  Anglise;  et  licet  Flandria  situ  sit 
parva,  multis  tamen  commoditatibus  est  referta,^  ut- 
pote  pascuis,  armentis,  mercimoniis,  amnibus,*  portubus 
marinis  et  urbibus  inclita.^  Gens  ejus  elegans,  fortis, 
facunda,^  locuples/  ad  domesticos  pacifica,  ad  extraneos 
fida,®.opere  lanifico  prseclara,  quo  toti  pene  Europse 
subministrat.  Terra  quidem  plana,  sed^  silvis  rara; 
quarum  vicem  supplant  glebse  de  lods  ejus  palustribus 
effosssB,  viliores^^  quidem  quam  ligna  quoad '^  cinerera 
et  '*  graviores  ad  odorem. 

*  Cap.  28  does  not  appear  in  C, 
but  the  following  chapter  is  num- 
bered 29.  Instead  of  cap.  28,  the 
following  occurs':  **  De  Gallia  dicit 
"  Entropius  experimento  deprehen- 
**  sum  esse,  quod  eicut  eorum  virtus 
*<  primo  impctu  majorem  quam  vl- 
'*  romm,  ita  sequens  minor  est  quam 
*'  foeminarum.  Burgundia  dicta/' 
&c.  Here  follows  the  piece  about 
Burgundy  at  tlic  ead  of  cap.  28, 
slightly  altered,  and  after  that  the 
piece  about  a  well  in  Brittany,  &e. 
(see  p.  292),  also  slightly  altered. 
So  also  D.,  except  that  the  chapters 
«re  not  numbered. 

^  The  description  of  Brabant, 
which  Higden  evidently  intended  to 
write,  is  given  in  A.  only,  and  in 
the  versions. 

'  refecta,  B, 

*  amntbus]  om.  A. 

*  incUtis,  B. 

*  So  B. ;  fecunda,  A.E.,  aud  the 

^'hcuplex,  A.E. 

«  fida]  Added  from  A  B. 

^ef\  sed€t,'B. 

*"  viliorem,  E.  (clerical  error.) 

>«  ad,  B. 

»2  sed,  B. 



dria,   fat  is  Flaundres,   a  prouince   of  G-allia  Belgica,*  and  Trevjsa. 

is  vppon  fo  brynke^   of  pe   see   of  occean,    and  ha]?  in  pe      • 

north  side  Frisia,  in  pe  est  Germania,  in  ]>e  soiiJ>e  Pycardie, 
in  fe  west  occean,  in^  fe  nor]?  a  party  of  Engeloud.  And 
|>ey^  Flaundres  be  a  litel  lond,  it  is  f ul  plentevous  of  meny 
profitable  l^inges,  and**  of  richesse  of  pasture,  of  bestes, 
of  marchaundise,  of  ryueres,  of  hauenes  of  ])e  see,  and  of 
good  townes.  pe  men  of  Flaundres  beej?  faire,  strocge,  and 
riche ;  and  bringe)?  forth  meny  children,  and  bee]?  pesjble  '*» 
to  hir  neighebores,  trewe^  to  straungeres,  noble  craftevS^ 
men,  and  greet  makeres  of  cloj?  ]?at  ]?8y  sendej?  ^  aboute  wel 
ny^  aP  Europa.  pe  lond  is  pleyne  and  skarse  of  wode  ; 
]?erforo  in  stede  of  wode  ]?ey  brenne]?  torfes,  ]?at  smellej? 
wors  ]?an  wode,  and  make]?  fouler  askes.^^  Braban  is  by 
south  est  Flaundres,  and  is  plentevous  of  marchaundise 
and  of"  makynge  of  clooth.  For  of  wolle,^^  j,at  fey  hauef 
.  out  of  Engelond  ]?ey  ^^  make]?  cloo]?  of  dyuers  coloui*es  and 
sende]?  in  to  o])ere^-*  prouinces  and  londes,  as  Flaundres 
doo]?.  For  ]?ey  Engelonde  haue  woUe  at  ]?e  beste,  he  ^^  ha]? 
nou^t  so  grete  pleute  of  good  water  for  dyuers  coloures 
and  hewes  as  Flaundres  ha]?  and  Braban.  Neuer]?eles  at 
Londoun  is  oon  -welle  ]?at  helpe]?  i^  wel  to  make  good  scarlet^ 
and  so  is  at  Lyncolne  in  ^7  certeyne  place  in  ]?e  brook  ]?at 

Of  Flandres.     Capitulum  vicesimum  octavum, 

Flandkia  is  a  prouince  of  Fraiince  callede  Francia  Bel-  MS.  Habl. 
gica,  sette  nye  to  the  side  of  th^   occean,  hauenge   on  the      2261. 
northe  to  hit  Friselonde,  on  the  este  Almayne,  on  the  sowthe 
Pikardy,  and  on  the  weste  parte  to  hit  the  occean  and  the 
northe  parte  of  Englonde.    And  thau^he  Flandres  be  ly telle  iu 
quantite,  neuerj?elesse  hit  is  replete  with  mony  commodites,  as 
with  pastures,  bestes,  marchandise,  waters,  hauenes  or  portes 
of  the  see,  and  nowble  in  cites.     The  peple  of  hi(;  be  semely 
in  stature,  myjhty,  plentuous,  and  ryche,  kepenge  peace  to 
men  of  theire   cuntre,    feitheful  to   straungeors,  and  excel-  ^»  46. 
lente  iu  worchynge  and   laborenge   in  woUe   that  seruethe 
allemoste  alle  Europe.    That  londe  is  playne,  hauenge  fewe 
woodes,  whiche  gete  turfes  of  the  marras  grownde  to  fuUe- 
fille  the  stede  of  woode,  whiche  be  more  vile  then  woode 

'  So  a. ;  Belliea,  MS. 

2  coste,  Cx. 

'  a.  and  Cx*  add  and. 

"  assheSf  Cx.  (as  usual,) 
^'  of]  om.  Cx. 
*2  the  wulle,  Cx. 

*  and]  om, Cx.  i  "  )>ey]  added  jft'ora  Cx.  (^Aw/) 
^pesihdy  a,  I  **  So  a.  and  Cx.  •  dyuers,  MS. 

*  and  trewcy  o.,  Cx.  |  **  t^  Cx. ;  |>ej,  a. 

'  crafty  men^  Cx,  }  **  So  a.  and  Cx, ;  c/ep6j>,  MS. 

*  tohiche  is  sante,  Cx.  I  "  in]  one,  Cx, 
» in  al,  a.  and  Cx. 

VOL.  I.  T 



De  Picar- 

De  Nor- 

De  Bri- 

Picardia  Galliae  provincia,  ab  oppido  Pontico  quod 
nunc  Phiten  dicitur^  sic  vocata,*  ut  vult  Herodotus,^ 
nobilia  habet  castra ;  scilicet  Ambianum,  BelgiSj  sive  Bel- 
vacum,  Attrabatum,  Tornacum.*  Jacet*  inter  Flandriam 
ab  aquilone  et  Normanniam  ad^  austirum,  habens  ad 
occasum  fretum  Gallicum  et  australem  Anglise  partem. 
Est  autem  duplex  Picardia,  superior  quse  Galliae  magis 
est  ^"  propinqua,  alia  inferior  quae  Flandrige  est  contigua 
et  Brabantise  finibus,  cujus  gens  astuta  est  et^  gvos- 
sioris  linguae  quam  alidB  partes  Francise. 

Normannia,  quae  et  Neustria  a  Noricis,  id  est  Nor- 
vagenis,^  proprie  est  dicta,  qui  navigantes  a'^  Dacia  et 
Norvegia"  litus  ^^  Gallici  oceani  obtinuerunt  et  partem 
illam  Normanniam  vocaverunt.  Cujus  metropolis  est 
Rothomagus,  super  ostium  Sequanse  fluminis  ubi  cadit  . 
in  oceanum  situs;  habet  ad  austrum  sui  Britanniam 
minorem^  ad  occasum  oceanum  GalKcum,  ad  circium 
australem  partem  Angliae. 

Britannia   minor    denominata   est  a   Britonibus  bis 

1  nunc  , . .  dicitur^  Space  left  in 

*  vocatf  B. 

^  UrodotuSj  MSS.  Some  other 
author  is  doxibtless  intended,  and  so 
helow.  I 

*  Attrebant,  Tornant,  A.B.  ' 
^  ah  aquilone  before  inter  in  B.        t 

^  ad]  om.  B. 

'  est  magis,  B. 

*  et]  om,  B. 

'  Norwagenis,  B. 

••  a]  So  B.  J  ety  A,E, 

"  Norguegia,  A. 

»2  litora,  B. 



passe]>  by  J)e  toun.     Py cardie  is  a  prouince  of  Gallia,  and  Tketisa. 

haf  fat  name  of  ]?e  toun  J^at  hatte  Ponticus,  and  hat  now      

Phiten ;  so  seip  Herodotus.  Pycardie  liaj»  many  noble 
eastelles  and  townes,  J?at  beejj  Ambyans,^  Belgis,  ofer 
Beluacus,  Attrebat,^  Tornat ;  and  lie]>  bytwene  Flaundres 
in  "pQ  north  side  and  Normandye  in  "pe  sou])  side,  and  ha]> 
in  }?e  west  side  the  see  and  pe  south  side  ^  of  Engelond. 
J)ere  bee]>  tweie  Picai'dies,  fe  ouer  4  is  nere  Fraunce ;  and 
pe  neper  ^  iojnep  ^  to  pe  endes  of  Flaundres  and  of  Braban. 
pe  men  ]?ere  of  bee]?  boistous  men  of  dedes,  and  gretter  7 
speche  ha]>  ^  ])an  ofer  men  of  Fraunce.  Normandie,  |)at  hatte  ^ 
Neustria  also,  haf  ^^  fe  name  of  Norwayes  fat  seilled  ^^  out 
of  Norway  and  of  Denmark,  and  gatt  a  contrey  vppon  be 
clyues  of  occean  yn  Gallia  and  cleped  it  Normandie.  pe 
cheef  citee  ferof  is  Rowan  vppon  pe  mouth  of  pe  ryuere 
of  Seyne ;  ^^  fere  Seyne  tomef  into  pe  see  of  occean. 
Normandye  haf  in  pe  sou)?  [the  lasse  Brytayn,  in  the  weste 
the  Frensshe  occean,  and  in  the  north  west  the  south  syde 
of  Englonde],^^    pe  lasse  Bretaigne  haf  pe  name  of  Britoons  ^^ 

as  vn  to  esches,  and  more  tedious  to  the  odoure.    Picardy  MS.  Harl. 
is  a  prouince  of  Fraunce,  hauenge  nowble  eastelles  and  hie,      2261. 
lyenge  betwene  Flandres  at  pe  northe  and  Normandy  at  t^e      '"'^ 
sowttie,  hauenge   on  the  weste   to  hit  the  see  of  Fraunce 
and  the  sowthe  parte  of  Englonde.     There  be  tweyne  Picar- 
dyes ;  the  hier  that  is  more  nye  to  Fraunce,  and  the  lawer 
that  is  contiguate  to  Flandres  and  to  the  costes  of  Braban. 
The  peple  of  this  Picardy  is  more  wyle  and  of  more  grosse 
langage    then    other    partes    of    Fraunce.      Noimannia    or 
Neustria,  callede  Normandy,  toke  the  name  of  hit  of  men 
of  Norway,  whiche,  saylenge  from  Denmarke,  opteynede  and     ' 
inhabite  that  grownde,  callenge  hit  Normandy,   the  chiefe 
oite   of   whom   is  callede   Rothomagus,   nye  to   the  floode 
callede  Sequana,  where  hit  fallethe  in  to  the  occean,  hauenge 
on  the  sowthe  to  hit  the  lesse  Breteyne,  at  the  weste  the 
occean  of  Fraunce,  at  the  sowthe  weste  to  hit  the  northe 
parte  of  Englonde.     The  lesse  Briteyne  toke  the  name  of 

'  as  Ajni^ens,  Cx. 

*  AUrebai]  om.  Cx.,  who  adds  and 
many  other  after  Toumay. 

3  Eleven  words  wanting  in  MS. 

*  ihat  one^  Cx. 

■  and  eythetf  Cx. 

*  inne\>,  a. 
'  grettre,  a. 

*  haue gretter  speche^  Cx,;  spech€\>, 

^keetf  Cx.  (who  usually  substi- 
tutes is  named,) 

^"  and  hathy  Cx.  (typ.  error.) 

"  sail,  Cx. 

'^"^  ryuer  Seyne, «. 

^^  The  words  in  brackets  added 
from  Cx. ;  partly  also  from  a. 

"  So  o.  ;  Britons,  Cx.  ;   Brutus, 


T   2 


earn  ^  occupantibus ;  primo,  per  Brennium  fratrem  Bfelini 
regk ;  secundo,  tempore  Vortigemi  regis  Britonum,  per 
Britones  a  Saxonibus  infestatos,  sicut  in  historia  Bri- 
tonum continetur.  Haec  provincia  habet  ad  orientem 
Andegaviam,  ad  aquilonem  Normanniam,  ad  austrum 
Aquitaniam,^  ad  occasum  oceanum  Aquitanicum.  Gi- 
raldus  in  Topographm.  In  hac  Britannia  est  fons, 
cnjus  aquis  in  cornu  bubali  haustis  si  petram  fonti 
proximam  perfudems  tempore  quantumlibet  serene,  plu- 
vias  statim  non  evades.^  In  Francorum  etiam  regno 
est  fons  juxta  castrum  Pascense  masculomm  usibus 
valde  congruens,  sed  foeminis  neqnaquam;  cujus  aquse 
nuUo  igne  nulla*  arte  possunt  calefieri.® 

De  Picta-  Pictavia  Gallise  Narbonensis  est  provincia,  quam  Picti, 
Angli,  Scoti  navigio  impetentes  ^  inhabitaverunt,  et  no- 
men  urbi  Pictavis  ^  et  regioni  Pictavi?e  indiderunt,  sicut 


*  earn  bis,  B. 

^-ad,,.  Aquitaniam]  om.  B. 

■  evadet,  A.B.,m  en*or.  The  para- 
graph appears  thus  in  CD.:  InBri" 
tannia  minori  est  fons,  cujus  aquis 
in  cornu  bubali  (bibali,  D.)  haustis, 
si  petram  ei  proximam  forte  profu' 
derts  tempore  quantumlibet  sereno  in 
coniinenti,  pluvias  non  evades. 

*  nuilavCf  B. 

*  Sentence  slightly  varied  in  CD. 

*  impertientes,  A. 

'So  B.  ;    Pictavi,  AM,     Both 

Piciavium  and  Pictavce  occur  as  the 
nominative.  See  Lloyd's  Diet  Hist 
and  Hofmann's  Lexic,  Unto, 


fat  twyes  occupied  i  fat  lond.  Fyrst  by  Brennus^  j,at  Trbvisa. 
was  kyng  Bellynus  his  broJ)er,3  and  efte  soues  by  Britons  — ^ 
J>at  were  pursued  and  greued  by  J)e  Saxons  in  Fortigerns^ 
tyme  kyng  of  Britons,  as  it  is  i- write  and  coiiteyned  in  ]7e 
storie  of  Britouns.  pis  prouince  ha]>  in  J)e  est  side  Ande- 
gauioj  ]>at  is  Angeoye,'^  in  pe  north  Normandye,  in  fe  souf 
Guyan,  in  |?e  west  occean  Aquitanicus,  fat  is  fe  see  fat  is 
by  Gyan  is  side.^  Giraldus  in  TopographiaJ  In  fis 
Britayne  is  a  welle ;  ^if  f e  water  of  fat  welle  is  i-take  in 
bugle  s  horn  and  i-helto  ^  vppon  a  stoon  fat  is  ^^  next  to  f e 
welle,  by^^  fe  wedir^^  neuer  so  faire  anon  it  schal  rayne. 
Also  in  fe  Frensche  men  lond^^  is  a  welle  faste  by  fe 
castel  Pascence,  f e  water  of  fat  welle  is  swif e  good  ^-^  for 
men  and  noujt  for  wommen.  No  man  can  hete  Avater^^  of 
fat  welle  nofer  wif  fuyre  iie  wif  craft  fat  any  man  can 
deiiyse.i^  Pictsauia,  J^at  is  Peytowe,  is  a  prouince  of  Gallia 
Narbonensis,  Englischmen,  Scottes,  and  Pyctes^^  seilled 
and  wonede  fere  and  cleped  fe  contray  Pictauia,  and  fe 
chief  citee   Pictauus,    fat   is   Peiters,   so  seif  Herodotus. ^^ 

Briteynes  occupienge  hit  twyes.  Pirste  by  Brennius,  brother  MS.  Harl. 
to  kynge  Belin.  In  the  secunde  tyme  of  Vortigernus,  as  ^^^^' 
hit  is  conteynede  more  plenerly  in  the  story  of  Briteynes. 
That  prouince  hathe  on  the  este  to  hit  Gascuyn,  at  the 
northe  Normandy,  at  the  sowthe  Gyon,  at  the  weste  the 
occean  of  Gyon.  There  is  a  welle  in  that  Briteyne,  the  water 
of  whom  ydrawen  up  in  the  home  of  a  bugle  or  of  an  ox, 
and  caste  on  the  nexte  ston  to  hit,  thau^he  the  weder  be 
neuer  soe  feire,  hit  schalle  reync  anoon.  Also  in  the  realme 
of  Fraunce  is  a  welle  nye  to  the  castelle  Pascence,  con- 
gruente  to  the  vse  of  men,  but  not  of  women.  The  water 
of  whiche  welle  can  not  be  made  hoote  with  eny  fire.  Pic- 
tauea  is  a  province  of  Fraunce  Narbonense,  whom  Pictes, 
Scottes,  and  Englischemen  did  inhabite,  callenge  the  name 
off  the  cite  Picta,  and  the  name  of  the   prouince  Pictauea, 

*  So  ft,  and  Cx.;  occ«piVJ»,  MS. 
-  Birremas^  MS.;  Brenius^  Cx. 
3  Belilnus  broder,Cx, 

*  Vortegerns,  a. ;   Vortigers,  Cx. 

*  Andegoy,  Cx. 

*  by  the  side  of  Guyana  Cx. 

'  toppicis,  (sic)   Cx.    Reference 
omitted  in  MB. 

*  in  a  buglesf  Cx, 
^  pouredt  Cx. 

"  So  MS.,  but  probably  by  a  cle- 
rical error  for  be^  ivhich  a.  and  Cx. 

^*-  be  J>e  weUef  a. 

*^  And  in  Fraunce,  Cx. 

^^ihe  water  therofis  right  good,  Cx. 

»*  that  wateri  Cx, 

**  So  ft»  and  Cx. ;  can  do  deuysCi 

"  So  Cx.;  Puteisy  MS.;  Putees,  ft. 

^^  j>at  is"]  om,  Cs.,  '^J&ro(/o^u«)MSS.andCx.,asusnaIi 


dicit  Herodotus.  Hsec  itaque  provincia  per  longum 
oceani  projecta  habet  ab  orienteTiironiam^  quam  flumen 
Ligeris  prseterfluit,  ab  austro  Hispanias,^  ab  aquilone 
Britaimiain  minorem  et  sinum  Aquitanicum,  ab  oc- 
casu  oceanum,  Gens  ejus  a  Gallis^  quibus  saepe  immixta 
est,  et  etiam  a  climate,  cui  subjacet,  mores  attraxit  ;^  ut 
jpm  sit  robusta  corpore,  venusta  facie,  animo  audax, 
ingenip.  callida;  quia/  secundum  Isidorum,  Etymolo- 
giarum  libro  nono,  secundum  diversitatem  coeli  fades 
hominum,  colores  corporum,  qualitates  animorum  exis- 

De  Aqui-  Aquitania  ab  aquis  obliquis  Ligeris  fluminis  dicta 
est,  quod  plurima  ex  parte  terminus  ejus  est;  cujus 
nomine  plures  particulares  provinciae  comprehenduntur 
secundum  Plinium.  A  septentrione  et  oriente  habet 
Galliam  Lugdunensem,  ab  euro  et  austro  contingit 
provinciam  Narbonensem. 

BeAnde-       Andegavia  provincia  Galliae  media  est  quodammodo 


inter  Aquitaniain  et  Britanniam  minorem. 

*  Thuronianif  A. 
^  Hispaniamf  B* 

'  contraxitf  A.B* 
*  eo  quod,  B. 

MONACHI   CEbTttiSNSlS,   LIB.   I.  295 

pis  prouince  strecche])  longe  wey  vppon  J?e  occean,  and  ha)>  Tkevisa. 

in  fe  est  side  Turoni%  J^erby  passe]?  ye  ryuer  of  Leyre,  in 

J>e   sou]?   side    Spayne,    in   fe  norj)  |?e  lasse  Bretaigne  and 

fe  see  of  Gyan,  in  J^e  west  fe  see  of  occeau.     pe*    men 

of  ]?at  lond  drawef   after  ye   maneres  of  ^  Prensche  men, 

bycause    ]>at   ]?ey   bee]?   i-meddled^  wip  hem,  and  also  by 

cause   of  ]?e  contray  J>at  fey   wone]?  ynne  ;^    so   |?at  J?ey 

beej>  now  stronge  of   body,   faire   of  face,   bold  of  herte, 

and  fel  of  witte.      For  Ysidre,  Eth.,  libro  nono,  seij>   }?at 

dyuersite  of  contrayes  vnder  heuene  is  dyuersite  of  face  in 

man  in  strengfe,  in  colour,  and  in  witt.*^ 

De  Aquitania, 

Capittdum  vicesimum  octavum, 

Aquitania,  ])at  is  Gyan,  and  baj)  ])e  name  Aquitania  of 
aquiSf  ]?at  b6a  wateres ;  for  ])e  water  of  fe  ryuere  of  Leire 
goo]>  aboute  a  greet  deel  of  J>at  lond.  Many  particuler 
prouinces^  is  comprehendid  vndir  ])e  name  of  ]?at  lond, 
Plinius  sei])  ]?at  he  ha]>  in  ]>e  north  and  in  ]>e  est  Gallia 
Lugdunensis,  in  ]?e  sou]>  and  est  he  strecche|>  to  ])e  pro- 
uince of  Narbon.  Andegauia,  pat  is  Angeoy,  a  prouince 
of  Gallia,  and  is  as  it  were   in  ]>e   myddel  bytwene  Gyan 

as  Herodotus  seythe.     This  prouince,  proiecte  by  the  longi-  MS.  Haul. 
tude  of  the  occean,  hathe  on  the  este  to  hit  Turonea,  whom      2261. 
the  floode  callede  Ligeris  flowethe  abowte,   in  the  sowthe      — " 
parte  of  hit  Spayne,  on  the  northe  the  lesse  Briteyne,  on 
the  weste  to  hit  the  occean.      The  peple  of  hit  kepe  the 
maneres   and    consuetudes    of  Frenche  men,  to  whom_  thei 
were  immixte,  and  after  the  cimtre  to  whom  thei  be  sub- 
iecte.     For  after  Isidorus,  Ethi.,  libro  none,  that  the  faces 
and  coloures  of  men  bene  chaungede  after  the  diuersite  of 
heuyn.     Aquitanny  is  namede  of  the  oblylce  waters  of  that 
floode  callede  Ligeris,  in  whiche  name  mony  other  particuler 
prouinces  be  comprehendede,  after  Plinius,  hauenge  on  the 
northe  and  of  the  este  to  hit  Fraunce  Lugdunense,  towch- 
enge  on  the  sowthe  the  prouince  Narbonense*      Audegauia 
is  a  province  of  Fraunce  Lugdunense,  as  a  meane  betwene 

*  So  ct*  and  Cx» ;  }>o^,  MS,  *  and  of  the  countrey  that  is  so 

'  ben  of  the  conditions  of  Cx. 

i-melled,  a.  j  bi/  cause  they  medle,     q^^ 


neyghe  to  them,  Cx. 
*  The  last  sentence  is  omitted  in 

many  a  perticider  prouince,  Cx* 


DeVas-         Vasconia  esi  provincia  sub  Aquitania  olim  contenta. 


habens  ab  oriente^  Pyrenseos  montes,  ad  occasum* 
oceanum  occidentalem,  ad  eurum  planitiem^  pi'ovincise 
Tholosan^.  In  alio  latere  propinquat  genti  Picta^'o- 
rum,  cujus  terra  satis  est  nemorosa  et  raoutuosa/ 
vinearum  *  ferax ;  quam  Garonna  fluvius  a  Tholosana  ^ 
parte  separat,  et  jtixta  Burdegalam/  quae  terrsB  illius 
metropolis  est,  oceanum  intrat,  Cujus®  terr?e  viri 
dicuntur  Vascones,  quasi  Wacones,^  quos  Pompeius 
Magnus,  edomita  Hispania  deposuit  de  monte  Pyrenseo 
et  in^^  unum  oppidum  congregavit,  sicut  tradit  Hero- 
dotus^^ bistoriograpbus.  Viri  quoque  loci  illius  modd 
Bausclenses  ^^  vocantur,  corpore  quidem  agiles,  animo 
audaces,  pilis  et  arcubalistis  utentes,  ad  latrocinia  et 
depredationes  proni,  viUbus  et  fissis  vestibus  induti. 
DeBur-  Burgundia  pars  est  Gallise  Senonensis  usque  ad 
Alpes  ^^  Pyrenseos  pene  extensa,  et  dicta  est  ?«,  burgis 
eo    quod    Austrogothi  ^*    Italiam  vastaturi  ibi  fecerunt 

*  ortu,  B. 

^  ad  occasum'}  om.  B. 
^planutam,  B. 

*  moniuosa  et  nemorosa,  B. 
^  et  vineantm,  A. 

"  Thohzana,  li) 
'  Burdegcdia,  B. 

*  Hujus,  A.B. 

^  quasi  Wacones^  om.  B. 

*•  I»]  om.  B. 

*i  ErodotuSf  MSS.,  a.s  usnal.  Some 
other  author  is,  of  course,  intended. 

"  Basclenses,  A.  ;  BlascIenseSf  B* 

"  Alpes  Alpenninos  (sic)  Pireneos, 

**  Austro]  om.  B, 


and  litel  Bretaigne.     Vasconia,  fat  is  Gasguyne,^  and  was  Tkevisa, 

somtymc  conteyned  vndir  Gyaii,  and  lia]>  in  fe  est  side  fc 

hiiles  Pyrenei,  in  fe  west  the  west  occean,  in  ]>e  sou})  est 
fe  pleyn  of  fe  prouince  of  TIiolous,  and  in  fe^  ofer  side 
hit  neighe]>  to  Peytow.  In  fat  lend  beef  mony  woodes, 
hiiles,  and  vynes  ;  ^  and  f  e  lyuer  Garonna  departef  by tweuc 
fat  lond  and  fe  Jjrouince  of  Tholous,  and  entref  into  fe 
see  of  occean  faste  by  Burdeux ;  fat  is  f e  chief  citee  ^ 
of  fat  loud,  pe  men  of  fat  lond  beef  i-cleped  Vascones, 
as  it  were  Wacones.  pe  Grete  Pompeius^  put  hem  doun 
of  mount  Pyreneus,  and  gadered  hem  alle  in  to  oon^ 
towne,  whanne  Spayne  was  ouercome,  so  seif  Herodotus, 
fe  writer  of  stories/  pe  men  of  ])at  loud  hatte  now 
VasclensiSjS  and  beef  swift  and  hardy,  and  rsef  balles 
and  alblastres^  and  gladliche  wolef  robbe  ^^  and  reue  "  ; 
and  so  fey  beef  strohge  feues.  pey  beef  clofed  in  slitte  ^^ 
clofis  and  foule.  Burgundia  is  a  party  of  Gallia  Seno- 
nensis  ^^  and  strecchef  anon  to  AljDes  Pyrenei,  and  Jiaf  fat 
name  Burgundia  of  borw  i**  townes  fat  Austrogothi  bulde  *^ 
f er  inne,  whan  fey  keste  *^  for  to  destroye  Italia,    pis  lond 

the  lesse  Briteyne  and  Aquitanye.  Vasconia  is  a  province  MS,  Habl, 
sbmme  tyme  conteynede  vnder  Aquitanny,  hauenge  on  the  2261. 
este  to  hit  the  hiiles  Pii^ene,  at  the  weste  the  occean  5 
whiche  londe  hathe  woodes  ynowe,  and  fulle  off  hiiles, 
plentuous  of  vynes ;  whom  the  floode  callede  Garona  de- 
partethe  hit  in  parte  from  Tholosan,  entrenge  in  to  the 
occean  nye  to  Burdewes,  the  chiefe  cite  of  that  prouince» 
Men  of  that  cuntre  be  callede  Vascones,  whom  Grete  Pom- 
peius  makenge  tame  gedi'ede  theyme  in  to  oon  lytelle 
cuntre,  as  Herodotus,  the  wryter  of  storyes,  rehersethe. 
But  nowe  the  peple  of  that  cuntre  be  callede  Basclenses, 
swifte  of  body,  bolde  in  herte,  vsenge  dartes  and  crosse 
bawes  or  staffe  slynges,  prompte  to  thefte  and  robbenge,  in- 
duede  with  fowle  clothenge.  Burguyn  is  a  pai'te  of  Fraunce 
Cenonense  to  Alpes  Pirene  extente  allemoste,  callede  soe 
of  townes  and  cites  whom  Astrogothes,  wyllenge  to  waste 

*  Gascoi/n,  Cx.  j  '  arbleetres,  Gx» 
3  that,  Cx.  I  **  do  robbe,  Cx. 
"  wynes,  a.  i  "  reeve,  o. 

*  whiche  is  chyefcifte,  Cx.  j  ^-  slight,  Cx. 

*  Povipeus,  MS.,  o,,  and  Cx.  j  **  Senosensis,  MB.,  a.,  and  Cx. 

*  o,  a.  I  **  borugh,  Cx. 
'  histories,  Cx.,  as  usual.  *^  bylded,  Cx. 

*  Basclensisj  o,;  Basclenses,  Cx.     |  "  purposed,  Cx, 



burgos,  id  est  oppida.  Haec  terra  versus  Alpes  est 
frigida,  ubi  incote  ex  frequenti  inundatione  aquarum 
nivalium  efficiuntur*  sub  mento  turgidi  et  «trumosi.^ 

Car  XXIX. 

De  Hispania. 

TroguSy  libra  ultimo,  et  Isidorua,  libro  quinto  dedmo, 
Refert  I^ogus^  quod  trigona  sit  Hispania  universa/ 
quam  a  septentrione  Pyrenjjei  montes^  conjuBgunt® 
Qallise  Narbonensi  ;  *  ex  omni  reliqua  parte  circumfu- 
sione  oceani  et  Tyrrheni  pelagi  pene  insula  efficitur. 
Duplex  tamen  est  Hispania ;  citerior  quidem  ^  incipiens 
a  Pjrrenseis  saltibus  per  Cantabros  apud  Oarthaginem 
Spartariam*  terminatur.  Ulterior  vero  Hispania^  con- 
tinet  partem  occidentalem  usque  ad  fretum  Gaditanum, 
ubi  Herculis  columnsB  montem  Atlanticum  prospectant.*® 

*  officiuntur^  B. 

Narbonensi]  otn,  CD.  ;  Gallics 

^  The    preceding    paragraph    is     Narbonensi,  om.  B. 
slightly  abbreviated  and  varied  in         ^  quidetn]  om.  C.B. 


^  Tragus  trigonas  quod,  E. 

^  Hispania  trigona   est  universa, 

^  continguHtj  B* 

^  Spartariam]  om.  CD.;  SpaiU' 
riam,  MSS.^  and  similarly  below. 

^  Hispania]  om.  D.,  which  in 
other  respects  agrees  with  the  tesit. 

^^  Transposed  in  C 

MONACin  CBSTKKNSIS,    LIB.   I.  299 

is  ful  colde  toward  Alpes  Pyreuei ;   men  J>at  wone)>  toward  Thevisa. 
]?at  side  of  Burgoyne^  haue])  bocches  vnder  fe  chyn  i-swolle  .    """"^ 
and   i-bolled/^    as    pey  he^   were    double   chynned,    fat    is 
bycause   of  greet   colde    of  wateres   of   snow,    fat    meltef 
among  bem  al  day. 

De  HispaniaA 

Capitulum  vicesimum  nonum. 

Tragus,  libro  ultimo,  et  Isidorus^  libra  quinta  decimo, 

Trogus  sei])  pat  Trigonia^  is  Spayne  al  hool,  and  fe 
hilles  Pireney  ioynef  Spayne  in  ^  ^e  norp  side  to  Gallia 
Narbonensis,  and  is  i-closed  in  fe  dper  sides  al  aboute 
wij»  |>e  see  of  occean  and  wi])  "pe  se  Tyrrhenus.  And  so 
Spayne  is  wel  ny^  al  an  ylond,  for  he  ^  is  byclipped  wif  ]>e 
see  wel  ny^  al  aboute.  But®  fere  beef  tweye*  Spaynes; 
f  e  hyder  bygynnef  from  f e  pleynes  and  valeys  of  Pireneies, 
and  streccbef  by  Cantabria,  and  endef  at  Carthago  Spartaria. 
pe  fonder  Spayne  conteynef  f e  west  partye  anoou  to  fe 
see  Gaditanus;  fere  Hercules  his  pileres  stondef '^  by  sides 

Ytaly,  made  there.      That   londe  towarde  Alpes  is   colde,  MS.  Harl. 
where  the  inhabitatores  haue  swellenges  vnder  the  chynne      2261. 
for  the  gi^ete  habundaunce  of  waters  of  snawe  beenge  there. 

Of  Speyne.     Trogus,  libra  uttimo^  et  Isidorus,  libra  quinta 
decimo,     Capitulum  vicesimum  nonum, 

Trogus  rehersethe  that  Speyne  is  iij.  cornei'de,  or  hau- 
enge  iij.  corners,  whom  the  hilles  Pirene  conioynethe  of 
the  northe  parte  to  Fraunce  Narbonense,  made  on  euery 
other  parte  as  an  yle  thro  the  compassenge  of  the 
occean  and  of  the  see  Tirene.  Neuerthelesse  there  be  ij.  £  47. 
Speynes.  The  nyer  Speyne  to  theis  costes  begynnethe 
from  the  hilles  Pirene,  and  is  endede  at  Carthago  Spartaria. 
The  forther  Spayne  conteynethe  the  weste  parte  to  the 
see  Gaditan,  where  the  pillers  of  Hercules  haue  prospecte 

'  Burgmiy  a.  |       ^  So  «.  and  Cx,  j  Tngania,  MS. 

-  yswoUen  and  bagged,  Cx.  |       e  if^  go  «.  and  Cx.j  and,  MS. 

as  though  they,  Cx.  |       7  ^  q^ 

*  The  Latin  proper  names  in  the  j       en** 
three  following  chapters  are  more  ^oote^  a. 

or  less  corrupt ;  tliey  have  heen 
mostly  corrected  -without  noticing 
the  readings  of  the  MSS.  Cx 

^  two,  Cx. 

' "  where  as  Hercules  sette  his  pylers, 



Haec  itaque^  Hispania  terra  est  plana  castellis,  equis, 
melle,^  et  metallis  copiosa.  Quondam  vocabatur^  Hes- 
peria  ab  Hespera*  stella  vespertina,  Gi'secos  illiic^  diri- 
gente.  Demum  dicta®  Hiberia  ab  Hibero  flumine. 
Tandem  dicta  esfc  Hispania  ab  Hispalo  flumine.  His- 
pania octo^  habet  provincias,  scilicet,  Tarraconensem, 
Carthaglnensem,  Lusitaniam,  Galliciani,  Boeticam, 
Tingitanam,  Aaturiam^  Arragoniam.®  Isiclorus,  libro 
qui'tito  deciraOf  ca^ntiilo  secundo?  Ista  Carthago  His- 
panica  dicta  est  Spartaria  ad  differentiam  alterius 
magnee  Carthaginis  quae  est  in  Africa,  quam  Scipio 
consul  Bomanus  delevit.  Sed  ista  Carthago  Spartaria 
coudita  fuit  ab  Afris  sub  duce  Hanibale,'®  et  cite  post 
capta  a  Bomanis;  sed  denuo  totaliter  subversa  a 
Gothis,  qui  Hispaniam  diu  possederunt,  potissime  sub 
temporibus  Honorii  imperatoris.  Hos  tandem  Sarraceni 
erumpentes  ab  Africa  post  tempora  Heraclii  impera- 
toris devicerunt.     Sed   et   illi   Sarraceni  postmodum  a 

^  itaque]  om»  CO, 

*  rneUe]  om.  C»D. 
'  dicebatur,  C»D. 

*  ab  Hespera]  om  C.  (not  B.) 
Tlie  text  should  be  ab  Jlespero,  but 
the  error  is  probably  due  to  Iligden 

*  ilfuc  naciganteSf  CO. 

*'  dicta']  om,  C.D. ;  B.  adds  est, 
'  So  13.  ;  sex^  A.D. 

"  This  sentence  is  slightly  trans- 
posed in  CD.  The  names  are  some* 
•what  barbarised  in  the  MSS. 

^  tertio  capitulo  primo,  C  ;  //,  1. 
ca»  1.,  D. }  cap.  prlmOy  B.  The  true 
reference  is  to  lib.  xv.  c.  1.  §  30, 
and  §  67.  Se3  Isid.  Hisp.  Op.  vol. 
4,  pp.  200,  207.     (Ed.  Arev.) 

"  Hanibale]  Space  left  for  word 
in  B. 



l>e  hille  *    niout  Atlas,     pis    Spayne   is  a  playn   lond    and  Trevisa. 

ha]?  grete   copy  and^  plente  of  castell,^  of  hors,  of  metal,      

and  of  liony,  and  heet  somtyme  Hesperia  of  Hespera,-*  J>e 
eue  sterre,  J?at  ladde  fe  Grees  fider  and  was  her  lode*'» 
steire.  Afterward  he  heet  Hiberia  of  pe  ryuer  Hiberus  ; 
but  at  fe  laste  he  hatte  Hispania  of  J)e  ryuer  Hispalus. 
In**»  Hispania  bee])  sixe  prouinces  ])at  bee]?  Tarraconensis, 
Lusitania,  Gallicia,  Betica,  Tingitana,  Asturia,  AiTagonia. 
Isidorus,  libro  quinto  decimo,  capitulo  secundo,  pis  Car- 
thago of  Spayne  is  i-cleped  Spartaria,  for  to  liaue  difference 
bytwene  |;is  Carthago  [and  ]>q  grete  Carthago]  ^  of  Affrica, 
])at  Scipio  consul  of  Rome  destroyed.  Afri,  men  of  AflS'ica, 
made  ]?is  Carthago  Spartaria  in  dulce  Hanybal  his  tyme : 
but  sone  aftirward  ]>e  Romayns  took  pis  Carthago  Spartaria,» 
and  at  ])e  laste  Gothi  destroyed  it  al  out,^  for  Gothi  were 
lordes  of  Spayne  long  tyme,  and  speciallich'e  in  Honorius 
J)e  emperours  ^^  tyme.  But  afterward  'pe  Sarecenes  brak  ^^ 
out  of  Affrica  and  put  Gothi  out  of  Spayne  after  Hera- 
elius  ]>e  emperoures  ^^  tyrae.^^    But  pe  Saracenys  wei*e  aftir- 

towarde  the  mownte  Atlantike.     That  Spayne   is   a  pleyne  MS.  Hael 

londe,  plentuous  of  castelles,  horses,  of  hony,  and  of  me-  2261, 
talle ;  somme  tyme  caUede  Hesperia,  of  the  sterre  Hesperia 
directenge  the  Grekes  to  hit.  After  that  hit  was  callede 
Hiberia,  of  the  floode  callede  Hiberus.  But  at  the  laste 
liit  was  callede  Hispania,  after  the  floode  callede  Hispalas. 
Spayne  hathe  yj.  prouinces,  that  is  to  say  Terraconense 
Lucitany,  Gallicea,  Bethlike,  Tingitine,  Astury,  and  Arro- 
gany.  Isidorus,  libro  quinto  decimo,  capitulo  secundo»  This 
Carthago  of  Spayne  was  callede  Spartaria  vn  to  the  dif- 
ference of  Grete  Carthago,  wbiche  is  in  Affrike,  whom 
Scipio  the  consul  of  Rome  destroyede,  but  this  Cartago 
Spartaria  was  made  of  men  of  Affi^ike  under  Duke  Hanibal, 
but  after  that  hit  was  destroyede  of  the  Gothes,  whiche 
hade  possession  longe  in  Speyne,  and  specially  in  the 
tymes  of  Honorius  themperoure.  The  Saracenes  brekenge 
furthe  from  Afii*ike  after  the  tymes  of  Heraclius  thempe- 
roure ouercome  the  Gothes.     Whiche   Saracenes  were   de- 

>  hiile]  om.  Cx. 

*  copy  and]  om.  Cx. 

*  castelles,  a.,  Cx, 

*  Espera,  MS. 
^  lood,  a. 

« Htspalus,  In]  om.  MS.  After 
Hispalus  Cz.  adds,  or  ofHispanu&j 
that  Hercules  ordeyned  gouemour 
and  kyng  there. 

^  Words  in  brackets  added  from 
ff.  and  Cx. 

'  Ox.  omits  the  fourteen  vords 

*  al  out]  om.  Cx. 

"  emperour  his,  a. 

"  breekftt, 

^^  emperour  his,  a. 

'^  Thepreceding  sentence  omitted 
in  Cx. 


Carolo  Magno  devicti  occiduas  partes  Hispanise,  quas 
sunt  Gallicia,  Lusitania,  amisernnt,  orientales  partes 
Hispaniaa  solummodo  retinentes.' 

Cap.  XXX. 

De  Insulis  MaHs  Magni? 
Gades  Apte  prima  inter  insulas  magni  maris  Gades^  poni- 


tur,  quae  in  occiduo  fine  Hispanise  in  faiice  occidentalis 
oceani  situatur,  ubi  oceanus  magnus  in  terras  erumpit, 
dividens  Africam  ab  Europa;  quam  Tyrii*  de  mari 
Rubro  ,profecti  occupantes  lingua  sua  Gades  voeaverunt, 
quod  sonat  septam,  pro  eo  quod  mari  undique**^  cinga- 
tur,  centum  et  decern  passibus  a®  terra  separata;  ubi 
et  Hercules  posuit  columnas  mirabiles  et  memorabiles, 
tanquam  in  orbis  extreme,  quae  de-  nomine  illius  insulae 
dictse    sunt    Gades.^     Hugutio^    capitulo   Gades,    Et 

^  The  preceding  paragraph  from 
Isidore  appears  thus  in  CD. :  Ista 
Carthago  Hispanica  dicta  est 
Spa[f\taria,  ah  Afris  sub  Hanibale 
condita,  a  Romanis  cito  post  capta, 
sed  postea  a-Gothis  eat  suhversa. 

minutely.    The, paragraph  on  Cor- 
sica is  omitted  entirely. 

*  Apte  , . .  Gad^s^  Apud  insulas 
maris  prima,  B. 

^  Tirii  or  Tiri,  MSS. 

*  sepiatur  sive,3. 

Alia  est  Carthago   Africep,   quam  1      ^  a  terra  . .  .  Gades]  om  B. 

Scipio  delevitf  CD.  |       '  Ahbreviated  in  CD.,  and  placed 
*  The  sections  are  transposed  in      at  end  of  the  chapter ;  the  paragraph 
C.p.,  and  much  abbreviated.    It  is,     from  Hugutio  being  omitted, 

therefore,  impossible  to  collate  them  j       «  Hvgo,  B. 



ward  ouercome    of  Charles    J>e    Grete,    and  lost    be    west  Trkvisa. 
landes  of  Spayne,  Gallicia,*  and  Lusitania;  and  hilde  onlice      — 
|)e  este  londes  and  contrayes  of  Spayne, 

De  Insults  Maris  MagnL 

Capitulum  tricesimum. 

Gades  is  couenableliche  first  i-sette  among  J>e  ylondes 
of  ]?e  greet-  see,  and  stondef  in  fe  west  ende  of  Spayne  in 
a  mouJ)e  of  the  west  occean.  pere  ]?e  grete  occean  broke]? 
in  to  \Q  ynner  londes,  and  departed  atwynne^  Afirica  and 
Europa.  Tiries  come,  seilled^  out  of  ]?e  Rede  see,  and  oc- 
cupied fat  lond4  and  cleped  it  Gades  in  hir  langage,  and 
Gades  is  to  mene^  bycUpped^  for  it^  is  byclipped  [al]  ^ 
aboute  wij)  ])e  see,  and  is  from  fe  lond  an  hondred  paas 
and  ten.  pere^  Hercules  sette  his  pileres,  fat  beef  weP 
wonderful,  as  it  were  in  f e  vttermeste^^  ende  of  all  fe  erfe  ;  '* 
and  fe  same  pileres  beef  i-cleped  after  f e  name  of  f e  ilond 
Gades  also.   Hugutio^  capitulo  Gades.^^    And  f erof  it  come 

victe   of  Gi^ete  Charles,  and  losenge   the   weste   partes   ofMS.  Harl. 
Spayne,   whiche   be    callede    Gallicia  Lucitania,   I'eceyuede      2261. 
oonly  to  theyme  the  este  partes  of  Speyne. 

Of  the  Yles  of  the  Grete  See.     Capitulum  tricesimum. 

That  yle  callede  Gades  is  put  firste  amonge  the  yles  of 
the  grete  see,  whiche  is  sette  in  the  weste  ende  of  Speyne, 
as  in  the  mowthe  of  the  weste  occean,  where  the  grete 
occean  brekenge  vp  diuidethe  Affrike  from  Europe ;  whom 
men  of  Tire  occupyenge  callede  hit  Gades,  whiche  is  in 
theire  langage,  compassede  abotvie,  in  so  moche  that  hit  is 
eompassede  abowte  with  the  see,  departede  from  the  londe 
c.  and  X.  passes ;  where  Hercules  putte  mervellous  pyllors 
as  a  memorialle  in  the  extremite  of  the  worlde,  whiche  be 
callede  Gades,  after   the  name  of  that  yle.     Hug.  capitulo 

»  So  Cx.j  GaUacia,  MS.  Gallse- 
cia  IS  the  ancient  classical  name  ; 
but  Higden  probably  intended  to 
use  the  later  form  Gallicia. 

^  a  sonder,  Cx. 

'  seyling^  Cx.,  which  is  better, 

*  ilond,  a. 

5  saye,  Cx. 

^  he,  o. 

'  al]  Added  from  a,  and  Cx. 

®  There  as,  Cx. 

®  righty  Cx. 

*®  otmeste,  a. 

"  of  the  world,  Cx. 

*^  Cx.  gives  the  first  sentence  thus : 
— And  to  gyue  knowleche  that  there 
is  noplace  ne  lond  ferther  westward 
that  stronge  man  Hercules  sette  the 
pylers  there  hy  Gades  \ihenne  est- 
witrd  from  these  pylers,  ^c. 



De  Sar- 

inde  inolevit,  ut  ^  columnse  positae  a  viris  fortibus  ^  in 
illis  locis,  quae  supergredi  ^  non  possent,  Gades  voca- 
rentur.  Post  has  versus  orientein  Baleares  insulse, 
Majorica  et  Minorica  situantur. 

Deinde  Sai'dinia  insula  ad  austrum  habet  Africam, 
ad  septentrionera  Siciliam ;  quse  nee  serpentes  habet 
nee  lupos  nee  venenum,  sed  herham  quara  apium  vocant, 
qufB  homines  ridere  facit  et  ridendo  interire.*  Hsec 
regio  fontes  habet  calidos  et  saUibres,  quarum  aqua 
latronibus  caecitatem  affert,®  si  sacvamento  prsestito 
oculos  jurantis  attigerit.® 
I)e Corsica      Corsica^  insula  multis  promunctoriis  angulosa,   gig- 


nens  Isetissima®  pascua  et  lapidem  aconitem,  habet  ab 
oriente  Tyrrhenum  mare,  ab  austro  Sardiniam  ad  tri- 
ginta  milliaria,  ab  occasu  Baleares;  a  septentrione 
ligusticum  sinum  et  Liguriara  Italian  provinciam.  Et 
tenet  in  longum^  centum  sexaginta  millia  passuum, 
in  latum '^  vero  virinti  sex.  Est  autera  insula  ilia 
dicta    Corsica  '^   a   quadam   muliere  Corsa,  .qu8e    cum 

*  quod,  A. 

^  foriissimis,  B. 

'  qu<B  transgredif  B.E.  5  quos  ,  .  . 
970»  possunf,  A. 

*  interimit,  D. 

*  conferty  CD, 

®  tetigerit,  CD.  The  whole  passage 
about  Sardinia  slightly  altered  inC.D. 

^  Cortica,  B. 
*  latissima^  A. 
'  longitudine,  B. 
"  latitudtne,  A,B. 
"  Crosicat  A.,  (which  has  Crosa 
below) ;  Carcica,  B. 


pat '  ])e  pilers,  ]?at  pe  orped  men  and  stalworf  e  settep  in  place  Tbbvtsa. 
pere  fey  mo  we  no  furj)ere  passe,  beef  i-deped  Gades;  pan  aftir-  — — 
ward*  from  fese  pileres  and  from  pe  Uond  Gades  by^  pe 
ilondes  Baleares,  pat  hatte  Maiorica  and  Minorica.  pan  is  pe  "^ 
ilond  Sardinia,  and  hap  in  pe  soup  side  AfTrica,  and  in  pe  norp 
Sicili%  and  hap  noper  addres  noper  venym,  but  pey  haue  '"*  an 
herbe  pat  hatte  apium,  pat '  makep  men  laughe  hem  selue  to 
dep.  pis  lond  *  hap  hoot  welles  and  heleful  ^  pat  makep  ^  peues 
blynde,  and  pey  forswore  hemself  and  touche  Mr  ei^en 
wip  pe  water  of  pilke  welles.  *^  pe  ilond  Corsica  is  cornered 
wip  many  forlondes  schetynge*^  in  to  the  see;  perynne 
is  noble  lese  and  pasture  for  bestes  ;  pereynne  is  a  stone 
pat  hatte  aconites.^*  Corsica  hap  in  pe  est  side  pe  see 
Tyrrhenus,  in  pe  soup  pe  ylond  Sardinia  pritty  mile 
pennes,  in  pe  west  pe  ylondes  Baleares,  and  in  pe  norp  pe 
see  Ligusticus  and  Liguria  a  prouince  of  Italia,  and  is  ei^te 
score  myle  in  len^pe  and  sixe  and  twenty  in  brede,  and 
hap  pat  name  Corsica  of  a  womman  pat  heet^^  Corsa.    pis 

Gades.  Where  of  a  consuetude  was  taken,  that  pyllers  MS.  Harl. 
sette  of  my^hty  men  in  those  places  whicho  mythte  not  2261. 
be  paste  were  calledde  Gades.  After  these  the  yles  callede 
Baleares,  Maiorica  and  Minorica,  be  sette  towarde  the  este. 
After  theyme  the  yle  callede  Sardinia,  hauenge  on  the 
sowthe  to  hit  Aflrike,  at  the  northe  Sicille ;  in  whiche  yle 
be  noo  serpentes,  neither  venom,  but  an  herbe  whiche  thei 
caUe  apium^  causenge  a  man  to  la^he,  and  in  Isi^henge  to 
dye.  That  region  bathe  hoote  welles  and  whollesom,  the 
-crater  of  whom  causethe  blyndenesse  to  theves,  after  the 
sacramente  recevede,  if  his  eies  be  towchede  with  water 
there  of.  Corsica  is  an  yle  gendrenge  nowble  pastures,  and 
a  ston  callede  aconites ;  hauenge  on  the  este  to  hit  the  see 
Tirene,  and  pf  the  weste  the  yles  callede  Baleares,  at  the 
sowthe  Liguria^  a  prouince  of  Italy ;  hauenge  in  longitude 
a  c.  Ix.  m.  passes,  and  in  latitude  xxvi.  m.  passes»  That 
yle,    callede  Corsica,  toke  the  name  of  hit  of  a   woman 

^M]  Added  from  a. 
^  estward,  read  by  Cx.,  is  probably 
'  ben,  Cx.  (in  the  same  sense.) 

*  is  there  the,  Gx. 

*  )>«t  Aa>, «.  $  iker  grouith,  Cx, 
«  wkiehe^  Ox. 

'  iflond,  a,  and  Cx, 

'  whieh  wcUer  tnaketh,  Gx. 

'*  ihet^s  and  men  thatjbrswere  hem 
sdf  hlynde^  tjf  ikeyr  ^en  touche  the 
water  of  il^lke  ioeues,  Cx. 

"  airetchjfngt  Cx. 

^*  aconij^ieey  MS. 

"  hetfghtf  Cx.,  and  highte  below, 
contrary  to  his  custom. 

VOL»  L  U 



De  Arado 

videret  taurum  mum.  a  reliquo  armento  frequenter 
discedere  ac  mari^  tranisito  melius  refectum  redire, 
navicula  ascensa  taurum  usque  ad  insulam  illam  sub- 
secuta^  est,  cujus  fertilitate  agnita  Ligures^  illuc 
prime  ^  adduxii 

Atadia   sive    Aradium^   est   insula,  qu^    tota   est 
civitas,  non  longe  ab  urbe  Tjrro,®  viros  habet  nauticos 
in  pugna'^  validissimos* 
De  msniis      Ovclades  insulse»,  numero®  quinquaginta  tres,®  sic  vo- 

Cycladi-  ±     ^ 

^^^*  cantur  a  cyclon  ^^  Grsece,  quod  est  circvlU8  Latine,  quia 

quasi  in  orbem,  id  est  circulum,  circa  Delon  insulam 
sitsB  sunt."  Aliqui  dicunt  eas  ^®  sic  vocari  propter  sco- 
pulos  qui  in  circuitu  earum  sunt.  Harum  prima  ad 
orientem'*  est  Rhodus,  et  finiuntur  versus  septentrionem 
in  littore  Asiaa  minoris ;  habent  quoque  ab  austro  in 
boream  millia  quinquaginta,  ab  ortu  veto  ad  occasum 
millia*^  ducenta.^*  Media  autem  illarum  est  Delos,'^ 
quod  sonat  wmvyfestma^  eo  quod  post  diluvium  ante 
alias   terras  fuerit^^    a   sole    illuminaia.    Ipsa    etiam 

'  secuta,  B. 
'  Ligureos,  B. 


*  Gradia  nve  GreuUumf  B«  The 
only  correct  fonn  is  Aradu»,  \^eh 
is,  therefore,  tidoipted  in  th6  fflarginal 
smnmaiy,  where  the  MSS«  have 

'  beUis  natfoUhui,  C.l>. 

*  in  nuntero,  A. 

^  numero  quinquagtnta  ites']  om.  B. 

*'  sichn^  A,  $  eichn,  £.  Higden 
should  have  -written  cychs»  The  de- 
riTation  is  omitted  in  D. 

"  statutrntttry  B. 

*^  AUqui  tamen  vchtnt  eas,  AM, 

**  o^  ausiro,  D. 

''SoB.i  miUiana,}^. 

1«  220  D.,  which  omitft  «h«  re- 
mainder of  the  paragraph. 

^^  Dehm,  MSS.,  and  bo  Mow. 

"  fueraty  A. 



Corsa  hadde  a  bole  ]>at  ofi;e  lefte  companje  of  ofev  bestes^  Treyisa. 

and  swam  in  to  fat  ilond  and  com  home  in   weU  better      

poynt  J^an  he  ^ede^  oute.  Corsa  saj^  ]?at,  and  way  ted  hir 
tyme,  and  took  a  boot,  and  folwed"*  j)e  bole  in  to  ]?at 
ilond,  and  sey^  fat  fere  was  good^  lond  for  to  here  corne 
and  gras,  and  brouZt  fider  first  men  fat  were  i-cleped  Li- 
gures.  Aradia,  fat  haf  ^  Aradium  also,  is  an  ilonde  fat  is 
al  oon  citee  nou^t  fer  from  fe  citee  Tyrus,  and  haf  many 
schip  men  fat  beef  ful  stronge  in  fiitinge.  Cyclades  beef 
many  ilondes  to  gedres,  f  re  and  flW;y,  and  beef  ®  so  i-cleped 
of  fat  Grew  word  ciclon  fat^  is  a  cercle  in  ^^  Englisshe.  For 
fey  beef  i-sette  all  rounde  as  it  were  a  cercle  aboute  f e 
ilond  fat  hatte  Delon.  Nof eles  som  men  seif  fat  f ei  beef  so 
i'^cleped  by  cause  of  hi^e  rokkes  fat  beef  al  aboute  hem. 
pe  fiirste  of  hem  is  Kode  *'  toward  f  e  est ;  and  f  ese  ^^  ilondes 
endef  toward  f  e  north  in  f  e  clyue  ^^  of  f  e  lasse  Asia^  and 
hauef  out  of  f  e  souf  in  to  f  e  north  fifty  myle,  and  out 
of  f  e  *4  est  in  to  f  e  west  two  hundred  myle.  The  myddel 
ilond  of  hem  hatte  ^^  Delon,  fat  is  to  menynge  i-schewed; 
for  he  was  by  schewed  i^  to  fore   of er  londes  after   Noes 

callede  Corsa,  whiche  seenge  a  buUe  departenge  ofte  from  MS.  Hakl. 

other  bestes,  and  to  comme  ageyne  better  fedde  then  other,      2261. 

meruaylede,  and,  takenge  a  schippei  folowede  the  bulle  in 

to  that  yle.     The  plentuosenes  of  hit  knowen,  sche  brouthte 

men  from  the  prouince  of  Liguria  to  inhabite  hit.    Aradia 

or  Aradium  is  an  yle  whiche  is  alle  a  cite,  not  ferre  from 

the  cite  of  Tyrus,  hauenge  schippe  men,  worthy  men  in 

batelle.     There  be  liij.  other  yles,  callede  Cyclades,   of  this 

word,  ciclon,  in  Grrewe,  that  is,  a  cercle,  inLatyn,  sette  abowte 

the  yle  callede  Delon.     Somme  men  wylle  they  be  soe  namede 

for  stones  beenge  in  theyme«      The  firste   yle   of  theyme 

towarde  the  este  is  the  yle  of  Boodes,  and  thei  be  finischede 

in  the  northe    in   the  brynkes  of  the  lease  Asia,  whiche 

haue  from  the  soWthe  In  to  the  northe  a  m.  and  1*^  myles, 

from  the  este  to  the  weste  ij<^.  myles.    The  myddel  yle  of 

theyme  is  callede  Belon,  whiche  sowndethe  open^  in  that 

hit  was  illuminate   of  the  son    a  fore    other  londes  after 


<  moahe,  03C. 

*  wente,  Cx. 

*  seyy  a. ;  sawe,  Gs. 
^  fohwed  after^  Cx, 

*  a«>,  a, ;  sdwe,  Cx. 
®  good\  om.  Cx. 

'  So  MS.  ;  is  called,  Cx. 

*  ar,  Cx. 

^  of  ciclon  in  Grewe  tDhtcke,  Cx. 

*®  andf  o. 

"  JRodes^  Cx. 

12  So  a.  and  Cx.;  i>e  see,  MS. 

'^  cli/f,  Cx.;  and  hath,  below. 

^*i>e']  om.  MS.  Added  from  a. 

'*  is  named,  Cx.,  as  usual. 

^^  besehyned,  a. ;  it  toas  somtyme 
byschxfne  with  the  sonne,  Cx. 

u  2 




De  Cypro 




Delos  dicta  est  Ortygia,  quia  ortygise,  id  est  cotur- 
mces,  ibi  abimdant.^  Ibi  quoque  Latona  *  peperit 
ApoUinem  DelpbicunL 

Samos  vel  Samia  est  insula  ubi  nati  sunt  Pytha- 
goras  philosophus,*  Juno,  et  Sibylla.  Hsec  terra  albam 
et  rubeam  prodit  argillam,  unde  fiunt  vasa  fiotilia 

Cyprus  insula,  quse  et  Paphos  ^  sive  Cethim,  ab 
austro  cingitur  Phoenicis  pelago,  ab  occidente  marl 
Pampbylico,  a  circio  Ciliciam  liabet,  continet  centum 
octoginta  millia  in  longum,  ®  sed  centum  viginti 
quinque  in  latum7  Ibi  ses  et  aeris  usus  primo  fuenmt 
reperta,®  cujus  terrse  vinum  est  fortissimum.® 

Creta  insula  a  quodam  Crete  indigena  denominata 
est,  qua^  etiam  Centapolis  dicta  est^  eo  quod  ^^  centum 
urbibus  quondam  insignis  fuerit."  Terra  quidem 
Satumi  et  Jovis,  quae'^  de  antique  jure  ad  Graeciam 

'  So  B. ;  abundant  tbi,  A.E. 

^  Locani,  B. 

'  PUagei  pkiloscphi,  B. ;  Phita-- 

goras,  E. 

*  optima,  B. ;  paragraph  abbre- 
viated in  CD. 

^  Phason,  B. ;  Paphan,  A«E* 

'  hngitudine,  B. 

'  latiiudine,  B. 

*  inventa,A^. 

'The  paragraph  abbreviated  in 

'^  guondam  before  centum  in  B. 

1^  Juerit  insignis f  A.  (but  inter- 

«  et,  B. 



schippe.     pe  same^  Delon  hatte  Ortygia;  for  ortigie,   (pat  Tkevisa. 

beej>2  coturnicies,  curlewes,)   beef  perynne^   greet   plente.      

Also  ]>ere4  Latona  bore  Appolyn  Delphicus.  Samos,  J>at 
hatte  Samia  also,^  is  an  iloud.  pere  ynne^  Pythagoras  7 
|>e  philosofre  and  luno  and  Sibylla  were  i-bore.  In  ]?at 
lond  is  why te  dey  and  rede  cley ;  ^  of  fe  ^  whiche  cley  men  ^® 
make]?  er]>ene  vessel  good  wij>  pe  beste.^i  Cyprus  ]>at  ilond  ^^ 
hatte  Paphon  and  Cithim  ^^  also,  and  is  byclipped  in  fe 
soujj  side  yr'ip  pe  see  of  Phenieia,  in  pe  west  wi]>  pe  see 
Pamphylicusy  and  in  pe  north  west  with  Sicilia^i^  and  is 
ei^te  score  myle  in  lengpe  and  six  score  and  fyue  in  brede. 
J>erei^  bras  and  craft  of  bras  was  fii'ste  i-founde.  J)e 
wyn^^  of  fat  lond  is  strengest  of  alle  wynes.  Creta  fat 
ylond  ^^  haf  fat  name  of  oon  Cretus,  fat  wonede  ferynne. 
pat  ilond  hatte  Centapolis  also^  ]>at  is  a  lond  fat  haf  an 
hundred  citees.  For  fere  were  ferynne  an  hondred  citees 
somtyme,  and  fere  *®  was  somtyme  lupiteres  ^^  and  Saturnus 

Noe  floode.    That  yle  was  callede  other  wise  Ortygi%  for  MS.  Habl. 
curlewes  be  there  habundante,  where  Latona  childede  Apollo     2261. 
Delphicus.      Samos  or  Samias  ys  an  yle,  where  Pythagoras  7      — — 
the  philosophre  and  also  Sibille  the  prophetisse  were  borne. 
That  londe  bryngethe  furthe  white  clay  and  redde,  of  whom 
pottes  or  godardes  be  made,   Cyprus  is  an  yle,  whiche^®  other- 
wise callede  Paphon  or  Cethim,  cincte  on  the  sowthe  parte 
to  hit  with  the  see  of  Phenicia,^^  on  the  weste  with  the  see 
Pamphilike,  conteynenge  in  longitude  c.  and  Ixxx,  myles, 
and  in  latitude  c.  xx^  and  v.  myles.    There  brasse  and  the 
use   of   hit   were    fFounde  fyrste.      The   wyne    of   whiche  f.  47.  b. 
londe  is  moste  stronge  and  myihty.     The  yle  callede  Creta 
toke    the    name    of   hit  of   a  man  inhabitenge  hit,  whose 
name  was  Cretus ;  whiche  was  callede  somme  tyme  Centa- 
polis,   in   that    hit    hade  a   c.  nowble   cites    in  hit.      The 
londe  of  Saturne  and  lupiter,  whiche  longede  to  Grece  in 

I  same]  Added  from  a.  and  Cx. 
^  hen  called.  Ox. 

'  whiche  ben  there,  Cx. 
*  in  that  place f  Cx. 
^  otherwyse  coiled  Satnia,  Cx. 
<  in  whichCf  Cx. 

'  Pittagoras,  MSS.  $  Pyctagoras, 
Cx.,  onutting  ^  philosophre» 
^clej/}  om.  a.  and  C^. 
»  >€]  om.  Cx. 
*•  me,  a, 

II  vessd  at  beste,  Cx. 

"  lond,  Cx. 

"  Cichym,  Cx. 

»*  So  MSS.  and  Cx.  for  Citicia. 

^*  In  that  yle,  Cx, 

**  wynes,  Cx.  j  ifho,  however,  has 
is  1)elow. 

'^  >a<  ylond\  om.  Cx. 
\    "  ^ere'\  Added  from  Cx. 

1'  lubiteree,  MS.  (not  a.) 

^Either  wMche  shotdd  be  can- 
celled, or  is  inserted. 

2»  Fenicea,  Harl.  MS. 



pertinet.  Habet  ad  austrum  mare  Libycum,  ad  sep- 
teutriouem*  Graeci»  sestibus  allambitur,  ab  ortu  in 
occasum  porrigitur.  Remis,®  armis,  sagittis  prima  cla- 
ruit,  litteris  *  jura  *  dedit,  equestres  turmas  docuit,  sta- 
dium musicum  ab  Idaeis*^  dactylis  repertum  mundo 
tradidit  et  ampliavit.  Oves  et  capras  babet  multas, 
sed®  cervos  et  capreas  paucas/  Noxia  animalium  genera, 
ut  vulpes,  lupos,  serpentes  nocuas  nusquam  gignit ; 
quia  etiam  venenosa  iUuc  allata  moriuntur.  At^  cum 
majoribus  venenis  careat,  gignit  tamen  araneas^  vene- 
nosas  quas  spalangias  ^^  vocant,  Orosius.  Continet  in 
longum  base  insula  mUlia  passuum  centum  octoginta 
septem ;  in  latum  vero  millia  quatuor."  Bcmulphus, 
In  hac  insula  est  una  de  quatuor  labyiinthis,  sicut 
infra  dicitur.^^ 

*  a  septentrioney  B. 
-  Remi8\  plena,  B? 
^  litteras^  A. 
*jura]  om.  B. 

*  ah  Jdeis]  Aloideis  dali,  B. 
«  et,  B. 

^  paucas  etpanteres,  B. 
«  Sed,  B. 
^  arenas f  B. 

1®  Higden  should  have  'written 

"  yi,,  A.B. 

*^  The  whole  psTngn-ph.  muchaV 
breviated  in  CD. ;  the  latter  half 
being  omitted  entirely.  The  Har- 
leian  version»  on  the  contrary,  con- 
tains the  latter  part,  while  it  omits 
much  of  the  earlier* 



lond,  and  it^  longe]»  to  Grrecia  rl^tfulliche  ^  of  olde  tjme,  Tbbyihi. 
and  ha]>  in  pe  south  side  pe  see  Libycus,  and  in  pe  norf  — 
side  it  is  bygoo  wif  l>e  see  of  Gres,^  and  strecchej)  out  of 
pe  est  in  to  4  pe  west,  and  was  pe  firste  lond  })at  was  parfite 
and  noble  in  craft  of  ores  and  of  armes  and  of  arwes,^ 
and  ^af  lawe  i-write  in  lettres  and  tau^te  horse  men  to 
ryde  in  rotes  ;  ^  and  [ j)er  was]  musyk  and  craft  of  syngynge  ^ 
of  Ideis  dactalis  i-founde,  Men^  of  Creta  made  it  more, 
and  communede  it  in  to^  oj'cr  londes  aboute.  In  pat 
londe^o  bee]>  many  scheep  and  geet  and  fewe  roos  and 
hertes ;  ]>eryiine  is  i^  no  foxes  no]>er  wolfes  nofer  addres . 
uo])er  non  suche'^  venemoas  bestes»  And  ]>at  lond  hate)» 
so  venym,  pat  ^if  me  bryngeth  pider  i*  eny  venemous  bestes 
oper  wormes  out  '^  of  oper  londes  he  deiej?  i^  a,0on ;  but  pej^ 
Jjere  be  no  grete  bestes  of  venym,  ^it  pere  bee])  venemous 
attercoppes  ^^  pat  beep  i-cleped  spatangia  *7  in  p^t  ilond.  pis  *® 
ilond  is  ei^te  score  myle  and  seuene  in  lengpe  and  an 
hundred  myle  in  brede.  In  pis  ilond  is  oon  of  the  foure 
laborintus,  as  it  schal  be  ynner  more  declared.!^  Treuisa, 
For  to  brynge  here  hertes  out  of  pouit  pat  herep  speke  of 
laborintus,    here  I  telle  what  laborinthus  is  to   menynge. 

olde  tyme,  hauenge  on  the  sowthe  to  hit  the  see  of  Libya ;  MS.  Haul. 
in  whiche  yle  be  mony  schepe  and  gaytes  or  gootes,  but  226I. 
there  be  fewe  hertes  and  hyndes ;  gendrenge  not  foxes, 
wulfes,  or  nyous  serpentes.  And  sdso  bestes  replete  with 
venom  dje  anoon  after  thei  be  brou^hte  pider.  Neuerthe- 
lesse  that  cnntre  gendrethe  gravelle  with  venom,  whom  they 
calle  Spalingeas.  Orosius.  That  yle  conteynethe  in  longi- 
tude c.  Ixxx.  and  vij.  m.  passes,  and  in  latitude  a  m. 
and  vj.    In  that  yle  is  also  oon  of  the  iiij.  mases,  as  hit 

>  iq  Added  from  Cx, 

2  Cx.  reads  thus:  For  therin  were 
sonUyme  an  C  cytees  somtyme  (jsic), 
and  there  was  Saiumus  and  Jupiter 
60m,  and  were  first  kynges  there,  and 
of  right  it  longetk  to  Urecia  of  old 
tyme,  and  hath,  ffc, 

*  and  in  the  north  the  see  of  Grecia, 

^  oute  in  to  the  eest,  and  in  to,  Cx. 

^crafte  of  rowyng  with  cores, 
armes,  and  shotyng  with  arowes,  Cx. 

°  routes,  a, 

'  lawe  wreton,  and  taughte  men  ride 
on  korsbak ;  and  iher  was  the  craft 
ofmusike  and  syngynge,  Cx. 

«  They,  Cx. 

^  yafit  in  knowleche  to,  Cx.,  who 
adds:  Huit  lond  is  now  called  Can- 
dia,  after  aboute, 

"  ylond,  Cx,;  and  so  elsewhere  in 
the  chapter,  and  conversely. 
"  be,  Cx. 
*2  ne  such,  Cx. 
**  \nder]  om.  Cx. 
**  owi]  om.  Cx, 
'*  they  deyen,  Cx. 

'^  and  though  ther  be  no  grete  vene- 
mous beestes  in  that  hmd,  yet  ben  ther 
attercops,  Cx. 

"  So  MSS.  and  Cx. 

'^  Orosius  seith  that  this,  Cx. 

^  be  sayd  afterward^  Cx. 



De  Sicilia.  SiciKa  insula  aliquando  *  vocabatur  Trinacria  quasi 
triquadra,  a  tribus  montibus  in  ea  prominentibus  sic 
dicta,  qui  vocantur*  Pelorum,  Pachynum,  Lilybseum.'' 
Deinde  dicta  est  Sicilia  a  Siculo  Itali  fratre.  Ali- 
quando etiam  vocabatur  Sicania  a  Sicano  rege. 
Habet  quoque  ab  aquilone  partem  Italiss,  Apuliam, 
marine  brachio  nunc  discretam;*  sad  olim,  secundum 
Salustium,  Sicilia  fuit  Italiee  conjuncta,  sed  postmo- 
dum  aut  aquarum  alluvione  aut  terraB  motu  ab  invi- 
cem  scissa;^  ita  quidem®  quod  fretum  illud  strictumj 
quod  trium  millium^  spatio  Siciliam®  hodie  distinguit 
ab    Italia,®  Rhegium  vocatur,   quod   Greece   sonat  ab- 

^  aliquartdo]  aliter,  B. 

^  guia,  £. ;  qius  vocabatur,  B. 

'  Libeum  or  Zibium,  MSS.  and 

*  So  A,B.  ;  discretam  nunc,  E. 

'  Mahet «...  scissa]  Be  Sicilia 
refert  Salustius,  quod  olim  fuerit 
ItalisB  conjnncta;  post  hecc  aut 
aqaamm   alluTione    aut    angnstia 

scissa  est  ab  ea,  D.,  where  it  occurs 
about  the  middle  of  the  paragraph. 
The  remainder  down  to  comadia  is 
scarcely  at  all  altered. 

^qutdem]  om.K 
""  miliarium,  B. 
"  SicUiam]  om.  B. 
^  guogue,  B. 



Laborintus  is  an  hous  wonderliche   i-buld  wiji   halkes  and  Tbevisa. 

hemes,*  yrip  tornynges  and  wendynges  and  wonderful  weyes      

so  dyuersliche  and  so  wrynkyngliche  i-wrojt,  fat  who  fafc 
is  wi]>  ynne  fat  hous  and  wil  out  wende,  [fey  he  wende] 
wel  faste  oo  wey  and  ofer,  hiderward  and  f iderward,  estward 
and  2  westwarde,  norfward  and^  soufward,  whider  euere 
fey  drawe,  [and]  of  [alle]  f e  weies  chese  f e  faireste ;  fey 
he  trauaile  neuere  so  sore,  al  is  for  noutt.  For  out  goof 
he  neuere,  but  he  haue  a  craft  fat  nedef  f erfore.^  !^. 
Sicilia  fat  ilond  was